The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England

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  • The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon

    EnglandThe W iley B

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    ncyclopedia of A

    nglo -Saxon E ngland

    Second Edition

    Second Edition

    Edited by Michael lapidge, John Blair, SiMon KeyneS & donald Scragg

    Praise for the First Edition “This volume is a major achievement of extensive and durable value. all students of anglo-Saxon england, at whatever level, will wish to have it at hand.”

    English Historical Review

    “This is a great addition to the works of reference available to students of anglo-Saxon england at every level: one never opens the book without learning something.”

    Notes and Queries

    “lapidge et al. have compiled a unique storehouse of knowledge, a synthesized compendium of classic and contemporary research from a wide array of interdisciplinary fields within anglo-Saxon and medieval studies.”

    H-Net Reviews

    an essential reference work for this period of english history, The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England is now available in a new edition. it brings together more than 700 articles written by 150 leading scholars on the people, places, activities, and creations of the anglo-Saxons. it is the only reference work to cover the history, archaeology, arts, architecture, literatures, and languages of england from the roman withdrawal to the norman conquest (c.450 - 1066).

    This new edition has been thoroughly updated to include the latest scholarship, and features 52 brand-new entries and a new appendix detailing english archbishops and bishops from 597 to 1066. as in the first edition, the Encyclopedia includes maps, line drawings, photos, a table of rulers of the english from 450 to 1066, and a comprehensive classified index of headwords. With an accessible layout and authoritative content, this is indispensable reading, both for specialists in this interdisciplinary field and for students looking for a thorough grounding in key topics.

    Michael lapidge is emeritus elrington and Bosworth professor of anglo-Saxon at the University of cambridge, and a Fellow of clare college, cambridge.

    John Blair is professor of Medieval history and archaeology at the University of oxford, and a Fellow of The Queen’s college, oxford.

    SiMon KeyneS is elrington and Bosworth professor of anglo-Saxon at the University of cambridge, and a Fellow of Trinity college, cambridge.

    donald Scragg is emeritus professor of anglo-Saxon Studies at the University of Manchester.

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  • Chapter No.: 1 Title Name: Comp. by: Date: 03 Sep 2013 Time: 09:25:21 AM Stage: Page Number: i

    The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England

  • Chapter No.: 1 Title Name: Comp. by: Date: 03 Sep 2013 Time: 09:25:21 AM Stage: Page Number: iii

    The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England

    Second Edition

    Edited by

    Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes, and Donald Scragg

  • Chapter No.: 1 Title Name: Comp. by: Date: 03 Sep 2013 Time: 09:25:21 AM Stage: Page Number: iv

    This second edition first published 2014 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Edition History: Blackwell Publishing Ltd (1e hardback 1999, 1e paperback 2001)

    Registered Office John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

    Editorial Offices 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

    For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley blackwell.

    The right of Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes, and Donald Scragg to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

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    Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

    Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author(s) have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Blackwell encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England / edited by Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes,

    and Donald Scragg. – Second edition. pages cm Revised edition of: The Blackwell encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-65632-7 (cloth) 1. Great Britain–History–Anglo-Saxon period, 449–1066–Encyclopedias. 2. England–Civilization–To 1066–Encyclopedias. I. Lapidge, Michael. II. Title. DA152.B58 2014 942.01–dc23

    2013015800

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Cover image: Gold mount resembling a stylized sea-creature, from the Staffordshire Hoard. Photo © Birmingham Museums Trust. Cover design by Nicki Averill Design.

    Set in 9/10.5pt Minion by SPi Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India

    1 2014

  • Chapter No.: 1 Title Name: Comp. by: Date: 03 Sep 2013 Time: 09:25:21 AM Stage: Page Number: v

    List of Illustrations vi List of Contributors viii Preface to the Second Edition xi Preface to the First Edition xiii List of Abbreviations xv

    THE ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES 1

    Appendix I: Rulers of the English, c.450–1066 521 Appendix II: Archbishops and Bishops, 597–1066 539 Note on Maps 9–12 567

    Index of Contributors 573 Classified Index of Head-Words 579

    Contents

  • Chapter No.: 1 Title Name: Comp. by: Date: 03 Sep 2013 Time: 09:25:21 AM Stage: Page Number: vi

    Plates

    1 Aerial photograph of crop marks showing cemetery. Copyright reserved, Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photography 13

    2 The Alfred Jewel. AN1836p.135.371, Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 31

    3 The Coppergate Helmet, York. Photograph © York Castle Museum 48

    4 Bradford-on-Avon church. © Crown Copyright. English Heritage 77

    5 A carpet page from the Lindisfarne Gospels, London, British Library, Cotton Nero D.IV, fol. 94v. © The British Library Board 88

    6 A charter of Æthelwulf, King of Wessex and Kent, 843. London, British Library, Stowe Charter 17. © The British Library Board 100

    7 A writ of Edward the Confessor for the monastery of St Denis (1053 × 1057). Cartons des rois, AE III 60 (K 19, no. 6). 101

    8 Anglo-Saxon coins from the Fitzwilliam collection. © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 117

    9 Images of kingship on Anglo-Saxon coins from the Fitzwilliam collection. © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 119

    10 ‘An Anglo-Saxon king dispenses justice’. London, British Library, Cotton Claudius B.IV, fol. 59r. © The British Library Board 131

    11 Earls Barton tower. Photograph by Simon Keynes 159

    12 The Gosforth Cross. © Department of Archaeology, University of Durham 219

    13 A hogback at Ingleby Arncliffe (Yorks.). © Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Photograph by T. Middlemass 245

    14 King Cnut and Queen Ælfgifu from the New Minster Liber vitae. British Library, Stowe 944 fol. 6r. © The British Library Board 297

    15 The Repton crypt. Photograph by Dr John Crook 403

    16 The Ruthwell Cross. © Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture; photograph by T. Middlemass 415

    17 The seal of Godwine (matrix and impression), walrus ivory, eleventh century. © The Trustees of the British Museum 427

    18 The Winchester purse reliquary. Winchester Museums Service 435

    19 The Kirkdale sundial and inscription. © Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Photograph by T. Middlemass 445

    20 Aerial view of Sutton Hoo. Photograph by Nigel MacBeth 448

    21 Wall painting in the church of Nether Wallop. © Crown Copyright. English Heritage 484

    List of Illustrations

  • Chapter No.: 1 Title Name: Comp