Text of Today Quiz Latin American Independence Map Activity
Today Quiz Latin American Independence Map Activity
Latin American Independence 1808-1825
Latin American Society Known as a sociedad de castas - based on racial origins: peninsulares - born in Spain - Spanish government officials, church officials - the clergy: priests, monks Creoles - born in America - controlled local economies, owned haciendas (plantations) and mines Castas - mestizos and mulattos - those of mixed origins Indians and African slaves
4 outside events that prompted it: Enlightenment ideas of liberalism spread among Creoles American Revolution showed how it could be done - inspired revolutionary leaders French Revolution idea of liberty, equality and fraternity. Fear of Haitis slave revolt made Creoles act quickly.
Short-term cause - What sparked it? Napoleon forces invade Iberian Peninsula Problem of legitimacy - What is the legitimate government of Spain? Peninsulares do not recognize the government of Spain
3 separate revolutions: Mexico Northern South America: Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador Southern South America: Argentina
Mexico Mexico - Father Miguel de Hidalgo - leads Indians and mestizos - Creoles fear this Augustin de Iturbide - Creole officer takes over - proclaimed emperor of Mexico 1821 The rest of Central America separates from Mexico which becomes a republic.
Northern part of South America Simon Bolivar - Bolivar The Liberator: wealthy Creole - creates Gran Colombia by 1830. Is the George Washington of South America
Southern Cone of South America Jose de San Martin - Buenos Aires, Argentina and Chile, Peru By 1825 all of Spanish South America had gained its political independence.
Brazil A totally different path to independence. Napoleon forces in Portugal leads royal family to move to Brazil - Rio de Janeiro. When king returns to Portugal, youngest son stays - warns him if independence comes he should lead it. He does - 1825 he becomes Dom Pedro I
Independence of Latin America Except for Brazil - all become republics Mexico a temporary monarchy and then a republic Haitian revolution made Latin American revolutionaries very conservative - social revolutions were avoided
Early governments of Latin America Problems: social inequalities, disagreements over political representation and the role of the church and regionalism
Debate over political instability and struggling economies of Latin American nations: Nations have been unable to rule themselves due to corrupt governments leading to a lack of economic development. VS. Western imperialist powers like the U.S. have interfered with these nations leading to neocolonialism.