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early childhood educaTION

Text of Theories of Science Edu







    OF :

    3/11/2013 [email protected] aminah ayob/upsi

  • THIS IS HOW CHILDREN LEARN?Children acquire knowledge and thinking skills through:

    Real experiences and cognition They need a variety of experience One idea must be approached from different angles Single experience is not enough to build a reliable

    intellectual concept. Children absorbed information through concrete

    experiences Children are constantly absorbing meaning by observing

    their environment Children need numerous sensory experiences Activities involving all the senses provide first-hand

    experiences from which the child incorporate information into the development of concepts.

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    Piaget believed that YC think differently, thus they require different kind of curriculum -their thinking is still at the preoperational stage (3-7), egocentric, animistic and less logical.

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  • EGOCENTRIC = self-centered Egocentrism is characterized by preoccupation with one's own internal

    world. Egocentrics regard themselves and their own opinions or interests as being the most important or valid

    Egocentrism is very apparent in the relationship between two preschool children. Eg of how each child is completely oblivious to what the other is saying in this scenario: Julie: "I love my dolly, her name is Tina" Carol: "I'm going to colour the sun yellow" Julie: "She has long, curly hair like my auntie" Carol: "Maybe I'll colour the trees yellow, too" Julie: "I wonder what Tina's eyes are made of?" Carol: "I lost my orange crayon" Julie: " I know her eyes are made of glass.

    This type of monologue demonstrates the "egocentrism" of children's thinking in this stage. According to Piaget, egocentrism of the young child leads them to believe that everyone thinks as they do, and that the whole world shares their feelings and desires.

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  • Eg of egocentric thinking1. Egocentric thinking is when you believe something and

    think everyone else should too, or you think because you think or feel something, everyone else does to. Eg: when a child hides in plain view under a blanket but

    sincerely believes they are missing. they think because they can't see you, that you can't see them.

    if a child is hungry, they assume you are too. if a child likes power rangers, they may think that is the

    perfect present for mommy because she must like them too.

    2. A preschooler grabs a toy from his 18-month-old sister. When she starts to cry, he looks at her with surprise! Hes happy because he wanted the toy and now he has it. He cant put himself in the place of his little sister. He doesnt understand her sadness or anger. He doesnt realize that his behavior has caused her to feel sad or angry.

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  • Animistic magical thinking Animistic thinking is the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities,

    such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.

    An example of animistic thinking would be "magical thinking" or the strong use of the child's imagination. Children in this three to four year old age group typically assign non-humanlike objects human-like meanings or purposes which results in animistic thinking.

    Example #1: A child thinks that dropping a doll actually caused the doll pain, because being dropped themselves would have caused he or she pain.

    Example #2: A child would think that it rains because the sky is sad and it is crying. This shows how the child gives the sky humanlike characteristics such as crying.

    Example #3: If the child is staring out the window and sees a ball move across the yard they would assume that they ball moved on its own. They do not have the capacity to think logically that the wind was the source of the movement of the ball.

    Example #4: A five year old was painting her original wood sculpture. The teacher passed by and commented, I think you might like that better if you put on another coat. Accepting the teachers suggestion, the child went to the lockers, selected a coat, and put it on as he/she returned to the painting area to find out if the teacher was right.

    Mum says to her child: the rice will cry if you drop them on the floor!

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  • Think-Pair-Share give 2 examples of animistic thinking in children

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  • Children can focus on only one variable at one time, such as length or width not both.

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  • They can focus on only one variable at one time, such as length or width not both.

    Think-Pair-Share: What other examples you can give for the above situation.

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  • Jean Piaget: Cognitive development and mental processes

    Piaget believed that peoples thinking changed as they learn and adapt to their environment;

    that the goal of thinking or the highest level of thinking people could develop is abstract thought.

    Abstract thought is the kind of thinking scientists usethis kind of thinking is called logical-mathematical thinking/intelligence.

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  • Cognitive Development

    According to Piaget, children construct knowledge through concrete, hands-on experiences.

    They construct knowledge of the physical world.

    The knowledge becomes their mental actions.

    Example: Of we say: C-H-A-I-R.

    We think about how chair look like, whats it's for and where we can find it. All these pictures will come to our mind it is called mental actions or mental processes.

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    We may visualise these chairs

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    Perhaps we will not visualise or think of these chairs




    CONSTRUCTIVISM : people construct their own understanding of the world, through experiencing

    things and reflecting on those experiences. (CAN YOU GIVE AN EXAMPLE)

    When learners encounter something new, they reconcile it with previous knowledge. They may

    change what they believe, or they may discard the new information as irrelevant.

  • According to Piaget, knowledge is constructed through: (i) Assimilation and (ii) Accommodation

    ASSIMILATION: Is a process by which a person takes material into

    their mind from the environment, make it fit into their existing knowledge.

    It is like your mind has a databases already built, with its fields and categories defined. If it comes across new information which fits into those fields, it can assimilate it without any trouble.

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  • Assimilation

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    Assimilation - process by which new experiences are incorporated into an existing schema

  • Schema/schemas

    A schema (plural: schemas/schemata) describes an organized pattern of thought or behavior. It is a mental structure of pre-conceived ideas, or a framework.

    Schemas - ideas we have about the way things work.

    It is a representation in the mind, of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together.

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    When the new information cannot fit into the pre-existing databases, so it has to develop new ones to accommodate the new information forming schema.

    Accommodation is a process by which schemas are modified in light of new experiences

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  • Accommodation

    Can you think of some examples to describe assimilation and accommodation?

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  • . Piaget proposed that children's thinking or

    intellectual development occurs through four stages (sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational stages).

    He saw transitions taking place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years.

    Meaning, before these ages children are not capable (no matter how bright they are) of understanding things in certain ways.

    He used this to group children into several stages of development:

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  • Piagets Stages of Development

    1. SENSORIMOTOR (Birth-2 yrs)

    2. PRE-OPERATIONAL (2-7 years)

    3. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11 years)

    4. FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11 years and up)

    Stage = a period in a child's development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not others.

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  • SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (Birth-2 yrs)

    A child can differentiate self from object

    Recognises self as actor/doer and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or sh

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