The Rise of the Bande Dessin©e - .â€Festival International de la Bande Dessin©e’ (FIBD), which

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  • The rise of theBande

    Dessine

  • Information gathered and consolidated by Amalivre for the Annual ALA Conference in San Francisco June 2015

    WESS Programme: Beyond Tintin: Collecting European Comics in the U.S. (27 June)

  • Introduction The BD market in France has experienced near to consistent

    growth over the last 20 years. Revenue accumulated from BD sales has jumped from 2.5%

    to 9,3%. 504 new BD titles were released in 1994, whereas in 2014 the

    figure was 4,877 almost ten times the number released 20 years previously.

    Here we will attempt to cover the history of the BD, development of BD trends along with notable titles, authorsand publishers, to deliver a general overview of the genre, and the reasons its has experienced such success in recent years.

  • History: Traditional BD Up until the 1970s, publishers tended to choose adventure

    series with star frontmen Tintin, Astrix, Spirou the success of which would allow them to financially sustain the publishing house, newspaper or magazine, while then beingable to publish lesser known authors at the same time.

    From the 1970s onwards, some authors began to break awayfrom the mainstream and produce less formulaic work whichbranched out in subject matter.

    However, they increasingly found themselves falling back intothe same pattern, especially when more original projectsproved a failure with the public.

  • Development of the genre The growth in popularity of BDs in the last 20 years can

    be attributed to the fact that their subject matter has alsogreatly developped and diversified.

    BDs are no longer the reserved for the adventures of heroes or detectives, and nor are they dominated by the classic light-hearted humour of Fluide Glacial. By consequence, BDs are no longer a specialist interest.

    In fact, it would now be incorrect to class BDs as a genre at all they have become a medium which, in the sameway as novels, painting, music, encompasses a myriad of topics, in which every reader can find a point of interest.

  • Development of the genre: examples

    Adaptions of classic texts, such as Murats version of Hemingways Nobel Prize-winning short story Le vieil homme et la mer (The Old Man and the Sea) and Christophe Chabouts BD rendition of Moby Dick.

    Leading BD publisher Glnat has brought out a new collection titled Ils ont fait lhistoire (They made history), a selection of biographies of historical figures produced by BD authorsworking with university historians.

    From the late 1990s, there has been a surge of personal or autobiographically-inspired works from BD authors, such as the responses of Charlie Hebdo cartoonists Sfar and Luz to the January 2015 attack or Riad Sattoufs recount of hischildhood in LArabe du Futur.

  • Journalism in BD Le BD-reportage As a part of new BD trends, there has been a rise in the number of

    BDs based on current affairs produced by or in co-operation withjournalists :

    Quai dOrsay by Antonin Baudry and illustrator Christophe Blain was inspired by Baudrys experience at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (known colloquially as Quai d'Orsay, after its location in Paris).

    After having followed Franois Hollande on his presidential campaign in his first book, Mathieu Sapin has returned with another insider, Le Chteau, in which he tells us of the year he wormed his way into the lyse Palace and what happens behind those closed doors.

    Le Procs Carlton, Boucqs newest title, illustrates the reports of journalist Pascal-Robert Diard on the trial of those involved in the scandalous Carlton Affair, in which officials and high ranking businessmen, including former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn, were accused of using corporate funds to facilitate the running of a prostitution ring.

    Guy Delisles Chroniques de Jrusalem (2011) recounts his one year stay in Beit Hanina with Mdecins Sans Frontires and won the AngoulmeInternational Comics Festival Prize for Best Album in 2012.

  • BD in Journalism The Charlie Hebdo attacks this January have highlighted the role

    of drawing in the press. Press drawing is of course a sector that naturally attracts BD

    authors, and there are many that regularly pass from one to the other, yet the two are different : while press drawing falls underillustration in general, the BD is an illustrated story in itself.

    For authors, work for newspapers and magazines is a more regularsource of income than working on projects themselves, and, likeblogs, it can serve as a portfolio and attract publishers.

    For the newspapers and magazines, illustrations can enhanceimportant articles and, especially if the artist is already wellknown, their work can become part of the papers brand image.

    See developed presentation

  • Manga Manga is a genre which for a long time has not been recognized

    amongst BD fans. For example, it has been considerablyunderrepresented at the Angoulme festival:

    2003 : Quartier lointain by Taniguchi received the prize for the best story 2007 : Nononba by Mizuki Shigeru received the prize for the best BD 2015 : Otomo was the first Japanese author to receive Le Grand Prix

    Despite this, sales figures and the number of events focused on manga show that there really is a public enthusiasm for the genre:

    In 2012, Japanexpo (an event dedicated to Japanese culture, started in 2000, that takes place in Villepinte every year) attracted more visitors thanthe Salon du Livre in Paris.

    Specialist manga schools have been founded. There have been more and more manga publications by European authors

    who choose to follow the rules of the Japanese model, dubbed Manfra (variations being Franga and Euromanga).

    See developed presentation

  • The BD and technology: BD Blogging

    For BD cartoonists, blogging seems to have becomealmost compulsory.

    Blogging benefits both the writers and publishers itallows lesser-known BD writers or those who are new to the scene to get themselves noticed by publishers, and, at the same time, it allows publishers to take on writers, reassured by the fact they already have a loyal fan base.

    The majority of Delcourts Shampooing collection originated from blogs.

  • The BD and technology:the prospect of the digital BDThe internet and smartphones are changing the situation. We have been living on a relatively narrow market. The boundaries of whichare falling down The risk is that we will also see the emergence of new ways of digital distribution. An artificial digital rendition of the BD will impose itself on us and there is a strong chance that, likeFacebook or Twitter, it will be American,

    Didier Borg, director of the KSTR collection and patron of the Delitoon website

    Websites such as Avcomics, Izno and Digibidi enable readers to buy individual works, but more often readers choose to subscribe, giving them access to either all or a certain number of digitals BDson the site.

    However, it seems that loyal BD fans are not yet prepared to makethe digital switchover and abandon the BD on paper.

  • An uncertain future for authors As in many artistic fields, notably in music, new practices

    have changed the relationship between authors and editors. This January in Angoulme, hundreds of BD writers and

    cartoonists protested against the changes to their pension scheme contributions, which are due to increase from 4% to 8% next year.

    While BDs have become a successful and prosperousindustry, the quality of life of those behind them has not improved in the same way.

    BD authors point out that they have no right to unemployment benefit, holiday or paid leave.

    Writer Fabien Vehlmann declared that the protest was to denounce the growing pauperization in their field of work.

    In 20 years, we have gone from 500 authors living reasonably to 1,500 living badly.

    Claude de Saint Vincent, General Director of Media Participation (Dargaud, Dupuis, Le Lombard, Kana, UrbanComics)

  • BD publishers Major BD publishers Glnat (Grenoble, France), Dupuis

    (Marcinelle, Belgium), Dargaud (Paris, France), Casterman (Brussels, Belgium), Soleil (Toulon, France), Futuropolis (Paris, France), Delcourt (Paris, France), Les Humanodes Associs (Paris, France), Editions Audie-Fluide Glacial (Paris, France), Paquet (Geneva, Switzerland), Le Lombard (Brussels, Belgium), Ankama(Roubaix, France), Vertige Graphic (Paris, France)

    Established publishers with BD collections Gallimard(Paris, France), Actes Sud (Arles, France), Denol (Paris, France), LHarmattan (Paris, France), Seuil (Paris, France), Rue de Svres (Paris, France)

  • BD publishers Smaller, independent publishers LAssociation (Paris,

    France), Cornlius (Paris, France), Atrabile (Geneva, Switzerland), 6 pieds sous terre (Montpellier, France),Cambourakis (Paris, France), ditions FLBLB (Poitiers, France), Ego comme x (Paris, France), Les Requins Marteaux (Bordeaux, France), Rackham (Paris, France), Les Rveurs (Montreuil, France), La boite bulles (Massy, France), Mme pas mal (Marseille, France), Fremok (Bruxelles, Belgium), Dernier Cri (Marseille, France), Editions 2024 (Strasbourg, France), Warum (Paris, France), Vraoum (Paris, France), Onapratut (Noisy-le-Grand, France), Sarbacane (Paris, France), Editions Emmanuel Proust (Paris, France), Les ronds dans lO (Vincennes, France), Editions de la Gouttiere (Amiens, France), a et l (Bussy-Saint-Georges, France), Editions de la Cerise (Bordeaux, France), Akileos (Talence, France)

  • Festivals There are more than 100 BD festivals in France, with some

    estimating the total to be nearer 300. Going for over 40 years, the most well-known festival is the

    Fest