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The SPRINT Team Process: Effective Data-Based Functional Assessment, Response- to-Intervention, and Intervention Teams to Solve Students’ Academic and

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  • The SPRINT Team Process:

    Effective Data-Based Functional Assessment, Response-to-Intervention, and Intervention Teams to Solve Students Academic and Behavioral Problems

    Howard M. Knoff, Ph.D.

    Director, Project ACHIEVEDirector, Arkansas Department of EducationState Improvement Grant

    [email protected]

  • Howard M. Knoff, Ph.D.Director, Project ACHIEVE

    49 Woodberry RoadLittle Rock, AR 72212

    E-mail: [email protected]: 501-312-1484

    Websites: www.projectachieve.info www.acc.k12.ar.us/sig

  • Presentation OverviewAn Introduction to RtIAn Inductive Analysis and Determination of the Characteristics of RtIThe SPRINT (School Prevention, Review, and Intervention Team) ProcessCritical SPRINT PointsOur Path to a National Research Agenda

  • Introduction to RtI. . .What are the Regulatory versus Functional Foundations of the Response to Intervention process?

  • The Reauthorization of IDEAThe Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement ActPassed House in 2003, Senate in 2004Signed by President Bush, December, 2004Fully in effect on July 1, 2005Proposed Regulations out for Comment Closed in November, 2005Regulations approved August, 2006 ??????

  • Changes in Legal Requirements(IDEA, 2004)(A) IN GENERAL.Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.

  • Response to Intervention (IDEA, 2004)(B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY.In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures described in paragraphs (2) and (3).

  • So. . . What does this Mean???State regulation cant require only a Discrepancy approach to LD eligibility

    An LEA can use a Problem-solving process as their approach to LD eligibility

    This process can involve a childs response to research-based intervention

  • But. . . What does this Mean in a Real Classroom with Real Students?An Inductive Analysis of RtI:1. In order to determine if a student is responding to an intervention, there needs to be a need for the intervention, and there needs to be an intervention.

  • An Inductive Analysis of RtI . . .Continued2. In order for there to be a need for an intervention, there must be some gap between a desired academic outcome or behavior, and the students actual academic or behavioral status.

  • An Inductive Analysis of RtI . . .Continued3. Once we functionally analyze the identified gap and determine WHY it is occurring, we should be able to identify and implement the highest probability of success evidence-based or research-based intervention.

  • An Inductive Analysis of RtI . . .Continued4. The scientific process use to identify academic or behavioral student-oriented gaps, to functionally analyze the gaps and WHY they are occurring, and to identify, implement, and evaluate the impact of the interventions linked to the functional assessment involves a:

    Data-based Problem-Solving Process

  • Problem/Functional AnalysisFormative andSummative EvaluationStrategic InterventionProblem Solving and Data-Based Functional AssessmentProblem Identification

  • P/FA: WHY?F&SE: DID IT WORK?SI: HOW?Problem Solving and Data-Based Functional Assessment QuestionsPI: WHAT?

  • So. . .functionally. . . What is a RtI???A students response to an intervention can be either a process (or moderator) variable or an outcome (dependent) variable

    * Process Variable: Typically, a student-specific condition or reaction (e.g., to the intervention or its implementation process) that either enhances or diminishes the students ability (or, for example, motivation) to benefit from the intervention.

    * Outcome Variable: In a concrete sense, a students outcome behavior that demonstrates that the intervention either did or did not work.

  • What Determines the Success of an RtI Process ???Accurate Identification of the Problem and the Gap between this and a desired Outcome

    Successful Differentiation between the Problem and a Symptom

    Accurate Functional Analysis of the Gap (i.e., WHY the gap exists)

    Successful Selection of the Research-based Intervention that links to the Functional Analysis

    Appropriate Training, Preparation, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Intervention

  • Introducing the SPRINT ProcessSPRINT: S chool P revention, R eview, and IN tervention T eam

  • What are the Goals of the SPRINT Process?To address the needs of students experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties by:

    Using a systematic problem-solving process that links functional assessment to evidence-based or research-based interventions.

    Consulting with classroom teachers so that the identified interventions are implemented with integrity and success.

    To establish assessment and intervention baselines in case more intensive interventions are needed later.

    To increase the knowledge and skills of all of the teachers and other professionals involved.

  • Key Points SPRINT is available for any academic, behavioral, teacher or student concernTeachers, support staff, administrators, or parents can request a SPRINT Team consultation

  • The SPRINT Process focuses on the .General education/classroom environment

    General education/classroom teacher

    Use of collegial consultation

  • What is the SPRINTs Primary Service Delivery Model ???

    Problem-Solving Consultation Intervention

    NOT

    Wait to Fail Refer Test Place

  • Intervention RouletteProblem/Functional AnalysisFormative andSummative EvaluationStrategic InterventionProblem Solving and Data-Based Functional AssessmentProblem Identification

  • Framing The GapPREREQUISITES:

    A Grade-Level Academic Roadmap in all Curricular Areas that Specifies the Functional Academic Skills that Students should master and be able to demonstrate and apply

    A Developmentally-Sensitive Behavioral Roadmap that Specifies the Personal/Self-Management, Interpersonal, and Environmental/Situational Behaviors that Students should master and be able to demonstrate and apply in the school setting

  • The Grade-Level Academic RoadmapNEED, IN EACH CURRICULAR AREA, FROM PREKINDERGARTEN THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL:

    State Standards, Benchmarks, OutcomesCurricular Scope & Sequence Goals and Objectives that cross-reference the State Standards and BenchmarksCriteria for Student Mastery of these Standards, Benchmarks, Goals, and ObjectivesAuthentic and Functional Assessments that reliably and validly determine Mastery

  • The Developmentally-Sensitive Behavioral RoadmapNEED AT EACH DEVELOPMENTAL/MATURATIONAL/GRADE LEVEL, FROM PREKINDERGARTEN THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL, SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONS RELATED TO:

    Personal/Self-Management BehaviorsAttention Control SkillsEmotional Control SkillsSelf-Concept/Self-Esteem Skills

    Interpersonal BehaviorsEngagement/Response SkillsProblem-Solving Skills Conflict Resolution Skills

    Environmental/Situational BehaviorsClassroom Routine SkillsAcademic Supporting BehaviorsBuilding Routine Skills

  • Defining the Academic GapThe Difference between Students Instructional Mastery of Academic Skills as Contrasted with their Expected Masterybased on State and Curricular Benchmarks at their Chronological Agein: Literacy: phonemic awareness, sound-symbol association/phonics, decoding/ fluency, vocabulary, comprehensionMathematics: numeration, calculation, applicationLanguage artsScience, social studies

  • Defining the Behavioral GapThe Difference between Students Mastery of Functional Behavioral Skills as Contrasted with the Expected Masterybased on Developmental and Normative Standards at their Chronological Age.

    Many behavioral gaps result in the need to:

    Increase or establish new behaviorsDecrease or eliminate inappropriate behaviorsLearn attention & engagement skillsLearn social, self-management & self-control skillsAddress externalizing behavior (anger, acting out, aggression)Address internalizing behavior (anxiety, withdrawal, depression)Increase motivationLearn/Increase Peer engagement & management skills

  • Explaining Academic and Behavioral Gaps

  • Causal vs. Correlational Whys

    The Causal Whys:StudentTeacher/InstructionCurriculum

    The Correlational Whys:Classroom/PeersSchool/DistrictHome/Community

  • Functional Assessment: The Two Whys: Causal Whys versus Correlational Whys

  • Problem AnalysisEvaluationInterventionProblem IdentificationThe Continuum of Consultation Involving Teachers, and the Grade-Level and Building-Level SPRINT TeamsTeacherGrade-LevelBuilding-LevelProblem IdentificationProblem AnalysisInterventionEvaluationProblem AnalysisEvaluationInterventionProblem Identification

  • Consultation Goals for the Classroom TeacherSolve the current student situationImplement successful, strategic interventionsIncrease the intervention skill levelsof those involved in the processEnhance the future problem-solving and intervention skills of those involved

  • Prototypical Building-Level SPRINT Team MeetingTeacher presents the situation to the Team through a systematic Record Review Form

    Team Round-Robin: Student Contacts and Clarifying Questions

    Relevant-Known Evaluation: Collect or Continue

    Consultant Selection and Assignment

    Case Review Time Determined

  • Characteristics of Effective Interventions within the SPRINT ProcessThey are:ORGANIZED along a Flexible Continuum that is Anchored by Effective (General Education) Classroom Instruction

    LINKED to the Functional Assessment of The Gap and are Evidence-based

    ATTENTIVE to: Social Validity, Acceptability, Treatment Integrity, Shared Benefits, Generalization

    Strategically ORGANIZED and IMPLEMENTED through a Written Academic/Behavioral Intervention Plan

    Continuously (Formatively) and Responsively (Summatively) EVALUATED

  • A Continuum of Responses to Students Challenges Relative to Learning and Achievement

    Effective Instruction General Education Modification Remediation with Consultation Accommodations

    Intervention with Intervention

    Assistive Supports

    Compensation

  • Modifications vs. Accommodations

    Modifications change CONTENT (Scope, depth, breadth, complexity).

    Accommodations change CONDITIONS; They DO NOT change content.

  • Accommodations vs. InterventionsAccommodations are NOT the same as Interventions

    Accommodations:help students compensate for learning processes that cannot be remediated.do not change the specific nature of the students area of weakness or disability.minimize, eliminate, or circumvent the impact of a students area of weakness or disability so the student can make academic and/or behavioral progress or demonstrate existing knowledge.

  • Critical Points . . .All Staff in a School need to be Trained in and Utilize Data-based Functional Assessment and Problem-Solving.Effective Instruction and Primary Prevention Activities are anchored in Problem-Solving approaches.Without Primary Prevention Activities, the need for Secondary and Tertiary Interventions is not known.The Severity of a Students Problem (especially in the absence of Primary Prevention) does not predict the Intensity of the Interventions needed

  • Critical Points . . .All SPRINT referrals are referrals for problem solving.Students are not referred. . . Instructional environments are referred.The focus is on early intervention, not waiting to fail.Coordinated & well-integrated resources are needed early on to maximize success.

  • Components of the Instructional EnvironmentTeacher-Instructional Factors:Are teachers well-matched to their students and curricula?Curricular Factors:Are curricula well-matched to students and teachers?Student Factors:Are students prepared and programmedfor success?

  • Fundamental Pointscont.All interventions must be outcome-based.Interventions must be formatively evaluated to monitor progress over time. Progress monitoring is but one approach to formative (and summative) evaluation.The primary goals of intervention: Help students to master and demonstrate academic and behavioral skills and succeed in general education environment.Help students to increase (???) their Speed of Skill Mastery and Acquisition.

  • So. . .What is our Path?We Need: To Analyze, Recognize, and Publicize our Research and Practice Gaps. Curricular Areas

    To Utilize Evidence-based Blueprints for the Effective School-wide Implementation of Instructional Support Systems and Positive Behavioral Support Systems for All Students across All Grades

    To Recognize that RtIs Inclusion in IDEA is a Great Opportunity, but that it was probably Premature

    To Question the Need for a Tiered Model System or Forge a National Consensus on it

  • The Current Tiered Model System: Is Confusing because there is not one agreed- upon system and this is making professional conversation and communication challenging

    Is Unnecessary as it is not required by IDEA, nor does it facilitate problem-solving, student identification, or student intervention

    May be a Disservice to Students because it may guide generic eligibility decisions and directions at the expense of individual educational planning

    May be Epidemiologically Inaccurate relative to the population numbers suggested at the different tiers.

  • So. . .What is Our National RtI Research Agenda Path?The Focus: preK through Grade 12 (or through at least age 21)All Curricular/Academic AreasAll Behavioral/Behavioral Disorder AreasIntegration and Coordination across:Data-based Functional Assessment and Problem-Solving (including Progress Monitoring and Formative/Summative Evaluation approaches)

  • So. . .What is our Path. . .or. . . Our National RtI Research Agenda?Integration and Coordination across:Consultation ProcessesLinking Assessment to InterventionIntervention (Again preK to Grade 12;All Academic/Behavioral Areas; forTypical, Strategic Intervention, Intensive Need Students; for Students across the Disability areas)

  • Behavioral Intervention: Primary Prevention

    Positive School and Classroom ClimatesEffective Classroom InstructionEffective Instructional GroupingEffective Classroom ManagementStudent Instruction in Zones of SuccessSocial Skill Instruction and UseWell-Designed and Implemented Accountability SystemsConsistencyStudent Modifications & AccommodationsEarly Intervention

  • Behavioral Intervention: Secondary Prevention/Strategic Intervention Programs

    Peer/Adult Mentoring ProgramsPeer/Adult Mediation Programs

    Strategic Behavioral Interventions (Behavioral Matrix Intensity II and III)[Response Cost, Positive Practice/Restitutional Overcorrection, Group Contingencies, Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies, etc.]

    Small Group Social Skills/Socialization TrainingAnger-/Emotion-/Self- Control TrainingAttention-Control Training

    Special Situation Groups: Ex. Divorce, Loss, PTSD, Self-Concept

  • Behavioral Intervention:Tertiary Prevention-- Intensive Needs/Crisis Management Programs

    Individual Counseling/Behavior Therapy(Behavioral Matrix Intensity III and IV)[Relaxation Therapy, Desensitization, Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies, etc.]

    School-Based Mental Health Services

    Intensive Wrap-Around/Continuum of Care Programming

  • Academic InterventionsPrimary, Secondary, and Tertiary PreventionLiteracyMathematicsWritten Expression/Language ArtsScienceSocial StudiesThe Arts

  • For more informationSee the Arkansas School Improvement Grant Website athttp://acc.k12.ar.us/sig/Click the link forTechnical Assistance Papers select articleFunctional Assessment and Data-based Problem Solving

    c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessWhy is the Focus on Problem-Solving, Consultation, and Intervention so Important?

    *** Data-based problem solving that includes functional assessment linked to strategic and evidence-based or research-based intervention provides the highest probability of success approach to services to students.

    *** Consultation in the referring teachers classroom is the best approach to problem-solving and to helping the teacher implement effectively interventions.

    *** Systematic problem-solving approaches, that are used by entire school staffs, result in better communication, collaboration, and more efficient team processes.

    *** Consultation increases the knowledge and skills of teachers over time, such that they can more independently address different student challenges in the futurethereby decreasing or eliminating the need for more intense consultation services.

    *** Systematic problem-solving approaches document, with data, the impact of interventions and the continuing progress of students who have more intensive and longer-term interventions needs.

    c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlides 6 & 7c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 8c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessAs the problem-solving, consultation, intervention process is successful, teachers and other staff gain a fuller understanding of how, why, and with whom specific interventions can be used in the future. They also will increase their intervention competence and ability to independently facilitate students success in the future.c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessAs the problem-solving, consultation, intervention process is successful, teachers and other staff gain a fuller understanding of how, why, and with whom specific interventions can be used in the future. They also will increase their intervention competence and ability to independently facilitate students success in the future.c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 65c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessAs the problem-solving, consultation, intervention process is successful, teachers and other staff gain a fuller understanding of how, why, and with whom specific interventions can be used in the future. They also will increase their intervention competence and ability to independently facilitate students success in the future.c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessAs the problem-solving, consultation, intervention process is successful, teachers and other staff gain a fuller understanding of how, why, and with whom specific interventions can be used in the future. They also will increase their intervention competence and ability to independently facilitate students success in the future.c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessAs the problem-solving, consultation, intervention process is successful, teachers and other staff gain a fuller understanding of how, why, and with whom specific interventions can be used in the future. They also will increase their intervention competence and ability to independently facilitate students success in the future.c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 27c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 27c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 24c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 24c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 26c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 24c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 24c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 24c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT ProcessSlide 24c- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Processc- Knoff Project ACHIEVE, 2006 SPRINT Process