The Scientific Revolution. Scientific Revolution

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The Scientific Revolution Slide 2 Scientific Revolution- Slide 3 Scientific Revolution time period when old assumptions were replaced by new scientific theories began in the mid- 1500s Slide 4 geocentric theory the belief that the earth is the center of the universe also called the Ptolemaic system Slide 5 heliocentric theory the belief that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun discovered by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) also called the Copernican system Slide 6 scientific method technique for acquiring knowledge main developer: Francis Bacon (1561-1626) 3 basic steps: 1.find a problem 2.formulate a hypothesis 3.test the hypothesis Slide 7 Galileo (1564-1642) developed a more powerful refracting telescope and made many astronomical discoveries discovered new laws of physics: falling bodies projectile motion the Inquisition forced him to recant his beliefs Slide 8 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) proved that the planets move in elliptical orbits Slide 9 Isaac Newton (1642-1727) considered the greatest scientist in history Invented the reflecting Telescope discovered laws of motion and gravity made discoveries about light and optics invented calculus Slide 10 medical advancements Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) studied human anatomy by dissecting human corpses William Harvey (1578-1657) discovered that blood circulates through the body and is pumped by the heart (circulatory system) Edward Jenner (1749-1823) discovered vaccination by developing a vaccine for small pox Slide 11 Scientific Revolution- old assumptions were replaced by new scientific theories geocentric theory heliocentric theory scientific method Galileo Kepler Newton- discovered laws of motion and gravity medical advancements proved that the planets move in elliptical orbits made many astronomical discoveries find a problem formulate a hypothesis test the hypothesis the belief that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun the belief that the earth is the center of the universe Vesalius- disecting Harvey- circulation Jenner- vaccine for small pox Slide 12 The Enlightenment Slide 13 Enlightenment movement that reached its height in the 18th century people began to use reason and thought and realized the power of individuals to solve problems. had a great effect on democratic revolutions like the American and French Slide 14 social contract theory Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) people accept a common superior power for protection John Locke (1632-1704) believed that humans have 3 natural rights: life liberty property if a government fails to protect the peoples rights, the people have the right to rebel These ideas helped to frame the Declaration of Independence and began the American Revolution Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) people must surrender some rights in order for the government to protect rights and freedoms Slide 15 philosophes French Enlightenment philosophers important philosophes: Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) separation of powers Voltaire (1694-1778) promoted religious tolerance and free speech Denis Diderot (1713-84) compiled the worlds 1st true encyclopedia Slide 16 Deism religious philosophy that became popular during the Enlightenment basic belief: God set the universe in motion then left it alone (like a clockmaker) Slide 17 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-97) wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman argued for equal rights for women Mary Godwin Percy Bysshe Shelley Mary Shelley Slide 18 capitalism economic system father of capitalism: Adam Smith (1723-90) promoted a free market system with little government interference (laissez faire) Smiths three natural laws of economics: the law of self-interest the law of competition the law of supply and demand