THE WAR OF 1812. 1. Causes of the War a. Free seas and trade - neither Britain or France respected neutral rights - majority of Americans sympathized

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THE WAR OF 1812 Slide 2 1. Causes of the War a. Free seas and trade - neither Britain or France respected neutral rights - majority of Americans sympathized with France against Britain - British violations of neutral rights more blatant - impressments Slide 3 Slide 4 b. Frontier Pressures - Americans more ambitious for more land - Canada and Florida (England, Spain and Native Americans stood in the way. - Gen. William Henry Harrison (Gov. of Indiana Territory) destroyed the Native American Headquarters (Battle of Tippecanoe) and ended Indian Confederacy - British blamed US for conflict Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 c. War Hawks - Congressional elections of 1810 brought new group of young Republicans - Came from frontier states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio) - Eager to go to war - Led by Henry Clay (Kentucky), John C. Calhoun (S. Carolina) Slide 9 Henry Clay John C. Calhoun Slide 10 2. A Divided Nation a. Election of 1812 - Division of opinion seen in presidential election - Madison defeated De Witt Clinton of New York Slide 11 Slide 12 b. Opposition to the War - Outspoken criticism of the war N. England merchants, Federalist politicians and Old Republicans Slide 13 3. Military Defeats and Naval Victories - Madison based hope of victory on two things: 1. Napoleon's continued success in Europe 2. US land campaign against Canada Slide 14 a. Invasion of Canada - Army poorly equipped, but initiated action - Launched 3 prong invasion of Canada - Easily repulsed by British defenders Slide 15 Slide 16 b. Naval Battles - Victories attributed to superior shipbuilding - USS Constitution Old Ironsides raised morale by defeating and sinking a British ship - American privateers successful in capturing British merchant ships Slide 17 Slide 18 b. Naval battles cont. - British were successful in blockading the US coast crippled trading and fishing - Victories at Lake Erie, the Thames River (near Detroit), and Lake Champlain ended the British campaign in NY & New England Slide 19 b. Naval battles cont. - Prepared the way for Gen. Harrisons military victory at battle of Thames River (near Detroit) which killed Tecumseh - 1814, Thomas Macdonough defeated British fleet on Lake Champlain - Result: British forced to retreat and abandon plan to invade New York and New England Slide 20 Slide 21 Lake Champlain Lake Champlain Slide 22 c. Chesapeake Campaign - 1814, defeat of Napoleon enabled British to increase forces - British marched through DC set fire to the White House, Capitol, and other buildings - Attempted to capture Ft. McHenry (Baltimore) - Origins of the Star Spangled Banner Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 d. Southern Campaign - Battle of Horseshoe Bend Andrew Jackson ended power of Creek Nation - New Orleans Andrew Jackson defeated the British (fought 6 weeks after the signing of the peace treaty Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 4. The Treaty of Ghent a. Halt to the fighting b. Return of all conquered territory c. Recognition of prewar boundary between Canada and the US Slide 33 Slide 34 5. Hartford Convention a. Before end of the war New England came close to seceding from the Union b. Opposed the war c. Special convention held at Hartford, CT Slide 35 Slide 36 6. Wars Legacy a. US gained respect of other nations b. US accepted Canada as neighbor c. Federalist party came to an end as a national force d. Nullification talk and secession in New England set a precedent used by the South Slide 37 e. Native Americans in the West were forced to give up large areas of land f. US factories were built America took big step toward industrial self-sufficiency g. War heroes Jackson and Harrison political leaders h. Feeling of nationalism