THE WATERFORMS

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THE WATER FORMS

THE WATER FORMSBY

JOVILYN MANALIGODCHRISTIAN RABAGO

BACHELOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION1WATER FORMS ARE COMPOSE OF:MARINE WATER COASTAL AND OCEANIC WATER

SUBSURFACE WATERWELLS, SPRINGS, HOT SPRINGS, GEYSERS AND AQUIFERS

FRESH SURFACE WATERRIVERS, STREAMS, LAKES, SWAMPS, GULFS, BAYS, STRAITS, CANALS AND WATERFALLS

2TERMINOLOGY:HYDROLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE WATER OF THE EARTH IN THEIR SEVERAL STATES ( SOLID, LIQUID AND VAPOR ) AND THE DIVERSE PATHS THAT LNK TOGETHER THE OCEANS, ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE AND SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN THE CONTINENT.THE HYDROSPHERE THE TOTAL VOLUME OF WATER AT OR NEAR THE EARTHS SURFACE IS APPROXIMATELY 1, 500, 000, 000 CUBIC KILOMETERS ( 350, 000, 000 CUBIC MILES ) OF WHICH ALMOST 99% IS CONTAINED IN THE DISCONTINOUS OCEANIC WATER LAYER.3OCEANOLOGY - THE STUDY OF THE OCEANS AND SEAS.

POTAMOLOGY - THE STUDY OF RIVERS.

LIMNOLOGY - THE STUDY OF INLAND WATERS SUCH AS LAKES AND PONDS, RIVERS, STREAMS, SPRINGS, AND WETLANDS.

4MARINE WATER

( COASTAL AND OCEANIC )5OCEANSAn ocean is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean, which occupies two-thirds of the planet's surface. 6SAMPLE IMAGE:

7THE OCEAN OF THE WORLDPACIFIC OCEAN - THE LARGEST OF ALL THE OCEANS IS THE PACIFIC. IT INCLUDES THREE-EIGHTS OF THE TOTAL AREA OF THE EARTHS SURFACE. IT IS THE DEEPEST OF THE OCEANS; IT HAS AN AVERAGE DEPTH OF ABOUT 14, 000 FEET. IT HAS AN AREA OF ROUGHLY 64, 000, 000 SQUARE MILES FILLS THE MONSTROUS OVAL BETWEEN THE AMERICAN AND THE EASTERN COASTS OF ASIA AND AUSTRALIA. - PACIFIC OCEAN (Location) THE PACIFIC OCEAN BOUNDS ASIA AND AUSTRALIA TO THE WEST, THE AMERICAS TO THE EAST, THE ARCTIC TO THE NORTH AND ANTARTICA TO THE SOUTH. 8

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10ATLANTIC OCEAN- NEXT IN SIZE IS THE ATLANTIC, WHICH TAKES IN ONE-QUARTER OF THE AREA THE SEA. THE ATLANTIC ALSO RANKS SECOND IN DEPTH, WITH AN AVERAGE OF ABOUT 13, 000 FEET. FILLING THE GAP BETWEEN THE EAST COASTS OF THE AMERICA AND THE WESTERN COASTS OF EUROPE AND AFRICA IS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. IT HAS AN AREA OF ABOUT 31, 830, 000 SQUARE MILES.

11INDIAN OCEANTHE INDIAN OCEAN IS THE THIRD IN SIZE WITH ABOUT ONE-EIGHT OF THE TOTAL AREA OF THE EARTHS SURFACE. IT IS BORDERED BY AFRICA AND ASIA. IT EXTENTDS ONLY A SHORT DISTANCE ACROSS THE EQUATOR INTO THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. IT HAS A FEW ISLANDS AND ADJACENT SEAS AND HAS AN AVERAGE DEPTH OF 3, 890 METERS AND HAS AN AREA OF 73, 556, 000 km. IT LIES BETWEEN AFRICA, ASIA, AND AUSTRALIA. IT IS NEARLY AS LARGE AS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN.FIVE FAMOUS ISLAND IN INDIAN OCEANS ARE AS FOLLOW: Runion, Zanzibar, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Madagascar

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13ARCTIC OCEANAROUND THE NORTH POLE IS THE ARCTIC OCEAN, A SMALL OCEAN WITH ONLY ONE-THIRTIETH OF THE EARTHS SURFACE. IT IS ALMOST COMPLETELY COVERED WITH ICE TO A DEPTH OF ABOUT 10 FEET. IT IS FOUND IN THE NORTH POLAR REGION. IT SEPERATES THE EURO-ASIATIC AND THE AMERICAN SHORES AND OPENS SOUTHWARD THROUGH NARROW CHANNELS TO BOTH THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS. ITS AREA IS ABOUT 5, 440, 000 SQUARE MILES.

14ANTARCTIC OCEAN- The waters surrounding the North Pole between North America and Eurasia. The smallest ocean in the world, it is covered by pack ice throughout the year. The ocean surrounding the North Pole, north of the Arctic Circle. It has an Area of about 14 100 000 square km (5 440 000 square miles) covered waters surrounding the North Pole; mostly covered with solid ice or with ice floes and icebergs. depths of less than 6,650 feet (2,000 metres) below sea level.

15THE PHILIPPINES HAS THE LONGEST DISCONTINUOOUS COASTLINE IN THE WORLD WITH 34, 600 K. M., TWICE LONGER THAN THAT OF THE UNITED STATES. THE SEACOASTS ARE INDENTED WITH BAYS, HARBORS, AND GULFS. THERE ARE 61 NATURAL HARBORS, 31 OF THEM DEVELOPED AND USED EXTENSIVELY, AND 20 LAND-LOCKED STRAITS. THE FINEST HARBOR IN THE FAR EAST IS MANILA, WITH AN AREA OF 1, 970 KM. AND A COASTLINE OF 192 KM.

16THE SEASTHE PHILIPPINES HAS THE LONGEST DISCONTINUOOUS COASTLINE IN THE WORLD WITH 34, 600 K. M., TWICE LONGER THAN THAT OF THE UNITED STATES. THE SEACOASTS ARE INDENTED WITH BAYS, HARBORS, AND GULFS. THERE ARE 61 NATURAL HARBORS, 31 OF THEM DEVELOPED AND USED EXTENSIVELY, AND 20 LAND-LOCKED STRAITS. THE FINEST HARBOR IN THE FAR EAST IS MANILA, WITH AN AREA OF 1, 970 KM. AND A COASTLINE OF 192 KM.

17THE WORLD'S SEAS INCLUDE:ANDAMAN SEA - IS THE NORTHEASTERN ARM OF INDIAN OCEAN, WITH AN AREA OF 308, 000 SQ. MILES (978, 000 SQ. KM. ). IT IS BOUNDED BY THE IRRAWADY DELTA ( NORTH ), BY PENINSULAR BURMA, THAILAND, AND MALAYSIA ( EAST ), BY THE ANDAMAN AND AND NICOBAR ISLANDS ( WEST ), AND BY SUMATRA ( INDONESIA ), AND STRAIT OF MALACCA ( SOUTH ). THE SEA IS 750 MILES ( 1, 200 KM. ) LONG FROM NORTH TO SOUTH AND 400 MILES WIDE.18

19BALTIC SEA - IS THE WORLD'S LARGEST BODY OF BRACKISH WATER. IT HAS AN AREA OF 1, 600 SQ. MILES ( 42, 000 SQ. KM. ). IT CURVES NORTHWARD FROM THE LATITUDE OF DENMARK ALMOST TO THE ARCTIC CIRCLE, SEPERATING THE SCANDINAVIAN PENINSULA FROM THE MAIN BODY OF THE EUROPIAN LANDMASS.20

21BARRENTS SEA - IS THE OUTLYING PORTION OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN. IT IS 800 MILES ( 1, 300 KM ) LONG AND 650 MILES WIDE AND HAS AN AREA OF 542, 000 SQ. MILES ( 1,405, 000 SQ. KM. ).

22BERING SEA - IS THE BODY OF WATER IN THE NORTHERNMOST PACIFIC OCEAN, SEPERATING THE CONTINENTS OF ASIA ( NORTHEASTERN SIBERIA ) AND NORTH AMERICA ( ALASKA ). THE BERING SEA COVERS 890, 000 SQ. MILES 9 2, 304, 000 SQ. KM. ) AND CONNECTS WITH THE ARCTIC OCEAN BY WAY OF BERING STRAIT, WHICH IS 53 MILES ( 85 KM. 0 WIDE AT ITS NARROWEST POINT.

23CARRIBEAN SEA - IS A SUBOCEANIC BASIN, PART OF ATLANTIC OCEAN, APPOX. 1, 020, 000 SQ. MILES ( 2, 640, 000 KM. ) IN EXTENT. TO THE SOUTH, IT IS BOUNDED BY THE NORTHERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA, TO THE WEST BY THE SOASTLINE OF CENTRAL AMERICA AND YUCATAN, TO THE NORTH BY THE GREATER ANTILLES, AND TO THE EAST BY THE LESSER ANTILLES.

24CHINA SEA - IS THE PART OF THE WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN BORDERING ON THE SOUTH ASIAN MAINLAND. IT COVERS AN AREA OF ABOUT 1, 340, 000 SQ. MILES ( 3, 465, 000 SQ.KM. ) AND CONSIST OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND EAST CHINA SEA, WHICH CONNECT TO THE FORMOSA STRAIT BETWEEN TAIWAN AND CHINA MAINLAND.

25RED SEA - CONTAINS THE WORLD'S HOTTEST AND SALTIEST SEA WATER. A NARROW STRIP OF WATER EXTENDING SOUTHEASTWARD FOR 1, 300 MILES ( 2, 100 KM. 0, FROM SUEZ TO THE BAB (STRAIT) EL- MANDEB AND THE GULF OF ODEN. IT SEPERATES NORTHEAST AFRICA FROM THE ARABIAN PENINSULA. IT HAS AN AREA OF 169, 000 SQ. MILES ( 438, 000 ) SQ. KM. ) WITH DISTANCES VARYING FROM 130 TO 250 MILES ( 210-400 KM. ).

26SEA OF JAPAN - IS THE MARGINAL SEA OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN WHICH LIES BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE SOVIET ISLAND OF SAKHALIN (EAST) AND THE ASIAN MAINLAND OF THE SOVIET UNION AND KOREA (WEST). IT HAS SURFACE AREA OF 389, 100 SQ. MILES ( 1, 007, 800 SQ. KM. ) AND A MEAN DEPTH OF 4, 429 FT. ( 1, 350 M. ).

27PHILIPPINE SEA -The Philippine Sea is bordered by the Philippines and Taiwan to the west, Japan to the north, the Marianas to the east and Palau to the south. Adjacent seas include Celebes Seawhich is separated by Mindanao and smaller islands to the south, South China Sea which is separated by Philippines, and East China Sea which is separated by the Ryukyu Islands.

They surround an area measuring 1,800 miles (2,900 km) north-south by 1,500 miles east-west and occupying a total surface area of 40,000 square miles (1,000,000 square km), about 3 percent of the entire Pacific region. The basin, with a general depth of 19,700 feet (6,000 m), plunges to its greatest depths in trenches to the east of the island arcs. The deepest is the Philippine Trench at 34,578 feet (10,539 m). 28

29MEDITERRANEAN SEA - IS AN INTERCONTINENTAL BODY OF WATER LYING BETWEEN SOUTHERN EUROPE ( TO THE NORTH ), NORTH AFRICA ( TO THE SOUTH ), AND THE SOUTHWESTERN ASIA ( TO THE EAST ). IT IS LINKED TO THE ATLANTIC OCEAN BY THE NARROW STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR IN THE WEST AND CONNECTS WITH THE BLACK SEA IN THE NORTHEAST VIA THE SEA OF MARMARA. IT IS ABOUT 2, 500 MILES LONG AND HAS A MAXIMUM WIDTH OF 850 MILES AND A TOTAL AREA ( EXCLUDING THE SEA OF MARMARA AND THE BLACK SEA ) OF 970, 000 SQ. MILES.

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31BLACK SEA - The Black Sea lies between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. Excluding its northern arm, the Sea of Azov, the Black Sea occupies about 168,500 square miles (436,400 square kilometers). It is connected to the Aegean Sea through the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, and has been of critical importance to regional commerce throughout the ages.32

33SEA WATER COMPOSITIONGEOLOGISTS BELIEVE THAT THE EARTH IN ITS EARLY STAGES WAS WITHOUT OCEANS. ALL THE EARTH'S WATER WAS PROBABLY CHEMICALLY BOUND WITHIN THE ROCKS UNTIL VOLCANISM RELEASED IT. SOME OF TH VOLCANIC ACTIONS ORIGINALLY PRODUCE THE OCEANS ARE STILL GOING ON. THUS, IT IS REASONABLE TO SUPPOSE THAT THE OCEANS ARE STILL GROWING TODAY.THE COMPOSITION OF SEA WATER TODAY IS NOT THE SAME AS THAT OF THE WATER THAT FILLED THE ORIGINAL OCEANS. WHEN THE WATER WAS FIRST RELEASED FROM THE ORIGINAL ROCKS, IT WAS NOT SALTY. IT ONLY BECAME SALTY AFTER RAIN HAD WASH OVER THE LAND ON ITS WAY TO THE OCEANS BASINS. AS THE LAND WAS FLOODED BY THE DOWNFALL OF RAIN, MINERALS WERE DISSOLVED AND CARRIED INTO THE SEA. SINCE THE OCEANS WERE FORMED, THE SAME PROCESSED HAVE BEEN GOING ON AGAIN AND AGAIN IN AN ENDLESS HYDROLOGIC CYCLE.THE MOST ABUNDANT AND SOLUBLE IN WATER AND COMMON MINERAL IS THE TABLE SALT ( SODIUM CHLORIDE ) LEADS THE FIRST.34MINERALS FROM THE SEATHE DISSOLVED MINERALS IN THE SEA WATER ARE USEFUL AND VALUEABLE.

EACH CUBIC MILE OF SEA WATER CONTAINS ABOUT 4 MILLION TONS OF M

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