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The War between the states The War of Northern Aggression The Civil War

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The Civil War

The War between the states

The War of Northern AggressionThe Civil War

War beginsSecession Crisis12/1860 SC Declaration of Immediate CausesSeizure of federal property in secessionist statesFailure to CompromiseJohn Crittendens CompromiseGuarantees the permanence of slavery in slave statesReestab. the Missouri compromise for all present & future territoryLincolns Inaugural AddressSince the Union was older that the Constitution, slave states could not secedeActs of force/violence against US govt was insurrectionaryMobilization of the South

Disadvantages5.5 million free people; Nearly 4 million enslavedLimited liquidityWealth tied to land & slavesLimited infrastructureHad to construct a new constitution & govt and find leadership

Southern LeadershipCSA ConstitutionSimilar to US, but w/explicit reference to state sovereignty, sanctioned slavery and prevented abolitionEstablished capital in RichmondHonoring States RightsWith limited wealth tried to impose taxation & bonds (both unsuccessful)Issued 1.5 billion in paper currency which led to 9,000% inflationRelied on volunteers from the states, but in 1862 had to pass the Conscription Act, nearly 100,000 deserted in the last year of the war.Jefferson Davis

1st President of the Confederate States of AmericaFormer Mississippi Senator, Colonel in the Mexican-American War, West Point & college graduateHad difficulty administering the loose confederationAs a trained soldier had greater ability in selecting battlefield leaders & trusting in their abilitiesMobilization of the NorthAdvantagesOver 22 million free peopleLarge base for volunteers & later draftNearly 2 million will serveSouth seen as aggressorDisadvantagesIn 1860, only 16,000 active service menMany northern democrats were against the war copperheadsFighting on enemy territoryFaced greater civilian commitment than their own sideMilitary StrategyNorthHad to destroy the ConfederacyPreserve pre-1861 status quo

SouthNeeded to avoid defeatNeeded to enlist support from foreign govt


New York Draft Riots of 1863Federal govt in 1863 passed a conscription lawAllowed for the wealthy to hire substitutes for $300Due to recent layoffs & strikes in NYC where free blacks were hired as replacements, young Irish immigrants began rioting & lynching blacksOnly put down through federal troops firing on civiliansPaddys Lament

Northern LeadershipRepublicans dominated Congress after secession Nationalist Programs1862, Homestead ActMorrill land GrantHigh tariffsTranscontinental RRNational Bank Acts1/3 investment from banks into national securities (bonds)US treasury notes as currency

9Abraham LincolnElected in 1860 w/39% of the voteWill be challenged by Gen. McClellan in 1864, winning by only a 10% marginNo formal declaration of war b/c South was not an independent nationBy Executive order sent ships into battle, increased the size of the army & sent troops into battleSuspended habeas corpus (13,000 civilians imprisoned) later ruled unconstitutionalEx Parte Milligan (1866) Supreme Court no military tribunal allowed when civil courts do exist

The generalsNorthGeorge Winfield ScottGeorge McClellanUlysses S. GrantWilliam Tecumseh Sherman

SouthP.T. BeauregardThomas Stonewall JacksonJoe JohnstonRobert E. Lee

Gettysburg Turning PointLees 2nd and last attempt to invade the NorthOver 3 days, more than 51,000 men were wounded or killedPicketts Charge failed attempt to take Cemetery Ridge on the 3rd day of battle psychologically destructive to Confederate troopsNearly 6,000 men died in the assault

AP PARTS score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

War of attritionBattleSignificance

Bull Run, Manassas, VA -1861War would not be over quickly

New Orleans, LA -1862Mississippi River controlled by North

Shiloh, TN -1862RR hub captured

Hampton Roads, VA -1862Ironclads -Monitor vs. Merrimack Murfreesboro, TN -1862Control west of the App. Mtns

2nd Bull Run, -1862Protected VA for the SouthAntietam, MD -1862McClellan removed from dutySingle bloodiest dayGettysburg, PA July, 1863Farthest attack North for Southern forcesChickamauga, TN -1863Southern victory w/greater forcesSpotsylvania, VA -1864Grant unsuccessfully tries to seize RichmondBurning of Atlanta -March to Sea 1864 -65Shermans army destroys a 60 mile swath from Atlanta to the east continuing north to Durham, NCTechnologyColt repeating pistolWinchester repeating rifleGatlin gunCannon & artillerySiege warfare and trenchesTorpedoes & submarinesIroncladsRail road telegraph

Total War

Changes in American lifeUS Sanitary CommissionAmerican Red Cross*Daily Postal deliveryBureaucratic red tapeMechanized warfareCombat from a fixed positionDraft/conscriptionOpen immigrationNational Day of ThanksgivingAbolitionPrisoners of WarCamp SumpterAndersonville GaSept 9 1864To Mrs Ellea ByrnesI want to leave to my mother the sum of $150 one hundred fifty dollars to support her during the rest of her life or in case of her death the sum above mentioned will be held in trust, by the Rev. P. Crudder of Gorham St. Catholic Church for my son Thomas Byrnes in case that he returns within one year of this date, in case he does not return the above mentioned sum will be left to my wife From John BurnsPrisoner at Camp Sumpter GaAn end to war

Lee surrenders to Grant April 9th, 1865 at Appomattox CourthouseBy April 1865, more than 618,000 men killedNearly 5% of the populationLincoln assassinated 5 days later at FordsTheater