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    H. Lindow, Dipl.Ing, Senior Adviser

    u ec s n e a ures n e as ng

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    Subjects On Die Failure

    Die design

    Die making process

    Heat treatmentSurface treatment

    rocess parame ers

    H. Lindow2

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    Selection Of Die Material for HPDC

    Cast Metal Temperature Die Size

    Chemical composition Steel production parameters Production Series Shape of the contour

    H. Lindow3

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    as ng empera ures o var ous a oys

    4

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    Cast Metal and Preheating Temperature

    H. Lindow5

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    Die Cavity Wall Temperature

    n uence on:

    Cavity wall strength

    H. Lindow6

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    C cles Until Visible Cracks Of 0,15mm De endent On

    Surface Temperature

    -

    (mm)

    7.000 cycles

    0,15 550 620

    Depth

    800 cycles

    2.500 cycles

    670 690

    Crack

    400 Cycles

    H13, SKD61, 1.2344HRC 44 to 47

    0 2000 4000 6000 8000

    H. Lindow7

    Number of Cycles

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    ,On Surface Temperature

    (mm)

    1.000.000

    Dept

    20.000

    200,000 H13, SKD61, 1.2344HRC 44 to 47

    Crac

    3.000

    H. Lindow8 Cycles x 1.000

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    e empera ure

    Influence on:

    Die cavity wall temperature thermal stress

    H. Lindow9

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    Influence Of Temperature / T Stress / Strength

    1500 N/mm ~HRC 45

    N/

    mm

    1500 N/mm ~HRC 45

    N/

    mm

    rength

    rength

    m/S

    m/S

    s

    sN/

    s

    sN/

    Str

    Str

    H. Lindow10

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    DIE SIZE

    Influence on:

    Heat treatment

    material

    H. Lindow11

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    Cross section

    Small dies < 70 mm and their corresponding flat sizes

    (42x250; 45x140; 50x100; 60x75 m)

    Medium dies 70 140 mm and their corresponding flat sizes(90x300; 100x250; 120x150 mm)

    Big dies > 140 mm and their corresponding flat sizes(140x230; 180x300; 200x250; 230x280)

    NoteThe toughness shown at the brochures diagram demonstrates the

    toughness of the steel only without considering the influence comingrom e ea rea men . ue o e sma s ze o e es -spec men(7 x 10 x 55 mm) the effect of the heat treatment is optimal.But with the increase of the cross section of a die the slower the cooling

    H. Lindow12

    .

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    In order to have sufficient toughness the structure shouldat least consist of 20% Martensite and 80% Bainite andas less as possible carbide precipitation. With the increase ofBainite especially coarse Bainite and with the increase of

    carbide precipitation the toughness is decreasing.

    If the die maker is not sure about the heat treatment and if the dieis of a big size always it is advisable to choose a material which

    independent from the chosen heat treatment process.In such a case choose a die material with a better hardenability

    Such materials are:

    VIDAR SUPERIOR

    H. Lindow13

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    Structure at ~ 6.4 640s for a Size Ran e of

    380 to 45 mm (80%B/20%M) dependent on theHeat Transfer for 8407 (H13; SKD61; 1.2344)

    ~ 6.4

    Name, Company, Date14

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    -Gives A Similar Structure as ~ 6.4 (640s)

    ( 380-45) for H13

    ~ 52 ~ 6,4

    H. Lindow15

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    Reachable Diameter For H13 Dependent On Cooling

    Medium and a fixed Q-Velocity of28C/minute( ~ 6.4 (640s)) at Core Area

    e.g 80% B + 20%M for 8407 at core area

    mm

    i

    n

    H. Lindow16

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    Toughness Dependent On Hardenability

    HRc 45

    21 J

    HRc 45

    6 J

    Name, Company, Date17

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    Toughness Comparison At Surface Of Large Size

    oc s t ar ous uenc ng ates(Block Sizes 300 x 500 x 700 mm)

    HRC 45

    H.Lindow18

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    Reachable for 80% Bainite and 20 % Martensite in

    e core area epen en on oo ng e um anVarious Types of Steels

    DIEVAR

    8407-2M

    QRO90S

    mm

    in

    H. Lindow19

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    Hardenability

    100

    60

    80

    20

    40

    %

    VIDAR SUPERIOR

    ORVAR SUPREMEartensite

    40 60Bain

    it

    M20

    80

    50 100 200 300 400

    Diameter in mm

    Percentage of Martensite / Bainite in the centre at various diameters

    Name, Company, Date20

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    Chemical com osition

    Influence on

    creeping strengt

    ductility Crack initiation

    hot strength toughness

    Crack propagation

    thermal stress Crack initiation Crack propagation+

    corrosion resistance

    H. Lindow21

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    uct ty

    uctilit

    y

    072M

    uper

    84

    D

    IEVAR

    V

    IDAR

    8

    407Su

    Q

    RO90S

    H. Lindow22

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    (Resistance To Crack Initiation)

    2

    00

    Creeping test 0tility

    0

    1%, 550 C, 500 MPa, 1000 h

    HRC

    hxDu

    1

    X

    100

    0

    trengt

    HRC 45

    0

    eping

    Cre

    H. Lindow23

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    inN/m

    Strengt

    Super

    u

    o

    t-Yield

    8

    407

    D

    IEVAR

    VIDAR

    QRO90S

    HRC 45 / 46

    H. Lindow24

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    Comparison Of Toughness At RT In ST

    Size of specimen 7 x 10 x 55 mm (Charpy V)

    J

    hness.

    52

    .

    Tou

    2M

    A

    R

    A

    R,

    HR

    RSupe

    90Su

    ARSu

    840

    DIE

    DIE

    VID

    QRO

    OR

    Name, Company, Date25

    HRC 45 / 46HRC

    45 / 46

    HRC

    52

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    ou ness epen en n ar e rec p a on

    nd

    s

    inSeco

    r

    from

    A

    7000

    Supe

    ri

    lingtim

    0

    8407

    IEVAR

    VIDA

    QRO90S

    Coo

    1

    H. Lindow26

    H.Lindow

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    Product Of Hot-Yield Stren th 600 C And Tou hness

    (Resistance to crack propagation)

    ess/1

    Tough

    )

    ngth

    X

    (NJ/m

    072M

    per

    RC52

    u

    ie

    ldStr 8

    4

    I

    EVAR

    I

    DARS

    IEVAR,

    R

    O90Su

    R

    VARS

    Hot-Y

    HRC 45 46

    HRC

    52

    H. Lindow27

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    Temper Back Resistance At 600C - 10 Hours

    RC

    ness,

    H

    per

    Hard

    407

    I

    EVAR

    I

    DARS

    R

    O90Su

    HRC 45 / 46

    H. Lindow28

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    Relation Heat Conductivity / ThermalExpansion

    255

    245

    250

    r

    235

    240

    8407

    uperi

    S

    225

    230

    I

    DAR

    IEVA

    Q

    RO9

    220

    Kategorie 1

    H. Lindow29

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    ,Conductivity, - Expansion

    600, a

    l

    n

    400

    500

    Mtrength

    /Ther

    xpansi

    r

    3008407

    RtHot

    S

    )x0,

    vity,-

    Sup

    rem

    Supe

    ri

    100DIEVA

    (Produ

    ughnes

    o

    nducti

    QRO90

    8

    407S

    VIDAR

    0To

    H. Lindow30

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    orros on es s ance n n - e

    Al (A356)

    1

    000

    - ,

    720 C 5 h

    value

    e ro a on , m m n

    Sp

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