The Socialism of New Zealand.by Robert H. Hutchinson

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  • The Socialism of New Zealand. by Robert H. HutchinsonReview by: G. S. DowAmerican Journal of Sociology, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Nov., 1916), pp. 414-415Published by: The University of Chicago PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2763742 .Accessed: 16/05/2014 16:13

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  • 4I4 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY

    The Socialism of New Zealand. By ROBERT H. HUTCHINSON. New York: New Review Publishing Association, I9I6. Pp. X+I55. $I. IO.

    After discussing the "historical evolution" of New Zealand, the author takes up the different governmental industries. While admitting that the managing policy of the railroads was development rather than profit, he severely criticizes their unbusiness-like management and political control. The post-office, which includes telephone, telegraph, express, savings bank, the agency for the insurance and pension offices, and tax collector, as well as acting as a polling-place for absent voters, is ranked as wonderfully efficient, giving low rates and splendid service. The insurance department has survived the severe competition of private companies and is succeeding. Other governmental enterprises are briefly treated.

    The chapter on "Public Debt and Land Administration" shows that through its borrowing the government is dependent upon the capitalist class. The land problem has been to break up or prevent large estates, and the land legislation has consisted of acts selling or leasing public lands on easy terms.

    In treating "Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration" the author asserts that this feature has been overemphasized in the past; that New Zealand is an agricultural, not an industrial, country. While this met with universal favor at first, it is little used now, and in fact he contends that compulsory arbitration has run its course and that no longer can New Zealand be called the "land without strikes."

    Woman's suffrage did not bring the expected reforms, but received the support of the women, 82 per cent of them using the ballot as against 84 per cent of the men. It has also elevated woman's position and has won for her greater respect.

    The chapter on " Social Legislation and Social Conditions" is prob- ably the best-written one in the book, giving clear presentation of the systems of old-age and widows' pensions, workmen's compensation, accident insurance, factory acts, shop laws, and sweating, also a descrip- tion of the Labor Department and National Provident Fund.

    Chapters are added on the "Recent Strike and Present Situation" and " State Socialism and the War," of which the latter seems to be out- side the general subject.

    While pointing out the healthy condition of the laboring population, the author denies the absence of social classes. He claims that graft plays a small part in New Zealand politics. While claiming success for

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  • REVIEWS 4I5

    the system, the author repeatedly points out that it is not "state social- ism" but "state capitalism" which New Zealand enjoys. He also claims that New Zealand is no longer initiating new legislation, but seems content to rest with what she has.

    The book is not a technical treatise, but a brief simple work for the general reader, and is both readable and instructive.

    G. S. Dow OLIVET COLLEGE

    Economic Aspects of the War. Neutral Rights, Belligerent Claims and American Commerce in the Years I9I4 and i9i5. By EDWIN J. CLAPP. New Haven: Yale University Press. Pp. xiv+3 29. $I . 50.

    This timely and readable volume treats of a most absorbing topic. The author gives as his reason for writing the book " that we Americans were paying too much attention to the affairs of the belligerents and too little to our own. After all, we are by no means untouched by the war. It imperils not only our present material interests but also neutral rights upon which the material interests of peaceful nations in the future depend. The neutral world is waiting for us to realize and assert its rights and ours. Hence this statement of what those rights are and this record of what seems to have occurred to threaten them."

    The book begins with a discussion of international law, taking as a basis the London Declaration. The orders in Council of August and October are treated and their effect upon neutral shipping is discussed. He shows that by these orders the British government so modified the conditions of the London Declaration as seriously to impair the rights of neutral shippers. He cites specifically the "Wilhelmina" case and the circumstances governing foodstuffs, copper, and cotton.

    The author devotes a chapter to a consideration of the practicability of starving Germany out, but expresses doubt as to the possibility of ending the war by "economic pressure." The book would seem to be partisan, since a large amount of specific criticism is directed against Great Britain. This attitude, however, is explained in these words: "When both belligerents are breaking the law, and each is claiming the acts of the other as justification, the pressure of neutrals must be applied to the one which refuses to join in a return to law and order. Our problem is to compel that joint acceptance of a compromise which we proposed in our note to the belligerents in February. Germany is ready for acceptance; the pressure must be applied to England" (p. 309).

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    Article Contentsp. 414p. 415

    Issue Table of ContentsAmerican Journal of Sociology, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Nov., 1916), pp. 289-432Objectivism in Sociology [pp. 289-305]The Organization of Thought [pp. 306-323]Public Range Lands--A New Policy Needed [pp. 324-351]Redirection of Education in Small Cities and Towns of Washington: Vocational Instruction the Entering Wedge of Redirection [pp. 352-368]Social Progress and the Purposeful Utilization of the Surplus [pp. 369-380]Rating the Nations: A Study in the Statistics of Opinion [pp. 381-390]The House-Court Problem [pp. 391-399]Announcement [pp. 400-401]ReviewsReview: untitled [pp. 402-403]Review: untitled [pp. 403-404]Review: untitled [pp. 404-405]Review: untitled [pp. 405]Review: untitled [pp. 405-407]Review: untitled [pp. 407-408]Review: untitled [pp. 408-410]Review: untitled [pp. 410-412]Review: untitled [pp. 412-413]Review: untitled [pp. 413]Review: untitled [pp. 414-415]Review: untitled [pp. 415-416]Review: untitled [pp. 416]Review: untitled [pp. 417]Review: untitled [pp. 417-418]Review: untitled [pp. 418]Review: untitled [pp. 419]

    Recent Literature [pp. 420-432]

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