Enclosed is a chapter from
The Skilled Facilitator Fieldbook: Tips, Tools, and Tested Methods for Consultants, Facilitators, Managers,
Trainers, and Coaches
by Roger Schwarz, Anne Davidson, Peg Carlson, Sue McKinney, and Contributors
Published by Jossey-Bass Publishers, April 2005.
Please share this chapter of our Fieldbook with anyone you think could benefit from it. PLEASE DO NOT ALTER THIS DOCUMENT IN ANY WAY, AND PLEASE DO
NOT PUBLISH IT IN ANY FORM.
For more information about the ideas in this chapter, please contact Roger Schwarz & Associates at 919.932.3343
or visit our website at www.schwarzassociates.com.
We invite you to subscribe, via our website, to Fundamental Change, our new, free, monthly electronic publication. It is dedicated to helping
you create workplaces and communities that are simultaneously highly effective and that improve the quality of life.
The Skilled FacilitatorFieldbook
Tips, Tools, and Tested Methods for Consultants,Facilitators, Managers, Trainers, and Coaches
Roger Schwarz, Anne Davidson, Peg Carlson, Sue McKinney, and Contributors
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Copyright 2005 by Roger M. Schwarz, Anne S. Davidson, Margaret S. Carlson, and Susanne C.McKinney. All rights reserved.
Published by Jossey-Bass
A Wiley Imprint
989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741 www.josseybass.com
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise,except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, withouteither the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the ap-propriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers,MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requeststo the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Credit: Laws of Systems section in Chapter 7 from The Fifth Discipline by Peter M. Senge,copyright 1990 by Peter M. Senge. Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of RandomHouse, Inc.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The skilled facilitator fieldbook : tips, tools, and tested methods for consultants, facilitators, man-agers, trainers, and coaches / Roger Schwarz ... [et al.].1st ed.
p. cm.- (The Jossey-Bass business & management series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7879-6494-8 (alk. paper)
1. Communication in management. 2. Communication in personnel management. 3. Groupfacilitation. 4. Group relations training. I. Schwarz, Roger M., 1956 II. Series.
Printed in the United States of America
PB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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The Jossey-BassBusiness & Management Series
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To my parents, Richard and Jeanne Schwarz, for all their loveand encouragement.
To my family, friends, and clients for their love and support, and especially to my nieces and grandnieces, Carson, Alex,
Emily, and Allisonthe young women who will create the world I dream about.
To my family, who encouraged me to be curious and open-minded about all things; to Reba, Oz, and Rain, who keep me grounded; and to my new husband, Matthias
Ender, for his unconditional support.
To Andrew, Jacob, and Lena, with love and thanks for theirunfailing wisdom, humor, and support.
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ContentsEditors, Authors, and Contributors xiiiIntroduction xix
Part One: Understanding the Skilled Facilitator Approach
1 The Skilled Facilitator Approach 3Roger Schwarz
2 The Group Effectiveness Model 15Roger Schwarz
3 Using Facilitative Skills in Different Roles 27Roger Schwarz
4 Understanding What Guides Your Behavior 33Roger Schwarz
5 Ground Rules for Effective Groups 61Roger Schwarz
6 The Diagnosis-Intervention Cycle 69Peg Carlson
7 Thinking and Acting Systemically 75Anne Davidson
8 Contracting with Groups 89Roger Schwarz
Part Two: Starting Out
9 Jointly Designing the Purpose and Process for a Conversation 103Roger Schwarz, Anne Davidson
10 Process Designs 107Anne Davidson
11 Basic Facilitation: What Can Be Accomplished? What Cannot? 115Peg Carlson
12 Do the Math: Creating a Realistic Agenda 119Peg Carlson
13 Beginning Meetings: Introductions and Guidelines for Working Together 125Anne Davidson
14 Introducing the Ground Rules and Principles in Your Own Words 131Sue McKinney
15 Using the Group Effectiveness Model 135Anne Davidson
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16 Helping Group Members Focus on Interests Rather Than Positions 145Peg Carlson
17 Developing Shared Vision and Values 149Anne Davidson
18 Helping Groups Clarify Roles and Expectations 159Anne Davidson
19 Using the Skilled Facilitator Approach to Strengthen Work Groups and Teams 171Anne Davidson
20 Using the Ground Rules in E-Mail 181Roger Schwarz
Part Three: Deepening Your Practice
21 Ways to Practice the Ground Rules 189Anne Davidson
22 Some Tips for Diagnosing at the Speed of Conversation 195Peg Carlson
23 Opening Lines 201Roger Schwarz
24 Reducing the Skilled Facilitator Jargon 207Roger Schwarz
25 Now What Do I Do? Using Improv to Improve Your Facilitation 211Roger Schwarz, Greg Hohn
26 Ground Rules Without the Mutual Learning Model Are Like Houses Without Foundations 217
Sue McKinney27 Writing and Analyzing a Left-Hand Column Case 235
Part Four: Facing Challenges
28 Holding Risky Conversations 249Anne Davidson
29 Exploring Your Contributions to Problems 255Roger Schwarz
30 Moving Toward Difficulty 261Sue McKinney
31 Responding to Silence and Interruptions and Enabling Members to Talk to Each Other 269
Roger Schwarz32 Raising Issues In or Out of the Group 273
x | Contents
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Part Five: Seeking Your Path
33 Finding Your Voice 279Anne Davidson
34 Being a Mutual Learner in a Unilaterally Controlling World 287Sue McKinney
35 Introducing the Skilled Facilitator Approach at Work: Pitfalls and Successes 293Sue McKinney
36 Bringing It All Back Home, or Open Mouth, Insert Foot 299Peter Hille and the Staff of the Brushy Fork Institute
37 A Carp in the Land of Koi 305Susan R. Williams
Part Six: Leading and Changing Organizations
38 Daily Challenges of a Facilitative Leader 309Tom Moore
39 Learning to Live Our Philosophy 315Betsy Monier-Williams
40 Helping a Team Understand the System They Created 323Roger Schwarz
41 I Cant Use This Approach Unless My Boss Does 331Roger Schwarz
42 How to Stop Contributing to Your Bosss and Your Own Ineffectiveness 335Roger Schwarz
43 Developmental Facilitation 339Anne Davidson, Dick McMahon
44 Guidelines for Theory-in-Use Interventions 349Anne Davidson, Dick McMahon
45 Introducing the Core Values and Ground Rules 361Jeff Koeze
46 From Learning to Lead to Leading to Learn 367Joe Huffman
47 Reflections of a Somewhat Facilitative Leader 377Jeff Koeze
48 Integrating the Skilled Facilitator Approach with Organizational Policies and Procedures 383
Roger Schwarz, Anne Davidson49 360-Degree Feedback and the Skilled Facilitator Approach 391
Peg Carlson50 Implementing a 360-Degree Feedback System 403
Bron D. Skinner
Contents | xi
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51 Do Surveys Provide Valid Information for Organizational Change? 409Peg Carlson
52 Using the Skilled Facilitator Approach in Different and Multiple Cultures 413Anne Davidson
Part Seven: Integrating the Skilled Facilitator Approach in Your
Worklife (and Non-Worklife)
53 The Drama Triangle: A Unilateral Control Program for Helping Others 421Dick McMahon
54 Using Creative and Survival Cycles to See and Shift Mental Models 433Guillermo Cullar
55 The Skilled Facilitator Approach and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 437Anne Davidson
56 Applying the Skilled Facilitator Approach to a Systems Thinking Analysis 447Chris Soderquist
57 The Facilitative Coach 457Anne Davidson, Dale Schwarz
58 Becoming a Facilitative Trainer 479Sue McKinney, Matt Beane
59 Being a Facilitative Consultant 495Harry Furukawa
60 Using the Skilled Facilitator Approach as a Parent 505Peg Carlson
61 Running for Office in a Unilaterally Controlling World 511Steve Kay
62 Using the Facilitative Leader Approach in Public Office 515Verla Insko
Afterword: Some Important Lessons 521Roger Schwarz, Anne Davidson
Acknowledgments 527Index 529About Roger Schwarz & Associates 549
xii | Contents
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Editors, Authors, andContributors
Roger Schwarz is founder and president of Roger Schwarz & Associates, a consulting firm that isdedicated to helping people change how they think and act so they can improve their business resultsand relationshipsoften in ways they didnt think possible. For more than twenty-five years, he hasbeen helping groups and organizations by facilitating as well as consulting, coaching, and teachingand speaking on the subjects of facilitation, teams, and leadership. His clients include Fortune 500corporations; federal, state, and local government; educational institutions; and nonprofit organiza-tions. His book The Skilled Facilitator (Jossey-Bass, 2002) is a standard reference in the field. An or-ganizational psychologist, Roger was formerly associate professor of public management andgovernment at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He earned his Ph.D. and A.M. inorganizational psychology from The University of Michigan, his M.Ed. from Harvard University, andhis B.S. degree in psychology from Tufts University.
Anne Davidson is a consultant with Roger Schwarz & Associates. She specializes in leadership de-velopment, facilitator training, and long-term organizational and community change projects. Sheworks internationally with management groups, work teams, and nonprofit and local governmentboards. She increasingly coaches individuals who want to embrace learning and creative develop-ment in their jobs and personal lives. Her journey toward organization development and trainingstarted almost thirty years ago when she began teaching eleventh-grade English in South Carolina.Since that time, she has served as a media center director; a marketing and management instructor inthe School of Business at Western Carolina University; the training and organization developmentdirector for the City of Asheville, North Carolina; and a lecturer in public management and govern-ment at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Anne learned the Skilled Facilitator approach in 1988 during the early phases of its development when the City of Asheville became aclient of Roger Schwarz & Associates. She earned her B.A. in English and secondary education fromPresbyterian College. She holds an M.L.S. from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill andan M.B.A. from Western Carolina University.
Peg Carlson is an organizational psychologist who earned her Ph.D. from The University of Michigan.She is a consultant with Roger Schwarz & Associates and adjunct associate professor of public man-agement and government at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She teaches, consults,and writes in the area of organizational change and development. She leads workshops on facilita-tion and facilitative leadership and frequently facilitates meetings for governing boards, managementteams, and community groups. She has published articles on developing effective groups, assessing thechief executives performance, and multirater feedback. Peg started using the Skilled Facilitator approachwith Roger Schwarz and colleagues Dick McMahon and Kurt Jenne when she joined the UNC fac-ulty in 1992. She resigned her tenured position in 2000 to better balance work and family life.
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Sue McKinney is a consultant with Roger Schwarz & Associates and independently. Formerly, shewas director of organizational development for an international nongovernmental organization basedin Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Sue developed her facilitation skills in the early 1980s while work-ing for an international nonprofit grounded in the consensus decision-making process. She first workedwith Roger Schwarz in 19901991 while serving as an intern to a county social services managementteam working with him. In 1997, she attended the two-week Skilled Facilitator class offered by TheUniversity of North Carolina Institute of Government and within one year began working withSchwarz to teach classes around the country. McKinney has practical expertise in leadership develop-ment, board development, mediation, facilitation, and training of trainers. She believes in the valueof humor and play to stimulate creativity and productivity and is known for her energetic andhumorous approach to working with groups. She leads workshops on a variety of topics, includingfacilitative leadership, and facilitates public and nonprofit board and staff retreats. Sue earned her A.B.in history from Duke University and her M.S.W. from The University of North Carolina at ChapelHill, with a specialization in human services administration.
Matthew Beane is an organization development, coaching, and training professional who helps indi-viduals, groups, and organizations exceed performance expectations while increasing both the quality oftheir relationships and their ability to learn from adversity. His specialty and passion lie in helping peo-ple assess gaps between their behavior and their espoused values, allowing them to make more informedchoices about their behavior and values in the future. He is an associate with Roger Schwarz &Associates and has worked with a number of Fortune 1000 companies in the financial, professional ser-vices, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, hi-tech, travel, consumer goods, and hospitality sectors, with avariety of nonprofit and governmental organizations, and in the public workshop format. Before be-coming an independent in 2002, he was independent workforce director at the Forum Corporation,a consultancy specializing in workplace learning solutions. Matt holds a B.A. in philosophy fromBowdoin College and has done graduate work at Harvards School of Education in Adult Learning.
Guillermo Cullar is an international organization development consultant, facilitator, psycho-therapist, and artist who brings a unique mul...