Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary

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  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary


  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary


    3 1977 !

  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary


  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary


  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary



  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary



    ABBREVIATIONSAFr. Anglo-French.allit. alliterative ; (in) alliterative verse, & in etymologies indicates uncertain or indirect relation.constr. constructed with ; construction.Du. Dutch.E. ; Mn.E. (Modem) English.E.D.D. The English Dialect Dictionary.Fr. French.Fris. (Modern) Frisian (dialects).from is prefixed to etymologies when the word illustrated hasadditional suffixes, &c., not present in the etymon.G. German. ,Goth. Gothic.Icel. (Modern) Icelandic.Kt. ; OKt. Kentish ; Kentish dialect of Old English.L. ; Med.L. Latin; Mediaeval Latin.MDu. Middle Dutch.ME. Middle English.MHG. Middle High German.MLG. Middle Low German.N.E.D. The Oxford (New) English Dictionnry.Nth ; ONth. Northumbrian ; Northumbrian dialect of Old English.N\VM. North West Midland.OE. Old English.OFr. Old French.OFris. Old Frisian.OMG. Old High German.Olr. Old Irish.ON. Old Norse, especially Old Icelandic.ONFr. Northern dialects of Old French.OS. Old Saxon (Old Low German),prec. preceding word,red. reduced ; reduction.Swed. Swedish.WS ; O VVS. West Saxon (dialect of Old English).* is prefixed where forms are theoretically reconstructed.+ between the elements shows that a compound or derivative is

    first recorded in Middle English,


  • 8/6/2019 Tolkien_ Middle English Vocabulary


    NOTETHIS glossary does not aim at completeness, and it is not

    primarily a glossary of rare or 'hard' words. A good workingknowledge of Middle English depends less on the possession of anabstruse vocabulary than on familiarity with the ordinary machineryof expression with the precise forms and meanings that commonwords may assume ; with the uses of such innocent-looking littlewords as the prepositions ofand for; with idiomatic phrases, somefresh-minted and some worn thin, but all likely to recur again andagain in an age whose authors took no pains to avoid usual orhackneyed turns of expression. These are the features of the olderlanguage which an English reader is predisposed to pass over,satisfied with a half-recognition : and space seldom permits of theiradequate treatment in a compendious general dictionary or theword-list to a single text. So in making a glossary for use witha book itself designed to be a preparation for the reading ofcomplete texts, I have given exceptionally full treatment to whatmay rightly be called the backbone of the language.Brief indications of the etymology of each word are given, withreferences in difficult cases to the Oxford English Dictionary(N.E.D.}. Apart from their usefulness as a basis for exercises inphonology and the analysis of vocabulary, these will serve to differ-entiate words distinct in origin which coincide in some of theirforms or spellings. The Old English or Old French forms citedare those that best illustrate the Middle English ; in consequencethe Old English forms frequently differ from normal West-baxon,and the Old French forms are especially those of the French currentin England (Anglo-French is rarely specified). Old Norse wordshave usually been cited in the normal spelling (e.g. of Zoega's OldIcelandic Dictionary}, Accordingly, long vowels in Old Norsewords are marked as in brdj)-r. In Old English words stable longvowels are marked as in brad] uncertain quantity or probableshortening in Old English times is marked as in adrsedd; vowelsthat were lengthened in the Old English period (e.g. before Id, mb,nd) are marked as in cdld, climban, bindan.For the convenience of beginners the glossary is liberally suppliedwith cross references, and the prefixed Table summarizes theprincipal variations of form or spelling. Particular attention shouldbe given to the following points of arrangement : (i) 5 has a separatealphabetical place following G ; cross-references to gh are notgiven : (ii) p has a separate alphabetical place following T;variation between / and th is disregarded, and initial Th is enteredunder J? : (iii) 17, V are alternative forms of the same letter ;variation between them is disregarded, and initial U is enteredunder V: (iv) Y initially has its usual place ; but medial or final Ywill be found in the alphabetical position of /.

    J. R. R. T.

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    I. a varies with o (before m, n) ; as land, lang, lamb lond, long,lomb; man, name (Westerns mon, nome.a. a (= a) varies in Northern texts with (i) ai, ay ; as (a) fare, /aw

    fayre (3) fayre farest, fairest : (ii) witA Southern o, oo ; see 14.3. ai, ay varies with (i) ei, ey ; as mayntene meyntene: (ii) a; see

    2 : (iii) o, oo ; see 2.4. au (before m, n) varies -with a (chiefly in French words}; asdaunce dance.5. be-, prefix varies with bi- ; as begynne biginne.ft. c varies with k ; as bac, court bak, kort.7. des-, prefix varies with dis- ; as des-, disavanntage.8. e (= e) varies in Northern texts with ei, ey ; as wel(e) weill,

    weyl ; stele steill. See 1 3, 20.9. ei, ey varies with (i) ai, ay (cf. 3) ; as weie, wey(e) way(e) :

    (ii) hence in Northern texts with a ; as strat-ly streyte : (iii)with e ; see 8.10. er varies with later ar; as fer, hertely far, hartely.11. f vanes with u (= v) : (i) initially (Southern); as fader nader:

    (ii) finally (Northern); as haf(e) haue.12. ght varies with jt, cht (Scottish), ht, st ; as nyght nijt, nycht,

    nyht, seuenist.13. i (vowe'~) varies with y, passim : i, y varies with (i) e ' Northern

    texts ; as hider, liuen, myddel heder, leue, medill : (ii) with e,(South) Western u ; as hil, fyrst hell, uerst hul, furst.

    14. o, oo ( = 9) varies in Northern texts with (i) a ; as hot, hoot hate :(ii) hence also with ai (see 2) : (iii) with oi, oy ; see next.

    15. o, oo (= o) varies in Northern texts with (i) ou, u ; as god, goodgoud, gud(e) : (ii) oi, oy ; as none, noon noyne.

    1 6. (s)sch varies with (s)sh, ss; as schewe shewe, ssewe; fle(s)3chflessh.

    1 7. }> varies with th, passim.1 8. u (in au, eu, ou) varies with w, passim ; see ai.19. u, v (= u) varies with o (esp. before m, n); as sun(ne) sonne;but bot(e); see also n, v (= ii) varies in Western texts with (i) e, eo; as erthe( Western) eor>e, vr}>e : (ii) with i, y, e ; see 13.21. w varies medially with gh, 3 (u) ; as owen, own oghne, ojene,oune : initially (Scottish) with v ; as woundit voundit.22. y (consonant) varies initially with 3; as ye 36 ; medially with i,


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    GLOSSARYA, pron. he, xma 27, 47, 4$;

    they, Xlii a 13, b 22, 36, 39, 61,64, 66. [Unaccented form ofME. ha. See Hare, Ham.]A, v. inf. have, I 127. [Reducedunaccented form of


    Habbe(n).]A(n), adj. one, IV b 34 ; indef. art.

    a(n), i 22, via b 7, &c. SeeAne, On(e).A(n), /?

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    GLOSSARYAcoordandly, adv. accordingly,IV b 33. [From pres. p. of

    Acorde.]Aoord(e), Accord, . agreement,VI 149, XI a 32 ; concurrence,united will, xvn 30 ; madeacorde ofcare and me, associatedme with, caused me to know,

    care, vi n. [OFr. acord(e}.~\Acorde(n), v. trans.'to reconcile, v

    337 t acorde me with, to asso-ciate myself with, v 312 ; intr.agree, xi b 128, xn 145, xuib52. [OFr. acorder.'] 6V

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    GLOSSARYAgaynste, /TV/, against, xvi 280 ;

    to lake a., to gaze on, xvi 92.[Extended from prec.]

    Agast, //. afraid, XIV c 51, XVII184, 297 ; astonished, xvii 449.[a- + OE. gxsted, afflicted.]See Gastli.

    Age, . age, time of life, vi 52,xii introd. ; mature age, 1x22;old age, vii 6, xiv c 106, &c.[OFr. age.]

    Ago,//, gone by, XII a 34. [OE.a-gdn.~\Agrete, adv. collectively, as abody, VI 200. [OE. on + great.]Agreued (for],pp. weighed down(with), v 302 ; annoyed (by),I 88. [OFr. agrever.]A}ayn, adv. again, back, V 53,257, 332 ; Aje, xiil a 8 ; Ajein,Ajeyn, i 230, vin a 44, xii a 28,&c.

    ; A^en, IX 132 ; O;ain, 11141,162. [OE. ongen, ongegnJ]Ajayn, Ajen, Ajein,Aye, O3ain,prep, against, III 58, v 48, ix 19 ;towards (of time), n 497, xii b1 8. [As prec.] See Agayn.

    A:}eines,/7r/. against, contrary to,309, 311, 315; A3enes,17 ; Ajens, i 261, 264,vin b 78 ; A^enus, XI a 29.[Prec. + adv. -es.] See Agaynes.

    Ajenst,//?/. against, 1x92, 315,XI b 43, 46, 97. [Extended fromprec.] See Agaynste.

    A^le}, adj. without fear, v 267.[ON. agi + OE. -leas.'] SeeAwe.A-hungrye, adj. hungry, xvii 499.

    [a- + OE. hungrig.']Ai, Ay, adv. always, ever, iv a I,

    14, vii 1 8, x 6 1, xv a 10, 17, &c.;for ay, for ever, xvn 26. [ON.

    Ay, M. fear, mfor loue or ay, in anyevent, II 571. [OE. ege.}Aye. See Ajayn.Ayenbyte, n. remorse. See inintrod. [OE. ongen + bite.']Ayere, Aire, n. air, i\ b 5, vii107, 1 10. [OFr. air.]

    Aire, . heir, vin b 62. [OFr.

    Ays. See Esc.Aither, Ayjjer, Athir, Ey]>er,

    adj. and pron. both, vn 65 ;either, v 1 1 2 ; ey]>er oj>er, eachother, xni b 57 ; atAir othir in,one in the other, X22. [OE.Sgfer, both; a(w}}er, either.]See Eu]>er.Ayther, Aper, conj. or, vi 131 ;ayther . . or, either . .or, xvii477. [As prec.] .$"

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    GLOSSARY1 66, xn introd. [OE. alnedseg.']Aide. See Olde.

    Alepy, adj. (a) single, 1 159. [OE.Algate, adv. by all means, at any

    rate, I 107,11 231. [C/.ON.0//agotu, all along, always.] SeeGate, *.

    Algatis, adv. continually, xi a 38.[Prec. + adv. -.]Aliens, . //. foreigners, xm61. [OFr. a/w.]Ali}t, Alihte, v. to alight, n 377,xii a 76. [OE. a-hhtan^ SeeLijt, .

    Aliri, adv.\ across one another (oflegs), villa 1 16. [? Related toLyre,*.']

    Alia, v. See EyleJ>.Alyue, adj. living, VI 85. [OE.on life.'}Alkyn, adj. of all kinds, VIII a70. [OE. *a/ra cynna.~\ SeeKyn.

    Alias, inter}, alas! n 107, &c.[OFr.aAw.]

    Alleg(g)e(n), . to cite (in supportof a contention), xi3 56, xvi277 ; to contend, xi b 79. [OFr.esligier, aligier, associated withunrelated L. allegdre.']AUowe, v. approve, receive withapproval, xvi 330 ; Alod, //.XVII 56 (note). [OFr. alouer,from L. allauddreJ]

    Allpough, Althogh, conj. (even)though, ix no, xn b 196, &c.[Al, adv. + J>ogh, q.v.~\Allweldand, adj. almighty, XVII494. [Cf. OE. alwdldende.]Almes(se), n. sg. an act, or works,of charity, charitable gift oroffering, villa 121, 140, XI b2, 163, 270, &c. ; Elmesses//.(OKt. elmessati), in 17. [OE.x/messe.']Almyat. culj. almighty, VI 138.[OE. Kl-miht^

    Almyty, -myghty, adj. almighty,vin b 105, xv *ia. [OE. */-mihtig.~\

    Alofte, adv. in the air, aloft, V 220,

    xn a 94, &c. [ON. Aloft."] SeeLofte.Alod, //. See Allowe.Alone, adj. alone, xvil 489; seeAl, adv.Als, adv. also, as well, v 292, vm0148, x 8, ii, xvu 126, 127.[Reduced form of Also, q.v.~\

    Als, Alss, conj. as (esp. in als .. as,as . . as), like, IV a 2, 63, 84,b 86, vin a 37, &c. ; as forinstance, like, xvi 306, 308,311; as, while, IV b 43, XV a 4 ;ah, so . . that, ix 151 ;als b(i}liue, as quickly (as pos-sible), straightway, II 531, 584.[As prec.] See As.Alsaume, adv. (all) together, 1 98.[Cf. ON. allir saman.] SeeSam(e), adv.

    Also, Alsua (x), adv. also, as well,135, ii 144, x 33, &c.;, II 508 ; also blitie, also spac ,also swij>e, as quickly (as pos-sible), straightway, II 142, 343,574. [OE. at-swa.] See Als,As.

    Al(l)way,-wey, adv. always, (for)ever, continually, xin a 3, b 63,xvi 150, 168, &c ; in any case,certainly, xvi 164. [OE. alneweg.~\ See Algate(s).Am, i sg. pres. ind. am, V 90,&c. ; coalescing with prec. Icham, Ycham (q.v.~). [} See Ar, Art, Js, &c.Amaistrien, v. to master, control,vin a 205. [OFr. amaistrier.']Amaiig, adv. in the meanwhile,XVII 247 ; Emang, at times,from time to time, xvi 262,301. [OE. on-(ge}id>ig.~] SeeAmonge.Ame, v. to guess ; as y kan ame,I guess, 1 45. [OFr. aesmertamerl}Amend(e), v. to make better,reform, set right, vin a 268,IX 338, xi a 48, xvil 256. [OFr.atnender.~\ See Mend(e).Amendement, . improvement,cure, I 238, ii 200, villa 132.[OFr. amendementJ]

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    GLOSSARYAmercy, v. to fine, vm a 40.

    [OFr. amercier.]Amidde, prep, in the middle of,11 355- COE- on-middan.'}Amiddes, adv. in the midst, xila170; prep, (from) among, II 191.[Free. + adv. -es.~]Amys, adv. amiss, vill a 322.[ON. a miss.] See Mysse.Amoner, w. almoner, alms-giver,in 16. [OFr. au-nioner.'}Among(e), prep, among, II 220,via a 89, &c. ; Eraaug, Emong,XVII 112 ; (follows noun) xvn400. [OE. on-(ge}nidng.] SeeAmang, Mong.Amonges, prep, amongst, II 306,vii 37, &c. [Free. + adv. -.]Amorwe, adv. on the next day,II 181, 497. [OE. on morgene.']An, And, Ant, conj. and, I 254,vm a 205, xi a i, xv b 1 i, d 2,e6,g 25, 26,*5,&c.; ante, andthe, xv e 19 ; if, n 43, vi 200,238, VIII a 250, xin a 44, b 39,xiv c 14, 103, xvi 208 (even if),XVII 297, 502. On postpone-ment of and in Gower see noteto xii a 26. [OE. and.]Ancres, n. pi. anchorites, religionsrecluses,viila 139. [OE. ancraJ]Andzuerede. See Ansuere.

    Ane, indef. art. a, x 5, 16, 31, &c. ;representing older inflectedforms, III ii (first), 13, 49 ;adj. one, a single, iv a 58, x 157 ;(predicatively) one, united, iv a56 ; pron. one, iv b i, 43 ; acertain person, iv a 69, X 169.See A(n), On(e).Ane, prep, on ; ane his IhorJeshaf, on his master's behalf, IIIn. [From OE. on, an, on anal,of in, inne.]Anely, adv. only, iv b Si. [, adj.] See Onely.Anewe, adv. once more, xv a 2 2.[a- + OE. neowe.~]

    Angelis. See Aungel.Anger, n. grief, v 276. [ON.angr, grief.]Angr6, adj. angry, XVII 187.[From prec.]

    Angwys, n. grief, IV b 28. [OFr.anguisse.~\Ani, Any, adj. any, I 2, 18, n 528,&c. [OE. xnig.'] See Eny,Ony.Animal, n. animal, II 364. [OFr.animal. ~]Anodir. See Ano}>ire.Anoynt, v. to smear, XVII 127.[Formed on OFr. enoint pp. ofenoiniire.~\

    Anon(e),rt. at once, straightway,next, n 385, 499, VI 224, xvn490, 526, &c. ; Onone, vii 149,xvil 275. [OE on an.']Anothire, Anoper, adj. zn&prott.another, iv^ 3, 34, ix 37, &c. ;Anopur, xiver. ]Anrm j, See Yno3.

    *Anowrned, //. adorned, II 363(MS. anowed). [OFr. aourner? a- to an- on anal, of E. alterna-tion a-, an-.]

    Ansuer(e), Answere, v. toanswer, in 5, 25, ix 178, xni76 ; Andzuerede, pa. t. in 33.[OE. an(if)swerian.~\Answar, n. answer, vi 1 58. [}swaru,~]Apt. See An, conj.

    Antifeners, n pi. antiphonaries,xi b 229 (note). [OFr. anti-phonier^Apayed, //. pleased, satisfied,villa 102, 189. \Qi.apaier.\See Paie.

    Apassed,//. zsprep. past, vi 180.[OFr. apasser.]Ap(p)ere, Appiere, v. to appear,vi 45, xn a 132, xvi 368, xvn173. [OFr. aper-; apareir.~]

    Ap(pjeyre, v. to do harm to,injure, impair, villa 126, 164,212, XIII b 14; Apeyryng, .impairing, xin b 15. [OFr. em-peirer.] See Empeyre.

    Apert, adj. plain, v 324 ; adv.openly, plainly, I 200, vi 229 ;for all to see, n 586. [OFr.apert.]Apon. See Vpon.

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    GLOSSARYAposede, pa. t. put a (hard)

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    GLOSSARYinquire, I 132, IX 176. [OE.axian.\ See Axe(n).Aspien, Asspye, v. to detect,observe, vili a 123, 217, XI a60 ; Aspide,/a. t. Ill 42. [OFr.espier."\ See Spie.

    Assai, Assay, . test, trial; atassai, when put to the test,xiv e 5 ; set in, till, hard(e)assay, place in sore straits, x 62,170, 1 88. [OFr. essai, assai.]

    Assaie, Assay(e), Asay, v. totest, prove, make trial, II 452,568, v 294, ix 61, loa, 121, xiv c66, xvn 219, 249, 433; to en-deavour, vin a 24, xu b 81.[OFr. essayer.] See Saye.

    Assaylle, As(s)ale, Assa(i)l;}e(X),z>. to assail, attack, IX 88,x 4,12,43,114, 132, 144, xvil 295,&c. ; Assaling, w. assault, x 41,60. [OFr. as(s)ail/ir.]Asse, . ass, xv/5, &c. [OE.assa.]Assemblid (to), pa. t. assembled(at), VII 85. [OFr. assembler.']Assembly, . joining of battle,VII 57. [OFr. assemble.]Assende, v. to ascend, xvi 32.[OFr. ascendre.~\Assent, pp. sent for, xn 208.See Of-sende.

    As(s)ente, . agreement ; com-pliance, vi 31 ; of pare assente,of like mind with them, xvi 310.[OFr. asente.]

    Assent(e), v. to agree, vni a 39,57 ; //. xvi 170. [OFr.asentir.~\

    Assoylled, pp. absolved, IX 286.[OFr. assoillir.~] _Asspye. See Aspien.

    As(s)tate, . estate, (high) rank,VI 33> 'SQj VI1 3I [] See State.Astrangled, //. choked, II 396.[OFr. estranglerC\Asunder, -yr, adv. apart, I 224 ;pleon. with/arfc, i 103. [OE.on-sundran.~\ See Soncler.

    Aswon(o), adj. in a swoon, 119$(note), H 549. \QR.geswogen. ,See Falle(n) ; Swone.

    At, prep, at, 113, 74, &c. ; in,VII 66, vin a 63; ix 253; atwordes, in words, n 139 ; (oftime) v 23, 100, ix 284, XI a12; to, v 108, vn 13; withinnn. (at do\ see Do ; accordingto, I 82, ii 271, xiv b 56, xvi258, xvn 4, 322 ; at the valueof, vin a 162, b 101, xvn 364;at the hands of, from, I 239, 240,345, II 179, III 4, 31 (see Atte).At on, at one, In accord, vi 18 ;at pefull, completely XI b 198 ;hatie at pe, see Habbe(n). [OE.set.] See Atte ; fare.

    At, rel. particle; pat at, thatwhich, what, vi 176 (note);quhar at, see Whar. [ON. at ;pat at is possibly for pat tat (cf.Atte, J>ou, &c.).]Ate. See Atte.

    Atempree, adj. temperate, ix 29.[OFr. atemprt.}

    Aper, Athir. See Aither, Ayther.At-hold, v. to restrain, II 88.[OE. set- + hdldan.]

    Atire, n. apparel, n 299. [Fromnext.]

    Atire, v. ; Atird, pp. equipped,II 158. [OFr. atir(i}er.~\ SeeTired.

    Atled, pa. t. intended, V 195.[ON. At/a."]Ato, adv. in two, apart, II 135,IX 140; Atwo, vin a 97.

    [OE. on twd.] See A(n) prep. ;Tuo.Atour, n. apparatus, equipment,XI 25. [OFr. atour(n}.~]Atourned, //. equipped, II 291.

    [OFr. atourner.]Atrete, adv. straight out, plainly,xiv c 78. [OFr. a trait.']Atslyke, v. to slip away ; atsly-

    ke), is spent, vi 215. [OE. at-+ sltcan.]Atte, Ate, at the, II 232, 379,in 4, villa 96, 6 29; of the,in 31 ; in fixed expressions

    where Mn. E. has ' at ', as :atte chirche, villa 50; at(t)tfirste, last^e), mete, set Furste,Laste, Mete; atte nale = atte

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    GLOSSARY(OE. Ki pani) ale, over the ale,vin a 109. See At.Atteynte, v. to convict, proveguilty, XVI 278. [From ateint,convicted, pp. of OFr. ateindre.See next.]Atteny, v. to reach, yi 188.[OFr. ateign-, stem of ateindre.']Atwynne, adv. in two, I 189, 191.[OE. on + twinn.~\Atwo, Avay. See Ato, Awai.

    Avayll, Avale, v. to be of use to,xvil 154; */ avails you, (it) isyour best course, xvn 296.[a- + OFr. vail-, valeir.~]Avale, Availl (x), v. intr. todescend, IX 195 ; trans, to letdown, X 28. [OFr. avaler.]Avauntage, . advantage, XIII b35, 36. [OFr. avantage.~\

    Auctorite", n. authority, XI b 61.[OFr. au(c)torite.~\Auctour, n. original authority,author, IX 304 ; Autours, //.XI a 23. [OFr. autoztr, and(from 14th c.) auctoiir, &c.]Audience, . formal hearing,audience, XII b 209. [OFr.audience.^Aue Maria, an Ave, Hail Mary,IX 3 2 3- [First two words ofLatin prayer.]

    Auentur(e), Auentour, n.chance, (notable) occurrence,feat, H 15, 18, 32, &c. ; risk,x 118; an attenture, (as conj!)in case, vin a 43 ; at anentur,s chance directed, recklessly,xiv c 34. [OFr. aventure7\ SeeAunter.

    Aueril, . April, XV c I. [OFr.avril.~\

    Aujt. See Owe, v.Avys, . deliberation, IX 295, 297.[OFr. avis.']

    Avised,/^. ; wel avised, judicious,xii b 217. [OFr. aviser.~\Aungel(l), n. angel, iva 46, XI

    23> XVI 339, 389 ; Angel, XI b152, &c. [OFr. ()

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    GLOSSARYBarres, . //. bars, xvi 190.

    [OFr. barre ]Barste. See Brest(e).Bastardes, n. pi. bastards; asadj., VIII 3 75. [OFr. bastard.'}Baston, n. stave, stanza, Intro-duction xv. [OFr. baston.]Batail(e), Bataill, Batayl,

    Batel(l), . embattled host,XIV b 52; battle, VII 56, 91,*xi 154, xiv b 31, xvi 131,&c. [OFr. bataille.']Bataild, adj. embattled, withbattlements, II 360. [Modelledon OFr. bataille:.']Bath. See BoJ*.Batis, . //. boats x 123. [OE.

    Mr.]Bape, v. to bathe (trans, andintr.), 11585, xiil a 25. [OE.bapian.']Baundoun, . control ; / hirebanndotm, at her disposal, xv c8. [OFr. bandnn.'}Be, *w*/'. by the time (that), X 157.Cf. bi)at. See next.Be, Beo (xiv c 44), prep, by (wayof), IX 179, 192, 198 ; through,IX 112, 136, 137; (of time)by, at, in, VI 163, IX 204, 339,xil a 117, 131, xv i 15, 20;by (means of), through, in 22,vu 23, ix 67, 130, xn a 23,b 199, xvi 355, &c. ; by (ofagent}, in 30, ix 112 (first), 298,305, XII b 217, &c. ; by (inoaths, &c.), XII 45, 164.Counted. . beo, set value on, xivc 44 ; for idiomatic expressionssee the nouns. [OE. fe.] SeeEL

    Be-. See also Bi-, By-.Becam, Becomen. See Bicome.Beclipte, fa. t. embraced, XIIa 178 ; Byclypped, //. en-

    circled, XIII a 21. [OE. be--Bede, v. to bid, offer, v 254, XIV a9 ; Bede, pa. t. sg. (bade), v 22 ;offered, 180, 284. [OE. beodan,early confused with biddan.~]See Bidde, Forbede.

    Bed(e). See Bidde.Bedd(e), Bede (iv), . bed, II

    93, 242, xn a 99, &c. ; dot. to bedde, to bed, vm a 93,XII b 105 ; J>e bedeo/blysse,1\hejoyful bridal bed (of Christ andthe soul), iv a 1 1. [OE. bedd.~]See Abedde.

    Bedes, . //. prayers, 1 16. [\Bedeyn. See Bidene.

    Bedele, . herald, one who deliversthe message of an authority, XI b48. [OE. bydel; OFr. bedel.']

    Bedreden, . //. the bedridden,Vina 185, b 21. [OE. bedd-reda.~]Bee, Bees. See Ben.

    Beest. See Best(e), .Befalle, v. to happen, chance,ix 129, &c. ; to befall, xvn

    514; pa. t. sg. Befell(e), vu67, 155 ; Bevil, Bifel, itchanced, II 57, III 41 ; Be-falle^), //. II 21, IX 194.[OE. be-fallan.'] See Falle(n).Begge, to beg, villa 186, 233,b 29, &c. [1 OE. bedecian ; seeNE.D.']

    Begger(e), . beggar, n 483, 499,vm a 188, 197, &c. [SeeN.E.D.-}Begyn(ne), Bigin(ce), By-gyn(ne), &c., v. to begin, act,do, come about, I 69, iv^57,vi 187, vina 160, xiv// 25,^83, xvi 268, 280, xvn 267,&c. ; begyn of, b. with, xvn253 ; Be-, Bi-, Bygan, pa. began, I 154, &c. ; did, xva 77 came to pass, II 598 ;made (it) in the beginning,XVII 29 ; Bygan,/a. /.//. I 72 ;Bygonne, vi 189; Begouth,X94; Begonne, //. ix 171;Be-, Bygynnyng^e), . ivb 58, IX 334, xin 69. [OE be-giimon ; begouth is due to con-fusion of gait with can (coupe) ;See Gan ; Can, anxil.~\Begynnar, Bygynner, . begin-ner, causer, vi 76, XVII 406.[From prec.] iBegon, //. adorned, xiia 54.[OE. be-gan.-]

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    GLOSSARYBegonne.Begouth. ^Begynne.Be}onde, adv. beyond, further on,IX 263, 280. [OE. be-geondanl}Be^onde, Be^ounde (l), Bi-}onde (v),//. across, beyond,

    i 252, v 132, ix 8, 76, 135, &c. ;see See. [As prec.]Behald(e). See Bihold.Behalue, . behalf ; on Goddes b.,

    in God's name, I 78. [Originallybe prep, and halfe dat. sg. ; cf.Half.]

    Beheste, . promise, XII b 196.[OE. (late) Mte] See Heste.Behete. See Bihote.Behevin,//. hewn down, x 163.[OE. be-heawan.~\Behielde, -helde. See Bihold.Behihtest. See Bihote.Behynd, prep, behind, x 85 ; as

    sb., xvii 331. [OE. be-klndan.~]Behufit. See Bihoue.Beie. See Bigge, v.Beyn, Beyng. See Be(n).Beytter, n. healer, xvn 311.[From Bete, . 2]Belamy, Bellamy, . good friend

    (ironically), xvi 213, 338. [OFr.bel ami.]Beleeve, n. belief, ix 289. [, with change of prefix.]Beleue, Bileue, v. to believe,I 89, vina 82, ix 120, xv g 9.[OE. g

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    GLOSSARYOn earth, V 47, 80, VI I 91 ; onpis dent, here, v 270. [Perhapsa special use of bent, bent-grass,OE. beonet.'}Beo, Beop. See Ben ; Beo, prep.

    Berd(e), n. beard, n 265, 507,585, v 160. [OE. biard^

    Ber(e), v, to bear, carry, wear, lift,take; to hold, possess, keep ; togive birth to, produce ; v 83,Viii a 136, 1x69, 109, xn a 197,XIII a 51, xvn 318, &c. ; 2 sg.subf. vi 106 ; Berth, 3 sg.pres.ind. XII a 81 ; Bar(e),/0. t. sg. II46,vm a 93, xiv c 23, 59, xv i3; Ber, v 193, vi 66; Baren,pi. ix 148 ; Bere, n 307 ; Bore,//. I 85, ii 210 ; Born(e), n 41,v 252, 326, xiv b 12, &c.;Ybore, Ii 546 ; Yborn, Ii 174.Bar pe flour, see Flour ; b. pefelajschip, keep thee company,v 83 ; the depnes ...we here, thedepth (of water) we draw, XVII434, 460 ; born open, laid open,v 2 (cf. OE. beran up). [OE.heron.] See Forbere.Bere, n.1 clamour, outcry, I 75,II 78, XVI 214. [OE. ge-b&re'.]

    Bere, .2 byre, cattle-stall, xv/4.[OE. byre.]Bere-bag, . bag-carrier, a con-temptuous nickname for Scots,Xiv a 20 (note). [Stem of Bere v.+ ON. baggi.~\ See Bagge.

    Ber3(e), . mound, v 104, no.[OE. be(o}rg.-]

    Ber}e, v. to protect, III inlrod.[OE. be(p)rgan.~\Berien, n. pi. berries, n 258 (note).[OE. beri(g)e.-\Beringe, n. birth, in introd.[From Bere, z>.]Berking, pres. p. barking, II 286.[OE. be(o}rcan.']Bernakes, n. pi. barnacle-geeseIX 147 (note). [Anglo-L. ber-tiaca, OFr. bernaqueJ]Bernes, n. pi. barns, villa 177.[OE. ber(e]n.1Berth. See Bere, v.

    Besele*, adv. earnestly, xvn 240.[OE. bisig + -lice.'} See Bysy.

    Besy(nes). See Bysy(nes).Besyde. See Bisyde.Beso(u)ghte. See Biseche.Best.e), adj. superl. best, \\ a 84,vill a 197, ix 42, &c. ; as sb.,

    best (food), vin a 295 ; do pi(doj> jour} best, see Don ; toythpe beste, among the best (people),with the saints, IV a 4 ; adv. best,most readily, most, VIII a 81,107, xvn 472, &c. ; pe best,vin 022. [OE. deist.']

    Best, v. See Ben.Best(e), . animal, creature, n214, 280, vin a 134, ix 88,XII a 78, &c. ; Beest, xvn 3,1 35, &c. [OFr. beste.}Beswyke, Byswyke, v . to cheat,iv a 1 3, vi 208. [*tt

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    GLOSSARYin this passage ; perhaps an errorfor becweihe (bequeath, commit),or beteche (see Bitaiste).

    Betwen(e), Bytuene (xv),Bytwene/r/. between, among,IX 162, 166, xn a 68, b 89, xv ci, &c. ; (follows case), v 174,vil 91. [OE. betweon(an).~\Betwix, Bitwixe, 'prep, between,xi a 32,xvn 185. [Q\\

    Be]), Beth. See Ben.Bevil. See Befalle. .Beuore. See Bifor.Beweile, v. refi. to lament, xil a

    32. \be~ + ON. *veila; ci.veilan,lamentation.]Bewycche, v. to bewitch, IX 86.[OE. be + wiccian.'}Bewounde,//. ; it hath b., wound(itself) about it, xil b 72. [OE.

    Bewty, . beauty, XVII 20. [OFr.beaute.~\By, adv. at the side, by ; alongside(without coming on board), xvil373 ; /a/ ... by, by which, ix300. [OE. bi.~] See J*r(e).

    Bi, By,//. (i) On, at, by, II 156,470, vin a 167, xv^ 16, xvn75, &c. ; bi... side, beside, n 66,v 76 ; by (way of), over, through,i 62, v 10, 16, 52, 93, x u,XVII 477 ; along (with), beside,II 280, 308, V 9, vin a 4, &c. ;(following its case) n 301, V 21,xvil 18; against, touching, v242 ; past, II 252, 290, v 36, 39.(ii) In, on, for (of time), II 8,15, vin a 95. 274, xv a 24, &c. ;see Dai, While, (iii) Measuredby, compared with, accordingto, &c., v 28, 158, 296, 297,vma 35, 58, 159, 248, 57,xi b 5, &c. (iv) By (means of),through, &c., II 408, VII 6, &c. ;by virtue of, XI b 20 ; lyue by,&c., live on, n 257, vm a 284,b 26 ; by (of agent), XI a 59, &c.(v) By (in oaths, &c.), II 316,V 54, &c. Bi alping, by everytoken, n 321, 375; by so, pro-vided that, VIII b 40 ; bi pan,thereby, or thereupon (cf after

    Pan), n 553; bipat, thereupon,v 84 ; by that time, VIII a 285 ;as con/'., by the time that, villa294. [OE.*?.] See Be.By. See Bigge.

    Bi-, By-. See Be-.Bible, n. bible, vma 227, xi b

    230, &c. [OFr. bible.}Bycause (of), prep, because (of),XIII b 16 ; bycausc, because pat,(conj.) because, xm b 61, 62,1x114,226. [Be, Bi + Cause,?..]Biche, n. bitch, xiv b 78. [OE.bicce.]Byclypped. See Beclipte.Bicome, Become, v. to arrive;become; befit ; hyt bycomep for,it befits, vin b 65 ; Becam,/a.t. sg. xil b 13 ; Becomen, pi.IX 148; Bicome, n 288; Bi-come,//. n 194 ; wherschewasbicome, ivhider pai bicome, u'herhe becam, what had become (be-came) of her (them, him), n 194,288, xn b 13. [OE. be-cuman.\Bidde, Bydde, Bid, v. to pray,beg, VIII a 233 ; to bid, I 265,vi 160, vma 210, xi 3 79, xn a48, xiv a" 3, xvi 118, xvn 418,&c. ; Bad(de), pa. t. sg. bade,xn a 46, xv i 16, xvi 201, xvn309, &c. ; bad to, bade, XII b 87;Bed, prayed to, III 46 (OKt.bed) ; Bad,//, n 88, 137; Bede,pp xn a 42 (prayed), 101 (com-manded). [OE. biildan ; theconfusion with btodan began inOE.] A*Bede.Bidderes, n. pi. beggars, mendi-cants, VIII a 197. [OE. bid-dere.~]Byd(d)yng, Bidding, n. bidding,commands, I 86, xvi 257, xvn76, 121, 375. [From Bidde.]Bide, Byde, v. to abide (intr.remain, trans, await, face, en-dure), V 2 24, vi 39, xiv c 21,47,xvi 23, 207, &c. [OE. bldan.~]See Abide.

    Bidene, Bydene, Bedeyn (xvn),adv. forthwith, withal (oftenmeaningless), vil 79, 127, xiv*

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    GLOSSARY74, XVH 442 ; al bident,ii. [See N.E.D.}Bye, Byete. See Bigge, Bete, v.1Bifel. See Befalle.

    Bifor(e), Byforn, Befor(e), Be-uore, &c., adv. before (hand),II 147, VII 121, &c ; eir befor,X 140; as s6., XVII 331 ; prep.before, in presence of, &c., II 42,in 58, v 4, ix 126, &c. ; (oftime) VI 238, XI b 48, &c. ;bifore pat, before (conj.), xi b195 ; Byfore, conj. (with snbj.),before, vi 1 70. [OE. be-foran.]Big, Bigge, v. to take up one'sabode ; to big his boure, toestablish his dwelling, xiv 26;bigges him . settles himself, XIV b24. \QN.byggja.~] S*fBiging.Bigsn, Began, Sec. See Begynne.Bigge, Bygge, adj. strong, lusty,big, iv a 51, v 33, vi 14, vn139, vm a 207. [See N.E.D.'}Bigge, v. to buy, purchase, payfor, redeem, villa 275; Beie,XII b 24; By(e), iv a 65, IX"3; Byye, vi 118; Bugge,XV 3 ; pa. t. Boght, iv 38 ;Bou^te, vm a 201 ; Bouhte,vmZ> 100 ; Boght,//. iva 80,XII* 153, XVII 373; Bought(e),XVI 8, 275 ; Iboust, xv,f 26 (seeApp. p. 278) ; it bees boght fulldere, you will pay for it dearly,XVII 373- [ E bycgan, (Kt.)becgan.~\ See Abugge.Byggynge, n. buying, IX 90.[From prec.] See Bying.

    Bigile, Bygyle, v. to deceive,v 345, 348, 359, xiv b 44. [ + OFr.

    gutter..]See Gile.

    Biging, n. dwelling, XIV a 20.[From Big, .]Bygonne, &c. See Begynne.Bigruccheth, 3 sg.pres. grumblesat, vm a 69. [OE. be- + OFr.groucher.~\ See Grucche.

    Byje, .ring, VI 106. [OE. beg.~\Bihold, Behald(e), v. to behold,look, ii 387, 502, iv a 81, xvn509, 534, &c. ; bihold on, beholdto, look at, n 367, xvii 343;Beholdes,, XVI 195 ;

    Behelde, pa. t. sg. VII 64;Biheld, II 101, 320, 323, 530;Behielde, //. xna 164; Bi-hold, -holde(n\//. ii 409,417,xn b 116. [OE. be-hdldan.]See Holde(n).Bihote, Byhote, v. to promise,vow, villa 227 ; byhote God, Ivow to God, vm a 273; Be-hihtest, 2 sg. pa. t. XII b 43 ;Behete, //. xvn 430; Bihot,XV a 20. [OE. be-hdtan.'} SeeHote.

    Bihoue, v. to need ; impers. inme bihoues, I must, it is time forme to, v 228; pers. in Bus,2 sg. pres. ; J>ou bus be, youought to be, xvi 338 ; Behufit,pa. t. had need (to), X 156.[OE. be-hofian ; with the reducedform bus cf. has, hast, &c.]Byye. See Bigge.

    Bying, . redemption, XVI 12.[From By, to buy. See Bigge,[OFr.iis, n. fine linen, II 242.

    bysse.']Biknowe, Byknowe, z>. to confess,V 317 (Ib.yow, I confess to you),vm b 96 ; Beknowen, //. inPOU art b. of, you have confessed ,V 323. [OE. be-cndwan, onlyrecorded in sense ' know '.]

    Bile, Bill (xvn), . beak, xila182, xvn 508. [OE. bile.}Byled, pa. t. boiled, bubbled,v 14 ; Boyled, //. v 106.[OFr. boillir\ for similar de-velopment of vowel in v, seeNye, Disstryej.]

    Bylyue, . food, vm b 21, 29.[OE. bl-leofa.']Bylongeth, v. impers. it belongsto, befits, vm b 70. [Be- +Longe, .2 ]Bilow, v. to humble, villa 223.[Formed on Lowe adj.']

    Bilt, n. dwelling, *ll 483 (MS.ybilt, but required sense ' lodged'is unexampled). [Obscurely ME. bilden, build; seeN.E.D^Binam, pa. t. sg in b. \hym~\ his

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    GLOSSARYtnnam, deprived him of histalent, vin a 237 ; Benome, b.Jiepoure ane petty, deprivedthe poor of a penny, in 13.[OE. be-niman.~\ See Nyme.Bynde, v. to bind, unite, iva 54,XVI 97 ; Bond, pa. t. sg. xn b1 20 (but sb. = trosse is possible ;see Bonde, .); Ybounde, //.II 394. [OE. b'mdan.'] SeeVnbynde.

    Biqueste, n. (bequest), will, villa79. [OE. *be-cwiss, related tobe-cweban, bequeath; cf. Heste.]Bir, Byr, Bur (v), n. a followingwind, vii 126; speed (in witha byr, speedily) xvn 371 ; vio-lence, v 254; strength, v 193.[ON. byr-r.}Byrd. See Bricl(d).Bireue, v. to deprive; I wil ithym b., I will deprive him ofit, vin a 242. [OE. be-reafian,be-refan.-}Byrye, v. to bury, 1 137, 140, 142,144. [OE. byrigan.}Byrne, Burne, v. trans, and burn, x 2 1 (rime with in re-quires Bryn, q. v.}, x 181, &c. ;Byrnand, pres.p. IV a 26, x 27,30. [OE. dirnan, byrnan, &c.,intr.] See Bren, Brin.Byrthen, . burden, IV a 49.[OE. tyrjett.]Biseche, Bysech, Beseche, v. toimplore, n 113, 453, vi 30, ix269, 328, Ml a 38 ; Besoghta,pa. t. xii 026; Besoughte, ix i294. [OE. be + secan.'] .SteSeche. I

    Biseme}, v. impers. it suits, v 1 23. |[Be- + .Seme, q.v.'}Bisyde, Besyde, adv. at the side,at one's side, hard by, I 209, v 20,162, XII b 125. [OE. be sldan,at the side.]

    Biside(n), Be-, Bysyde,/>r/>. be-side, XI b 57 ; (following its case)I 243, n 303, v 197, xiv b 28,&c. See prec.

    Bisides, Bisydej, adv. at theside(s), round about, II 401,V 96. [Prec. + adv. -.]

    Bisides, Bysydes, prep, beside,

    near, xin a 10 ; (followingpron.) II 281. [As prec.]

    Bysy(e), Bysie, Besy (aboute),adj. busy, occupied (with, in),XI b 252, 287, 289, 293, 297.[OE. bisig.~]

    Bysynes(se), Besynes (iv), n.restlessness, IV b 28 ; industry,XIH b 24 ; worldly b. attentionto worldly affairs, XI b 2, 309 ;b. of worldly occupation, pre-occupation- with w. affairs, XI b251. [OE. bisig+-nes.~\Bis(s)chop, Bysshop(p)e , Bis-soppe, . bishop, i 246, in 58(dat. sg.~), VIII a 143, b 74, xi66, &c. [OE. biscop.}Byswykej. See Beswyke.Biswynke, v. to earn with toil,VIII a 207. [OE. be-swincan.~]Bitaiste (= bitaihte), pa. t. en-trusted, xv g 2 1 . [OE. bctxcan,pa. t. bet&hte\ on spelling seeApp. p. 278.]Byte, v. to bite, xvn 229 ; aponthe bone shal it byte, it shall cutto the bone, xvn 220. [OE.bitan.'}

    Bitide, Bytyde, &cc.,v. tohappen ;to happen to, befall, vi 37 ;pres. subj. v 1 27, 315, 341, xiv13 ; Betidde,//. xvi 100 ; tidewat bitide, come what may, II339. [OE. fe + ///.] SeeTide.

    Bityme, adv. in all bilyme, infood time, XIV b 27. [Fromi tyine, in time; cf. OE. totiman."\ See Tyme.

    Bitte, Bytte, n. cutting edge,V 242 ; blade V 156. [ON. bit,cutting edge ; OE. bite, a cut.]

    Bittir, Bytter, adj. bitter, IV*37 ; salt (of water), IX 244 ;grievous, xivc 68, xvi 207, &c.[OE. bitter.']Bytuene. See Betwene.

    Bytwyste, prep, between (follow-ing its noun), vi 104. [A formof ME. be-twixt(e], extendedfrom Betwix, q.v.~\Biwyled, //. deluded, V 357.[! OE. be + wiglian ; cf. be-

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    GLOSSARYwijeiicn, Layamon 969.] SeeWiles.

    Blabre, v. to babble, XI b 248.[Echoic ; cf. Babelynge, Blubre.]Blac, Blak, adj. black, II 265,IX 23, XII a 99 ; rowe and bloc,with shaggy black hair, II 459 ;Blake, oblique and //. IX 4,XII a 137, xv c 14. [OE. blsecj\Blame, . blame; scolding, xvil399 ; v. to blame, V 300, ix374 (mistranslation ; see note),&c. ; to blame, in the wrong,XIV b 85. [OFr. bla(s}me;bla(s)mer.~]Blan. See Blynne.Blasphemye (to), n. blasphemy(against), XI b 1 1 o. [OFr. bias-femie.}Blawene. See Blowe.

    Ble, Bleo (xv), n. hue, com-plexion, in brijt on ble, fair offace, II 455 ; radiance, xv b 16.[OE. bleo.~]Blede, v. to bleed, xiv c 13 ;Bled(de), pa. t. \ 119, II 80.[OE. bledan.]Blefte. See Bleue.

    Blende,/^. /. mingled, in blende inhis face, rose to his cheeks,v 303 ; Blent,//, in blent . ..inblyssc, set amidst joy, VI 25.[ME. blenden obscurely relatedto OE. bldndan, or ON. blanda.~]See Vnblendyde.Blended, //. deluded, V 351.[OE. bltndan.] See Blyndi)>.Blenk, v. to gleam, v 247. [OE.*blencan, possibly identical withrecorded blencan, to cheat ; forME. blenchen, blenken, &c. = togleam, look at, glance aside,blench, cheat. Compare Glent,Glyfte.]

    Blent, Bleo. See Blende, Ble.Blepeliche, adv. gladly, III 53.

    [? Obscure alteration of OE.blipeiice.']Bleue, v. to remain ; pres. subj.Ill introd. ; Blefte, pa. t. Ill 18.[OE. belxfan.'] See Leue, v.1

    Bleuj, Blew. See Blowe.Blew, . blue (stuff), xvn 200

    (note); cled in Sta/ord biew,beaten black and blue; cf. clot'hehere wellyn Stafford bleiae, Rel.Ant, I, p. 39. [OFr. bleu.']See Blwe.

    Blynde, adj. pi. blind, deluded,XI* 79 ; as sb., the blind, villa115,185. [OE.Mw?.]

    Blyndip, 3 sg. pres. (blinds),deludes, xi b 7, 107. [OE.bltndan infl. by blind, adj.]See Blended.

    Blyndnesse, n. blindness, xi b221. [OE. blindnes.']Blyn(ne) (of}, v. to cease (from),iv a 39, v 354, xvi 16, 336,XVII 1 10 (or I blyn = withoutstopping) ; Blan, pa. t. pi. I 73.

    Blis(se), Blys(se), . happiness,joy, iv a II, 40, VI 12, xiv b19, XV b 3, &c. ; ashaue Iblys,so may I have (eternal) joy,XVII 402. [OE. bliss.~\

    Bliss(e), Blesse, v. to bless, Iintrod., VI 76, XVI 400, 404,XVII 174, 256, 300, 467; blesswith sign of the cross, V 3,XII b 86 j Blist, //. XVII 514.[OE. blstsian, already infl. byblitsian, blissian, to gladden.]

    Blisseful, Blysful, adj. joyous,II 41 2, 438, vi 49; as ^..blissfulone, VI 61 ; *Blissefulest(MS.blifulest), superl. n 527. [OEbliss +//.]

    Blissing, -yng, n. blessing, xvi401, xvii 178. [OE. towing."]See Blis(se).

    Blipe, Blype, Blith (xiv b\ adj.haPPy glad v 253> XIV b 49 Jblipe of, glad at, II 573 ; patowbe blipe o/hir, that you may havejoy of her, II 471. [OE. bllfe.]

    Blypely, happily, VI 25. [OE.blipelice.'] See BleJ>eliche.Bliue, Blyue. See Belyne.Bio, adj. black and blue, XVII413. [ON. bld-r.]

    Blod(e), Bloode, n. blood, I 1 19,V 246, IX 141, XV g 16, XVI12, &c. ; creature, xn 220;byndes blade andbam, keeps the

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    GLOSSARYbody together, iv a 54. [OE.

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    GLOSSARY104, 132, 149, Xiv b 20. [ON.

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    GLOSSARY[From ME. braggen, of unknownorigin.]Braid. See Erode.

    Braide, Brayd, Brade, n. asudden movement ; in a brade,in a trice, XVII 21 ; bittirbraide,grievous onslaught, xiv c 68,xvi 207. [OE. bragd}Brayde, v. to move quickly ;draw, v 251; Brayde, pa. t.threw, v 309 ; Brayde, //.in brayJe dcnvn, lowered, v i.[OE. bregdan.}Brayn, n. brain, xv h 6 ( ; see Hert). [OE. brxgn}Brak. See Breke(n).Brandis, . //. pieces of burntwood, X 113. [OE. brdnd.}Bras, . brass, xvi 196. [OE.dr&s.']Brast. See Brest (e).Braunche, Branch, ;/. branch, I121, v 109, xvn 511. [OFr.branche.~\Bre, n. foaming sea, VII 152.[App. a curious allit. use ofOE. briiv, *breo, broth.]

    Bred(e), . bread, vm 18, 129,131, 207, 298; as euer etc Ibrede = so may I live, on my life,XVI1 395 hors bred, houndesbred, bread of beans, bran, &c.,for the food of horses and dogs,VIII a 208. [OE. bread.}Bred-corne, n. grain for bread,Vina 64. [Prec.+OE. corn}Brede, Breed, n. breadth, XVI I126; of breed, in breadth, xvn259. [OE. brxdu}Brede, z>. intr. (to expand), grow,VI 55. [OE. bradan.}Bredes, planks, v 3. [OE.bred.}

    Breff, adj. brief, meagre, VII 74.Breke(n), v. to break, violate,villa 31, 1x46, xi b 187, xvi

    257, xvn 387, &c. ; intr. II338, ix 118 ; Brak, pa. t. sg.X 106; Broke, pa. v 14 ;Broke, pp. injured, vili b 34(set Broke-legged, villa 130);Brokynne, broken, xvi 195.[OE. brecan.}

    Brekynge, n. breaking ; smate b.,breaking a long note into anumber ofshort ones, fine trilling,XI b 138. [OE. brccung.}Brem(e), adj. fierce, violent, v132, VII 139, 152, &c. ; threat-ening, wild, V 77; passionate,vii 104; glorious, II 61 ; adv.gloriously, xv b 27. [OE.bretne, adj. and adv.]

    Brem(e)ly, adv. fiercely, violently,v 251, vn 106; exceedingly,V 165. [From prec.]Bren, Bran, n, bran, Villa 175,278. [OFr. bren.}Bren, v. to burn ; Brent, //. vii152, 159; Brennynge, pres.p.fervent, xi b 67 ; Brennynge,n. burning, IX 10. [ON.brenna.} See Byrne, Brin.Brent, adj. steep, V 97. [Cf. OE.brant}Bren-waterys, . //. xv h 22,' water-burners', >'. e. blacksmiths(from the hiss of the hot ironwhen plunged in water). Com-pare burn-the-ivind, a nicknamefor blacksmiths. [Bren, v. +Waiter.]Brere, n. briar, n 276. [OE.brier, brer.}

    Brest, n. breast, v 303. [OE.breast.}

    Breat(e), Brast (xvn), v. trans.and burst, iva 81, xv h6, xvn 264; Barste,/a. /. sg.vili a 171 ; Brosten, //. xvi196. [OE. berslan ; ON. bresia.}

    Bretfull, adj. full to the brim,VII 164. [OE., ME. brerd-Jull, prob. with substitution ofON. cognate form *bredd- ; cf.Swed. brdddfull}

    Brether(en). See Broker.Breue, v. to set down in writing ;Breuyt, pa. t. sg. vn 65 ; //.vii 14. [Med. L. breviare, OE.brefan}

    Brid(d), Byrd (xvn), n. youngbird, xn a 196 ; (small) bird,I 1 3O5> vii 104, xn a 169, 172,xvii 514, &c. [OE.Mt/d, youngbird (late Nth. pi. birdas}.}

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    GLOSSARYBrydel, n. bridle, v 84. [OE.

    bridel.~\Brygge, . (draw)bridge, V i.[OE. brycg.~\ See Draw-brig.

    Bryght(e), Brijt, Bry3t, Briht(xn), Bryht (xv), &c., adj.and adv. bright, II 152, 269,455. iv a 72, 66, v 158, xn130, xv 26, xvn 9, &c. [OE.berht, byrht.}Brightnes, n. splendour, XVII 15,20. [OE. berht-nes.]

    Brimme, Brymme, . water'sedge, V 104; brink, xil 32.[OE. brymme.']Brin, Bryn, v. trans, to burn,X 21 (implied by rime) ;Brynt, Briflt, pa. t. x 113;//. x 32, 165. [ON. brinna.]See Bren, Byrne.

    Bring(e), Bryng(e), v. to bring,take, escort ; cause to be ; iv a7, 46, villa 64, ix 60, x 17,XI a 3 (adduce), xiirt 193,xiv b 68, &c. ; Broght(e),Bro3t(e),Brought,Brou3t(e),fa. t. I 123, ii 93, in ii, villa288, xn a 25, b 47 (ntbj.\ xvi161, &c. ; pp. v 77, vn 9o,xiv72, &c. ; Ybroujt, II 389, 563 ;bryng it to an ende, accomplishit, IX 169; bringenforlht bringforth, produce, IX 60, XII a 193 ;to (hay bryng, until they bring(something), XVII 499 ; broughteoutt of, rescued from, xvi 161 ;brought it so breff, made it someagre, VII 74; broght dede,brought to death, I 213. [OE.bringan.]Brynstane, n. sulphur, X 20.[OE. bryn-stan]Brytouns, . //. men of Brittany,n 16. [OFr. Breton ; L. Brit(f)o-nem, Briton.]Britoner, Brytonere, n. a manof Brittany, VI 1 1 a 148, 169.[From prec.]Brookes, badgers, vm a 31.[OE. brocc.~\Erode, adj. broad, V I, 165, VII106, XV^ 5 ; Brood, XIII a 39 ;Braid, X 24. [OE. brad]

    Broght(e),BroJt(e). .Broke, n. brook, stream, V 14,132, VIII a 129. [OE. broc.~\

    Broke, Brokynne. Set Breke(n).Broke-legged, adj. broken-legged, crippled, villa 130.See Breke(n), Legges.Brood. See Erode.

    Brosten. See Brest(e).Brope, adj. fierce, v 165. [ON.

    brd6-r.]Bropely, adv. fiercely, v 309.[ON. brdt-liga.-}Broper, n. brother, I 210, xna 6;Brother, gen. sg. xil a 18 ;Brother, //. XVII 318, 320(see note) ; Breperen, brethren,villa 201, XI b 243, &c. [OE.brffor ; ON. brxtir, pi.]Broucb, n. trinket, XIII b 23(translates l^.crepundid). [OFr.broche.']

    Brou3t(e), &c. See Bring(e).Broun(e), Browne, adj. brown,vm a 301, xv

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    GLOSSARYXIII b 1 6, 43. [OE. byrp- +

    Bus. See Bihoue.Busk, v. (to prepare oneself);make haste, v 216 ; refl. in busk

    J>e, hasten, xiv a 22 ; trans.(prepare), make, v 180. [ON.biia-sk, refl.] See Boune.Busshel, . bushel (a measure ofvolume varying very greatly atdifferent times and places),vin a 64. [OFr. buissiel.~\

    But. See Bot(e).Butras, n. (?//.) buttress, n 361.[? OFr. bottterez, nom. sg., orpi., of bouteret.'}

    BuJ>. See Ben.Buzome, adj. obedient, willing,VIII a 1 88. [Stem of OE. bugan+ -JMW.] See Boje.Caas. See Cas(e).Cagge(n), v. to tie up, VI 152.

    [Not known ; only allit.]Cayre, v. to ride, v 52. [ON.keyra.~]Calabre, . calaber (a squirrel fur),villa 265. [OFr. Calabre,Calabria.]Calde. See Colde.

    Call(e), v. to call (cry, summon,name), I 32, iv b 47, vi 182,X 70, xvi 126, xvii 432, &c. ;subj. sg. XVI 141 ; Cald, //.named, vn 70, xvn 513. [OE.(late) ceallian, from ON. kalla.]Cam. See Com.Cammede, adj. XV h 5 ; ? snub-nosed (cf. Reeve's Tale, 14) ;? crooked


    better,but see etym.). [Cf. OFr., ME.cataus, snub-nosed ; cammed,bent (from Welsh cai), is notelse recorded till later.]Can, v. 1 I know, know how to,can. Pres. ind. 1 , 3 sg. Can,II 22, 437, xin b 38 (knows),&c. ; Con, v 70, 215, xvc 26 ;Kan(ne), I 45, iv a n, 90, xvi74; 2 sg. Can(ne), xvi 100,xvn 229 ; Canstow (see J>ou),vin 3 12; pi. Can, ix 208;Con, vi 21 ; Conen, know, IX

    185, 208; Conne, VI 161 ;Conne J>, via a 116, xill a 17,22, 38 (know) ; Cunne, XIvc

    101 ; Kan(e), iv b 21, 41,44, 86 ; Konne, VIII a 70 ;Kunnen, xie.~\Can, Con, v.3 auxil. used withinfin. as equivalent of simplepa. t. (con calle = called, v 144),and also, by confusion with prec.,of a present (con dresse =brings about, VI 135) ; i, 3 sg.Con, v 167, 227, vi 51, 77, 93,181,221, 223, &c. ; 3sg. Cone?,VI 122

    ; pi. Can, x 50, 66, 10$,112; Con, VI 149, 191 ; pa. t.did, ? v 205 (see prec.). [Due toconfusion in form, and partlyalso in sense, between Gan (q.v.}and prec. ; cf. begouth (s.v.Begynne).]Canell, n. cinnamon, IX 158.[OFr. canelle.]

    Caple, . horse, v 107. [Cf. ON.kapall; see N.E.D.]Cardinales, cardinals, xiv b40, 41. [OFr. cardinal.]Care, Kare, n. woe, misery, iv a18, 44, 60, ^'316, vi ir, &c.;care (of}, anxiety (concerning),V3ii. [OE. cant.]

    Care, v. to have sorrow, xiv b i.[OE. canan.~\

    Carie, v. to carry, xil b 27.[ONFr. carter.'}Caroigne, Caryori, n. dead body,carrion, VIII a 85, xvii 502.

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    GLOSSARY[ONFr. caroigtu; the phono-

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    GLOSSARYimportant matter, Xiv c 52.[OFr. charge^ See next.

    Charge(n), v. to burden, iv b 51 ;charge(tf) with, to burden with,to impose as an obligation, XI b150, 198, 199, &c. ; to enjoin,order (a person), xi* 15, 31,71, 120, 193; to attach weight,importance, to, XI b 104, 106,184, 1 88, 225. [OFr. charger:]Charious, adj. burdensome, XI b204. [OFr. chargeous, char*jous.]Charit^, Charyte", n. charity,Christian love (for God or one'sfellows), iv3is, vi no, xi/> 25,&c. ; out ofch. t not in a state ofch., XI* 26, 89; I will kept ch.,I will not lose my temper, xvn235 > Par charite,for ch.,for ofsaynte ch., (formulce used inprayers, or requests), in the nameof (holy) charity, VIII a 250,xv d 5, xvil 165, 174; amenfor ch., a formula of conclusion,xvn 558. [OFr. charite; (de)par (sainte) charitel\Charke, v. to creak, xna 70.[OE. cearcian,~\Charnel, n. cemetery, vin a 50.[OFr. charnel.'}Chaste, v. to rebuke, punish, vin a53. 3 J 8. [OFr. hastier.}

    Chastice, Chastis(e), Chastyse,v. to punish, chastise, curb, xiv c70, d 5, xvil 398, 403. [OFr.(rare) chastiser.}

    Chaud(e), adj. hot, vin a 306;(Fr. word indicating affectationof manners above labourers'station.)Chaumber, Chambre (xvn), (usually a smaller privateroom or bedroom), n 100, 196,584, xvil 129, 281 (set Cbes,and note), &c. [OFr. chambre.}Chaunce, Chance, n. chance, for-tune, adventure, event, I 22, 25,28, 135, 221, v 331, vn 16 ;forch. }at mayfalle, whatever mayhappen, v 64 ; he cheuej fatchaunce, he contrives that event,brings it to pass, v 35; per

    chance, xn b 18, 57. [}Chaunge, Change, v. to alter,change, trans, and intr., iv a 2,42, xn a 125, xin a 4, 56, xv a22, &c.; Chayngede, pa. t.xni b 28; Yohaunged, //.vin b 85, XIII b 27. Chaungedhis cher, v 101, see Chere.[OFr. changier ; chaingier.}Chaungyng, n. vicissitudes, vii16; ch. oj -wit, alteration ofsense, mistranslation, XI a 47.Chees. See Chese, v.Cheyne, n. chain, x 31. [OFr.chaine.~\Chekes, n. pi. cheeks, vni a 169 ;maugri Medes (thf) chekes, inMeed's (thy) despite, vin a 41,151 ; see Maugre'. [OE. ceace,clce.-}

    Chekke, n. ill-luck, v 1 27. [OFr.eschec, checkmate.]Chelde, adj. cold, xv e 16. [OE.(WS.) ctald.~\ See Colde.Ckenes, n. pi. fissures, XIII a 8.[OE. cine, cion-.~\Chepynge, n. market, vm a 294.[OE. ceping.']

    Cher(e), Chiere (xn), n. face,xvc 15 ; looks, XII a 120; de-meanour, VI 47 ; mery chere,gladness, xvn 463. Chaungedhis cher, v 101 ; ? altered thedirection in which he faced,turned this way and that (cf.Sir Gaw., 711); but thephrase elsewhere always refersto colour or expression of face.[OFr. chiere, chere.]Cherehe, Chirche, Churche,, Church, I 3, ai, villa12,50, 12, 63 (note), XI a 62,b 178, &c. [OE. cirice, circe.\See Kirke.

    Cherche3erd, . churchyard, I 3,66, 263; Cherche porche,church porch, i 77. [Prec. +OE. gfard; OFr. porche.'}Cherles. See Chorle.

    Cheruelles, n. pi. chervils (agarden pot-herb), vin a 289.[OE. cerfille.-}

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    GLOSSARYChes, Chese (MS. chefe), . in

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    GLOSSARYaoi, ill 12, 24, ix 27, xn a 76,b 16 ; Cleped, Clept, //. n 49,1x3, xn a 6, &c. ; Ycleped, II52, in 1 7, 32. [OE. deopian.']Clere, adj. clear, bright, glorious,fair, ii 269, 358, v 283, vil 107,123, xvi 128, 389; free (fromguilt), *xvi 356 (MS. clene) ;adv. clearly, VII77; Clerlych,adv. clearly, xni a 12. [OFr.der.-]Clerematyn, . (? lit. ' fine morn-ing') appar. name of a fineflour, or bread made from it,vili a 29$. [? OFr. cler mating

    Clerk(e), n. one in holy orders,ecclesiastic (opp. to ' lay '),scholar, writer, n 2, vil 53,vin* 56, 58, xi a 36, 59, 55,177, xvi 283, &c.; Clerkus,//.vin b 65. [OE. cler(i)c; OFr.clerc.~]Clete, . cleat, small (wedge-shaped) piece of wood ; jafnoujt a cl. of cared not a rapfor, xiv c 54. [OE. *cleat; cf.OHG. cAlfff, MDu. cloot.~]Cleue, v. to split, V 133. [OE.deofan.~\

    Clyff, . cliff, rock, v 10, 133.[OE. clif.-]Clingge, v. xv a 8 ; the dot himclinggetma.y the earth ofthe gravecling to him (or waste him ; cf.alpaj oure corses in dottej dynge,Pearl 857); Yclongen, //.withered, II 508. [OE. dingan,shrivel, shrink.] See Clengej.

    Clipte,/a. t. sg. clasped, xn b 62.[OE. dyppan.~]Cloise. See Clos.

    Cloistre, . monastery, in in-trod., villa 141. [OFr. doislre.~]Cloke, . cloak, vili a 265.[OFr. c/oyue.']Clomben,/. climbed, v 10.[OE. dimban ; pa.t. pi. ditnibon."]

    Cloos, n. enclosure ; in doos, en-closed, ix 191. [OFr. dos.~\Clos, Cloise (oi = o, cf. Coyll),adj. closed ; secluded, forbidden,VII 179; close, vi 152 (man hitd., make it secure); adv. (or

    predic. adj.} close, near,vil 137.[OFr. ebfA

    Close, v. to close, enclose, IX 172,XI b 39 ; Yclosed, pp. xni a24,40. [Fromprec.] SeeEnclose.

    Clot, . clod, xv a 8 (see Clingge) ;Clottes, //. lumps, Xlila 5.[OE. dott.~\

    Clop, . a cloth, xv/ 8 ; cloth,villa 14; dopes, &c., //.clothes, I 165, 236, 11408, vn175, vin b 18, xi ^ 257, xni a9, &c. [OE. dap.'}Cloped, //. clothed, vm 2.[OE. (late) clafian.]Clope-merys, ? mare-clothers(1 contemptuous reference toblacksmiths as fashioning piecesof horse-armour; for similarcompound see Brenwaterys), xvh 21. [Free. + OE. mere.']

    Cloude, w.1 clod of earth


    doude, in the ground, xv 31.[OE. dud. mass of earth, orrock.]

    Cloud(e), Clowde, w.a cloud, vnI07 '37> xii a 137. [Prob. sameas prec.]Clout, n. piece of cloth, xv/8,n. [OE. diit.']Cloute, v. to patch ; doule moreto, stick more on to it, xi b 200 ;go doute thi shone, go and cobbleyour shoes, ' run away andplay ', xvil 353 ; Yclouted,//. patched, vin a 61. [OE.duetan.']Clowe ; clowe gylofres, cloves, ix

    [OFr. dou (nail) degirofleClustre, . bunch, IX 153, 160.

    [OE. cluster^Cnistes. See Knyght(e).Cnowe. See Knowe.Coc, Cok, . cock, xii a 77, xv^-

    33. [OE. cocc.~\Coffes, mittens, gloves, villa62. [Unknown ; cf. Prompt.

    PaT\.,'cufte, glove or meteyne'.]Coyll, n. lit. cabbage ; pottage,cabbage or vegetable soup, xvi I389. [OE. cal; oy = o (see therimes).] See Koleplantes.

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    GLOSSARYCoke, v. to pnt hay into cocks,VIII b 13. [From (obscure) ME.

    cocke, hay-cock ; see N.E.D.]Coker, . a labourer (at hay-making or harvest), vill b 13.[From prec. ; cf. Cath. Angl.,

    ' coker, autumnarius '.]Cokeres, . pi. leggings, VIII a 62.[OE. cocor, quiver ; cf. Prompt.Parv., ' cocur, cothurnus '.]Coket, . very fine flour next ingrade to the finest (-was/ell),VIII a 299. [Pant's de coketoccurs in 1 4th c. legal Latin ;connexion between this andAFr. cokkette, Anglo-L. coketa,cocket, seal of King's Custom-house, has been suggested, butnot proved.]

    Cold(e), adj. cold, I 119, vil 115,&c.; Calde, iva 82. [OE.cdld.-]

    Cold(e), n. cold, I 163, 1x31,xv./ * 3 J for c lde of, to keepthe cold from (see For, prep?),Villa 62. [OE. cdld.'} SeeChelde.Col(e), n. live coal, iv a 13 ; coal,XV A 5. [OE. col, live coal.]Coloppes, n. pi. ' collops ', eggs

    fried on bacon, vin a 280. [SeeN.E.D., s.v. Collop, and Cock-ney.']Colour, n. colour, IX 34, xn a 55,&c. ; outward appearance, XI b217. [OFr. colour^Com, Come(n), Cum (x), v. tocome, I 80, 176, ii 137, V 43,X 45, 173, xvn 241, &c. ;Comest, 2 sg. wilt come, XVg 5 ; Commys, 3 sg. xvil 507 ;Cam, pa. t. I 77, II 153, villa294, &c.; Com(e), I 32, II 91,III3, VIO?, VI 222, VII 83,&c. ; pa. t. subj. (should come,&c.), vi 214, 238, Vina 108,x 29, xvg 30 ; Come(n), //.i 161, ii 29, 181, ix 314, &c. ;Comyn, vil 40, 102 ; Conine,IV a 23 ; Cumen, xiv b 8, 87 ;Ycome(n), n 203, 319, 404,422, 478, 592. With dat. refl.pron. in : foret hym com, forth

    came, xv^- 18 ; in him com . .gon, came (walking) in (cf. inn gdri), XVg 24; himcom, in 19. Comen of, descendedfrom, ii 29. [OE. cuman, com',OMMML]Coma(u)nde, Comawnde, Com-maund, v. to command, I 105,villa 16, xi b 66, xv * i, xvi341, xvn 118, &c. ; with to,XI b 40 ; to commend, v 343 ;to entrust, give, xi b 2 2 2. [OFr.cotnander^]Com(m)aundement,&c., n. com-mandment, iv b i$, xi b 63,86, 226; gaf in comm., com-manded, xvil 32. [OFr. coman-dctnentJ\ See Maundement.Comenci (n), Comae (vin), begin, vill a 34, 309 ; pres.subj. II 247 (note to 1. 57).[OFr. comencer.'] See Comes-sing.Comendacion, w. ' Commendationof Souls ', an oflfice for the dead(made a part of daily office)which originally ended withthe prayer Tibi, Domine, com-mendamus, xi 132.Comessing, n. beginning, II 57.See Comenci.

    Comford, &c. See Conforte, v.Comyng(e), n. coming, advent,xiio 35, xvi 315, 363, &c. ; horn

    comynge, homecoming, IX 285.See Com.Comyn(s). See Com, Comnn.Comly(ch), adj. fair, beautiful, v

    343, xvn 71. [OE. cymlic,influ. in ME. by assoc. with be-cotnen.~\Comlyng, . stranger, foreigner,XI II b 45. [OE. cuma + 'ling.]Commys. See Com.Commyxstion, . intermingling,XIII b 12. [L. commixtionem.\Comne. See Com.

    Comounly, adv. usually, IX 51 ;in common, ix 60. See Comun.

    Compayni, . company, II 462 ;Company(e), vn 150, 1x312,&c.; Cumpany(e), x 147, &c. ;in cumpanye, in the society of

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    GLOSSARYmen, I introd., ix 288. [OFr.

    Comparison, n. comparison ; wij>-oute comparison, xt b 237. [OFr.cotnparaison, -csonl\Compelle, v. to compel, xifi 51,xin b 1 8. [OFr. compeller.~]Compilet, //. compiled, put to-gether, VII 53. [OFr. compiler.]Comprehended, pa. t. sg. com-prised, embraced, ix 300. [L.comprehendere.~\

    Compunccion, w. repentance, xi b1 80. [OFr. compunction^Comse. See Comenci.Comun(e), adj. common (people),XIv^ 67; as sb., the commu-

    nity, VIII b 20, 79 ; Comunes,Comyns, pi. the commonpeople ; the Commons (as anestate of the realm), xiv b 67,c 73 ; lay men.xi a 39, 59. [OFr.coniun ; and direct from L. com-munis.~\Con (en), Cone}. See Can, .'and z/.2

    Concyens, Conscience, . con-science, iv b 15, vm b 87, &c. ;(personified) VIII b 6, &c. [OFr.conscience.]

    Condicioun, n. nature, quality,xii a 1 20. [OFr. condidon.~\Confederat, adj. allied, XIII b 5.[L. con-fctderatus.~}

    Confesse, v. to confess, xi b 143 ;confessed dene, made clean byconfession, v 323. [OFr. con-fesser.~\Conforme, v. (;r/7.),to suit (one-self), make (oneself) suitable,xu a 184. [OFr. conformer.~\Confort, Coumforde, . support,comfort, consolation, vi 9,vm b79, xu a 151. [OFr. con-, ctin-fort.-}

    Conforte, Com-, v. to comfort,succour, support, IV a 15, vm a214; Comford, pa. t. pi. vil173. [OFr. conforter.~\Confusyun, n. putting to shame,I 203. [OFr. confusion.~\Congele, v. to congeal, ix 64.[OFr. congeler.]

    Conig, . rabbit, XIV b 75. [OFr.conin, coning.]Conne, ConneJ>, &c. See Can,v.


    Connynge, . intelligence, iv 56,79. [From citnn-y old inlin.stem of Can, &. 1 ]Conquerour, w. conqueror, xiv c92. [OFr. conquerour?\Conquest, . the (Norman) Con-quest, XIII b 32. [OFr. con-questel\

    Consaile (-sale, -seyl, -seille),Counsail(le), (-sayle, -sayll),n. counsel, deliberation, advice,II 179, vni a 309, x 1 5, xiv b40, 43, xvi 114, 163, xvn 157 ;prudence, iv b 56, 57, 61 ;council, vm a 312, IX 296, 298.[OFr. conseil,c(o}nseil, counsel,council.]

    Couseille, to advise, vm a 14 ;Counsell, imper. sg. XVII 472.[OFr. conseillier.']Consente, v. to agree ; consentedto o wyl, was agreed, I 49. [OFr.consentir.~\Consider, v. to reflect, xvn 291.[OFr. considercr^\Constreyne, v. to force, vm b 56,xi b 248. [OFr. constreign-,stem of constreindre.'}Construction, . construing,xin b 28. [L. constructionem ;see next.]

    Constru(w)e, v. to construe,interpret, xin b 18, 34; pres.subj. pi. in jif je c. wel pisclause, if you see the point ofwhat I say, xiv c u. [L. con-struere.']Conteyne, v. to contain, ix 337,XIII a 20. [OFr. contenir, con-teign-, stem of subj.]

    Contemplacio(u)n, Contempla-cyone, . contemplation (ofGod), iv b 51, xi b u, 308.[OFr. conteiplacion.~\Contemplatyf, -if, adj. contem-plative, devoted to prayer andcontemplation of God, vm a245, xi b 1,8, &c. [OFr. con-teiiiplatif.]

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    GLOSSARYContinue, v. to persevere, vm b

    40, no. [OFr. continuer.~]Contynuell, adj. continual, IX 32.[OFr. continued}Contray (xin), Centre, -ee,-ey,(IX), Countr6 (xvn), Cuntray(ii), Cuntr6 (i), Cuntrey (xi),w. country, land, region, I 253,ii 351, ix 4, 9, 26, 134, 138,xla 35i xin a 41, 63, xvii 487(see Sere), &c., as adj. in conlrayhugage, language of the land,xin b 13. [OFr. conlre'e, c(p)un-tre'e.~]Contrarie (to), adj. opposed (to),xi b 54. [OFr. contra.}

    Contrefetes, . //. imitations, ix117. [OFr. contrefet, pp., madelike.] See Counterfete, v.Cop, M. top, xin (745. [OE.o?//.]Cope, n. long cloak, xn a 53 ;esp. the out-door cloak of anecclesiastic, vm a 182. [OE.*cape, from MecLL. capal\Cope, v. to provide with ' copes ',villa 141. [From prec.]Copuls, 3 sg. pres. links, iv a 1 2 ;Coppled, //. linked (in rime),Introduction xv; see Kowe.[OFr. copier..] See Couple, .Corage, . heart, xn a ii ;gallantry, XIV c 108. [OFr.yap.jCorde, . cord, xil 53, 60, &c.

    [OFr. corde^Corde(n), v. ; cordcn into on, agree

    together, xv t 6. [Shortenedfrom Acorde, ^z'.]Cormeraut, . cormorant, n 310.[OFr. cormoranl\

    Coround(e), pa. t. crowned, vi55.' PP- n 593. vi I2 - [OFr.corouner.~} See Crouned(e).

    Coroune}, . //. crowns, vi 91.[OFr. coroutie.~] See Croun(e).

    Corsed(est). See Curse.Corseynt, . shrine of a saint,I 239. [OFr. cars saint, holybody.]

    Cortays(e), Curteys (n), adj.gracious, II 28, vi 73; as sl>.,gracious lady, v 343. [OFr.corteis, curteis.~\ See Kort.

    Cortaysye, Cortayse", Cour-taysye, n. courtesy, grace, vi 72,84, 96, 109, 121 (of cortaysyeprob. only equivalent to cor-tayse, adj.) ; of courtaysye, bycortaysye, &c. by especial favour,vi 97, 108, 1 20. [OFr. cor-teisie, curteisie.']

    Cortaysly, Curteisly, -lich, adv.courteously, vi 21, vm a 34,157. See Cortays.

    Cossej, Cosses, . //. kisses, v283,292. [OE.coss.] SeeKy&se.Cost, . 1 border, ix 192 ; Costes,//. coasts, regions, vu 83, 146.[OFr. coste.]

    Cost, .2 expenditure, cost, xi b169 ;? means (to meet expense),XI 141. [OFr. cost.']Costen (j), v. to expend (on),xi b 234. [OFr. coster.~\

    Costes, manners, disposition,v 292. [OE. (Nth.) cost fromON. kost-r.~\Costy, ailj. costly, XI b 228, 234.[From Cost, .2]Cote, n. 1 cot, mean dwelling, II

    489, vm b 2. [OE. cot.}Cote, .2 coat; here a tunic (

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    GLOSSARYCoueitous.rt^'. covetous, XI b 196.

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    GLOSSARYCrie(n), Crye(n), Cry, to cry

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    GLOSSARYthis dai, (for) this day, vni a274; but an oath at xva 24,XVII 386 ; on a day, one day, n303 ; ]>is othir daye, the otherday, XVI 148; J>is endre dai,a day or two ago (see Endre),xv a 4. [OE. dseg.}

    Dayesejes, n, pi. daisies, \\ b 4.[OE. dmges tage.}Dalf; Dalt. See Delnen ; Delen.Dam(e :, n. dame, lady, queen,

    II 63, 113, 322, villa 72, xvii298, &c. ; mother, villa 73, XVII324. [OFr. dame.']

    Daraisel, Damysel(le), n. damsel(esp. young lady-in-waiting),ii 90, 144, VI I, 129. [OFr.damisele.']Dampne, v. to damn, condemn,XI b 197, 306 ; Dampnet, pa. t.pi. VII 50; Darupned,//. XVI272 ; as sb. xvi 377. [OFr.dam(p}ner.~]

    Dan(e), Dan^, Master, Dom, anhonourable title esp. prefixed tonames of members of religiousorders, I introd., Ill introd.[OFr. Dan (nom. Danzt Dans} ;L. Dom(i}mts.~]Danes, n. pi. Danes, xm, q.v.]

    Ded(e), w.2 deed, act, feat, event,III 45, vil 38, 88, ix 312, xi b

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    GLOSSARY255, xvi 24, &c. ; as obj. to do,I 79, \mb 9, xiia in ; be-haviour, way of acting, iva 62,XI 62

    ;Dedis ofApostlis, Actsof the Apostles, XI b 285 ; in

    dede, in the actual performance,vil 23, xvi 72 ; to fre of dede,too lavish in its action, vi 121 ;in dede andpojte, in performanceand intention, vi 164. [OE. d to dd is possible.]

    Ded(e), Deden, v. See Don.Dedir, v. to tremble, xvn 314.[Cf. MnE. dither.]Dedly, adj. mortal, XI b 208, 209,211. [OE. deDefaced, //. effaced, erased, in36. [OFr. de(s)facier, defacer.~\Defaute, n. defect, xia 43, 44,57 ; lack, in for defaute of, forlack of, VIII a 200, XI b 250.[OFr. defaute]Defence, Defens (of), n. defence(against), IX 332, X 64, 135 ; ofnoble defetis, nobly fortified, II48. [OFr. defense.]

    Defend(e), v. to defend, v 49,villa 82, X 52, &c. ; to makedefence, X 61, 191 ; make de-fence against, ward off, vil 85 ;Defending, n. defence, x 194.[OFr. defend-re]Defensouris, n. pi. defenders, X153. [OFr. defensour]

    Deffle, v. to defy, xvi 158. [}fier.]

    Degiselich, adj. strange, wonder-ful, II 360. [From OFr. de(s}-guis(i)f.] See Gisely.Degrade (rime-form of),, XVII 20. [OFr.degrader]Degr6, Degree, . position, rank,VIII b 71, XVII 21, 489; state(of preparedness), X 40. [OFr.degre.]

    Deye (vin), De (x), Dye(n),v. to die, II 189, vin a 269, 325,ix 150, x 73, &c. ; Deye,/;w.subj. vin a 92, 114; Deyd,/a. 1215; Dy3ede,xivc 106;Deyden, pa. t. pi. \\\\b 41 ;do . . deye,garre . . dye, kill, vina 269, xvi 164. [ON. deyja.]Deill, Deyll. See Dele, .Deyned,/a. /. //. deigned, vin a

    303. [OFr. deigner.]Deynte", n. delicacy, n 254.

    [OFr. deinte]Delaiement, . delay, XII b 152.[OFr. delaiement]

    Dele, Deill, DeyU, . part,quantity, in a grete dele, a greatdeal, xvil 450; ich a deyll, all,XVII 299 ; ylk a dele, ilke deill,altogether, IV a 27, X 75. [OE.d&l] .& Eueiydel, Halvendel,Somdel, &c.

    Dele(n), v. to divide, distribute,deal, mete out, perform, v 124,217, vi 246, vnia 91, xi ^ 270,272; Dalt, pa. t. sg. v 350;Deled,//, xin b 49 ; dele with,have to do with, xvi 63 ; withcognate obj. dele penny doyll,XVII 390 (see Doyll) ; delen ato,part (intr.\ II 125. [OE.dxlan.]Dele. See Deuel.

    Delit(e), Delyte, n. delight, IV b39, XII a 88, xvi 63 ; delytes of,delight in, IV b 62. [OFr. delit]

    Delitabill, adj. delightful, X /-trod. [OFr. delitable]Delytte, v. in delyttes paym (in),3//. refi., take delight (in), iv b42. [OFr. delit(i)er]

    Deliuer, adj. nimble, v 275;Deliuerly, adv. nimbly, quickly,X 58, 89. [OFr. de(s]livre. ]

    Deliverance, n. deliverance, Xll1 7. [OFr. delivrance]Deluen, v. to dig ; to bury ; vin a1 35 ; Dalf,/to. t. sg. XIv introd. ;Doluen, pa. t. pi. villa 184;Doluen,//. (dead and) buried,Vlii a 1 73. [OE. delfan.]Delueres, n. pi. diggers, vin a10 1. [OE. delfere.]

    Deluynge, n. digguig, villa 244.[OE. delfing.]Deme, Dieme, v. to judge, sen-tence, XII b 216, xvi 34 ; criti-

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    GLOSSARYcize, vili a 75 ; consider, deem,XI b 190, 209, 211 ; ne demethow non other, imagine nothingdifferent, Vili a 173; speak,say, V 115 (note), VI i; withcognate obj. domes for te deme,to tell their tales, xv b 30. [OE.deman^\Den, . cave, xillo 41, 42, 43.[OE. denn.]Den. See Dynne.

    Dene}, adj. Danish ; Dene) ax, anaxe with a long blade and usuallywithout a spike at the back, v155 (note). [OE. denisc ; OFr.daneis.~\Deop. See Dep.

    Deores, n. pi. wild animals, xv b29. [OE. dear.]

    Departed(e), Depertid, pa. t.separated, VI 18 (intr.), vn145 (trans.} ; departed, IX 308,320; //. divided, IX i. []

    Dep(e), Deop (xm), adj. deep,xil b 1 1, xin a 39, xvi 377 ; asso., the deep (sea), vn 154, xn a160 ; adv. deeply, vi 46. [OE.deop ; adv. deope.]Depely, adv. deeply, greatly, vn114. [OE. deop-ttce.]Depertid. See Departed.Depnes, n. depth, XVI I 434, 460,520. [OE. deop-nes.]Depriue, -pryue, v. to deprive,VI 89, XVI 175. [OFr. depriver.]Dere, adj. dear; prized, I 258;beloved, I 125, VI 8, villa 91,xiv c i, xv/ i, xvn 172, 190,419, 527; my dere, my friend,villa 251; pleasing, VI 40;good, &c. (vaguely applied inallit poems), vi 132, 144, vn61 ; Derrist, super!, best, vii39. [OE. deore ; d?orra, corn-par, (whence also stem of ME.superl.).]Dere, . harm, I 166, xvn 317 ;maken J>e worlde dere, do injuryto mankind (? or ' make theworld dear to live in ' ; but cf,166), Vina 154. [OE. daw,influenced by derian.~\

    Dere, v . to afflict, xiv b 10. [OE.derian.~\ See prec.Dere, adv. dearly, at great cost,iv a 80, vin a 75, xvn 373 ; a*me dere liketh, to my liking,VIII a 286. [OE. deore.']

    Derffe, adj. doughty, VII 84.[ON. djarf-r, older, *deatf-.]See Deruely.Derke, n. darkness, VII 167.[OE. de(o)rc, adj.] See perk.Derlyng, n. darling, iv a 54. [OE.deor-ling.]Derne, adj. secret, XV b 29 (note).[OE. deme.]Derrist. See Dere, adj.Derthe, . dearth, famine (per-sonified), via a 324. [OE.deorfoi] See Dere adj.Deruely, adv. boldly, V 266.[ON. djatf-Kga.] See Derffe.Des, . seat, throne, xvii 17.[OFr. deis\ see N.E.D., s.v.Dais.]

    Des-, Dis-avauntage, . dis-advantage, xui 35, 37. [OFr.desavantage.]Deschaunt, n. descant, XI b 137(note). [OFr. deschant.]

    Desert, adj. uncultivated and deso-late, IX 200; n. desert, unin-habited land, IX 179, XI* 24.[OFr. desert.]

    Deserue(n), v. to deserve, vili a43> b 32 ; to earn, VIII a- an,b 43, 47. [OFr. deservir.] SeeSerue(n).

    Desyre, n. desire, IV a 5, XI b 295.[OFr. desir.] See Dissiret.Desplaid, //. unfurled, II 294.[OFr. despleier.]Desport, n. amusement, IX 276;do desport, play, make merry,xn a 174. \Qifi.ekspfrt.]Desserte, n. deserts, merit, vi 235.[OFr. desserte]Desspendoure, n. steward, al-moner, ill 21. [OFr. despen-doiir.] See Spendere.

    Destine", n. fate, V 217 ; Fate,villa 269. [OFr. destinee]Destresse, n. distress, II 514.[OFr. destresse]


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    GLOSSARYDot, . debt, xvii 222; Dettes,

    //. vin a 92. [OFr. dette.~]Determynable, adj. decisive,authoritative, VI 234. [OFr.determinable.']Determination, n. authoritativedecision, XI b 263. [OFr.determinacion ,]

    DeJ>, v. See Don.Dep(e), Deth, n. death, n 332,v 37. vii 9, vin a 324 (the

    Plague), &c. [OE. d^.\ SeeDed(e), adj. and w.

    Deuel(l), Deuelle, Deuyl(l),Dele (v), . devil, Devil, iv b20, 26, v 120, vnia 56, 114,xi b 105, xv h i6,xvi 341, 399,&c. ; what deuel, what the devil,xvi 223. [OE. di'ofol.']Deuelway ; in]>c d., in the Devil'sname, xvi 133. [See N.E.D.,s.v. Devil 19.]

    Deuere, . duty, xvii 319. [OFr.deveir^Devyded (in), pp. divided (into),IX 28. [L. dlvidere^Deuise, -yse, Devise, v. to des-cry, II 312 ; to describe, relate,1x267,268,371. [OFr. deviser ;see N.E.D., s.v. Devise.]Deuocio(un), Deuocyun, . de-votion, devoutness, pious prac-tice, I 18, v 124, xi b no, 120,XII a 14, &c. [OFr. devotion.}Deuote, Deuout, adj. devout,VI 46, XI b 58, &c. [OFr.dcvot.]Deuoutnes, n. devoutness, Xiv c79. [From prec.]Dew, Dewly, See Du, Duly.

    Dyaene, n. deacon, in 9, 12;Diaknen,, in 5. [OE.diacon, OFr. diacne.~] SeeArchidekenes.Dyamand, Dyamaund, n. dia-mond, ix 33, 36, &c. [OFr.diamant, altered form of ade-mant ; see Ademand.]Diche, Dyche, n. moat, dike, n361, vi 247; notion in VI appar.releasing of water pent up by adam. [OE. die.]Dyd, Dide(n). See Do(n).

    Dye(n). See Deye.Diemed. See Deme.Diete, v. refl. to diet (oneself).villa 263. [From OFr. diete, n.]Diffynen, /;*. //. determine, fix,IX 315. [OFr. defitir.~]Digge, Dyggen, v. to dig, II 255,IX 231 ; Digged, pa. t. pi.V 1 1 1 a I o r . [? OFr. diguer; seeN.E.D.~]Dyggynge, n. digging, ix 201.Dignyt6, n. dignity; of dignyte,worshipful, xvii 166. [OFr.dignete.~\

    Dy;ede. See Deye.Dijte, Dighte, Dyjte, Dyghte,

    v. to arrange, prepare, make,1 3> v I S5. vnia 286; dijte,arrayed for battle, xiv b 34 ;dyght to dede, put to death, XVil543. [OE. dihtan.]Diken, Dyken, v. to dig, VIII a!35> J 84. [OE. dfcian.]

    Diker(e), Dyker, n. digger,ditcher, villa 101, 325. [OE.difere.]Dykynge, digging, ditching, villa244. [OE. dieting.']

    Diligently, adv. watchfully, IX191. [From OFr. diligent.']Dim, adj. faint, II 285 ; Dimme,adv. faintly, xn b 31. [OE.dimm. ]Dymes, n. pi. tithes, xi b 300.[OFr. di(s}me, from L. decima \Dimuir, adj. calm, xiv c 37.[OFr. *detneur, in demeuremcnt.soberly.]Dyne, v. trans, to eat (at dinner),VIII a 303 ; 2 sg.pres. subj. villa257 ; Dyned, //. intr. haddinner, VIII a 274. [OFr.di(s}ner.~\Dyner, n. dinner, VIII a 286.[OFr. dinner.]Dynge(n), v. to strike, smite, beat,V 37 (MS. dynnej), vin a 135,xvi 1 80, 203 ; Dang, pa. t. pi.X 54. [OE. *dingan ; cf.dencgan,ON. dengfa.'}Dynne, n. noise, xvi 234, 284 ;Den, XV h 2. [OE. dyne.']Dynt, n. stroke, blow, v 48, 155,

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    GLOSSARY196, XV h 2 ; dynt of honde, ablow (with a weapon), v 37,VII 92. [OE. dynt.'}Diol. See Dole.

    Dirige, w. (dirge), matins in theoffice for the dead, vin b 48,XI b 132 (note). [L. dirige.}

    Disceit, . deception, wile, xi b171, 311. [OFr. deceitt.~\

    Disoeyue(n), v. to deceive, 1x112,xi b 92. [OFr. deceiv-re,decev-eir.~]Discende, pa. t. descended, xvi77. [OFr. descend-re,~]

    Disciple, n. disciple, XI b 15, XIIintrod. [OFr. disciple.}Discord, n. discord ; without dis-cord, in peace (or incontestably ;cf. Distance), xvn 31. [OFr.discord.'}Discrecyone (of), n. ? separation(from), iv b 69. [OFr. dis-cretion^

    Discre(e)t, adj. judicious, discern-ing, vni b 88, ix 295. [OFr.discret^\

    Disour(e)s, n. pi. professionalstory-tellers, jesters, I introd.,vili a 56. [OFr. disour.~}Dispisen, v. to despise, xi3 93,179. [OFr. despire, despis-.}

    Dysplesej, Displeases, v. 3 sg.pres. displeases, vi 95, xvn85 ; imper. pi. (intr.} be dis-pleased, vi 62. [OFr. desplais->.]Dysseuer, v. depart, XVII 27.[OFr. dessevrer.}

    Dissiret, pa. t. desired, VII 114.[OFr. desirer.} See Desyre.

    Disstrye}. See Distroie.Distance, . quarrelling ; -withoutdistance, indisputably, xvil 57.[OFr. destance.-}Distreynen, v. to afflict, ix 315.[OFr. destreindre, destreign-.}

    Distroie, -oy(e), Destroye, v. todestroy, vn 28, ix 2 15, xi b 215,xvn 93; Disstryej, pres. pi.v So?. [OFr. destrui-re ; withdisstrye) cf. Byled, Nye.]Distroiynge, n. destruction, XI bloo. [From prec.]

    Dysturble, v. to disturb, I 16.[OFr. destorirbler.'}

    Ditees, n. pi. poems, xn introd.[OFr.

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    GLOSSARYdo deye, kill, vin a 269 ; dot)me drede, makes me afraid, v143; do(n) to tvyte, to vnder-stande, give (one) to understand,inform, II 3, vm a 56 ; followedby infin. (without expressedsnbj., as did it wryte, had itwritten), I introd., 218, Vina 79(note), and (merging into mereauxil. as in Mn.E.) i 167, xvi 203,xvn 326, &c. (cf. Gar), (iii) Toput, I 219, VI 6 ; dede on (upon),donned, n 343, xil a 53 ; donawei, set aside, abolished, XI b206. (iv) Refl. in dede him out,went out, n 232, 474. (v) Pp.finished, I 68, xvn 139 ; at anend, xiv a 24; past, over, n 76,VII 167, XVII 148 ; haue done,(get it done), be quick, xvn 316,352, 480. / haue at do, I havesomething to do, xvn 235 (seeAt) ; do way !, enough !, II 226.[OK dm; dyde (dede,,pa. t.; see Morsbach, ME. Gram.,

    130, . 6.] See Vndo.Docke, v. to curtail, mutilate, XI a57. [Obscure.]Doctours, . //. doctors (of theChurch), xi a 27. [OFr.doctour."]

    Dojty, Doughty, Douhti, adj.doughty, v 196, vn 84, xivr106; as sb., v 266. [OE.dohtig.-]

    Dojtyr, Doghter, -yr, Doujter(vm), Dowhter (xn), n.daughter, I 44, 47, 215, villa14,73, Xlla 192, &c. ; Doghtyr,gen. sg. I 1 36 ; [OE. dol:tor.~]

    Doyne. See Do(n).Doyll, n. dole, what is distributedin charity ; fenny doyll, mass-penny, the offering for a massfor the soul of one dead, xvi I 390:[OE. (ge-}ddir\ See Dele(n).Doynge, n.; d. awaye of, puttingaway, IV b 61 ; doyngis, affairs,XI b 290. [OE. doling.]Bold, adj. stupid, xvn 266.[ Related (as dulled to dull} toOE. dol.~] See Dull.

    Dole, Diol (n), n. lamentation,

    grief, misery, II 198, vni a 114,xiv b 10, xvi 347. [OFr. dot,doel, deal, dial, &c.]

    Dol(e)ful, adj. doleful, xiv b 72,xvAi6. [Free. + ->/.]Doluen. See Delucn.Dome, n. judgement, XVI 319 ;doom, I 173; award, VI 220;domes for te deme, to converse,xv b 30 (see Deme). [OE. domf\Domesday (e), Domysday, .Doomsday, iva 35, xi 48,xvii 25. [OE. domes daeg.~]

    Donge, n. dung, manure, VIII a283. [OE. dung.-}

    "Dovfoefy, moisten, xv3 28.[Unknown ; cf. Mn.E. dank.]Dore, Doore (xvn), . door, XII a70, XVII 137, 280, 376. [OE.duru ; dor.~\

    Dore(n), Derate. See Dar.Dosnyt,//. dazed, stunned, X 129.

    [Obscure.]Dote, n. dotard, fool, XVII 265.[] From next.]Dote, v. to talk folly, XVII 367.[Cf.MDu. doten ; ? OFr. redoter.~]

    Dot3, Dop. See Do(n).Doubill, Double, adj. double,X introd., xna 162. [OFr.

    double^Doufe ; Doujter ; Douhti. SeeDowue; Dojtyr; Dojty.Doumbe, adj. dumb, XI b 175.

    [OE. dumb.']Doun, n. down (feathers), XII a 95.[ON.

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    GLOSSARYxvi 78, xvii 484, 505, 514.[OE. ? *dufe ; ON. .]Drad, Dradde. See Drede(n).

    Dragounes, n. pi. dragons, IX203. [OFr. drag-on."]Dray(e), n. commotion, XIV b 34,xvi 146. [OFr. de(s)rai.']Draught, n. (a move in chess), an

    artful trick, XVI 399 (see Drawe).[OE. *drxht, related to next.]

    Draw(e), v. trans, to draw, drag,pnll, bring, &c.,iv 19, ix 124,x 82, xin a 33, xvi 319; tocart, villa 283; intr. move,proceed, &c., xvii, 245 ; Drogh,pa. t. sg. xv a 1 2 ; Drou, xv g1 6 ; Drouh, Drowh, xil aJ 55> b 73. I24! Droghe, pa.t. pi. vn 88; Drew, x 58;Drawe,//. XII b 90, xnia 35 ;Drawyn, x 124; Ydrawe, n295. ftou drawes to wittenesse,thou citest, XVI 279 ; drawe vsno draught, make no moveagainst ns, play us no trick(a chess metaphor ; cf. Chaucer,Bk. Duchesse, 682), xvi 399;droti hymselue biJ>e top, tore hishair, XV 16 ; drawe to, toward,approach,> 124, xili a 57 ;draweth (to) colottr lyke, ap-proaches the colour of, ix 34(note) ; drawe after, take after,resemble, xin b 6. [OE.dragan.~] See Vp-, With-drawe.Draw-brig, . drawbridge, x 165.[Free. + ON. bryggja] SeeBrygge.Drawynge (infill), n. coming (to),iv* 63.Drede, n. fear, I 147, 211, &c. ;doubt (ff. Dredles), in I puit jouholly out of d., I assure you,xiv c 1 2 ; ensample and dredeajens, a fearful caution against,

    , I 261 ; for drede, in fear, V 190,xvii 212; in spite of theirfear (of me), XVI 146. [Fromnext.]

    Drede(n), Dred, . trans, to fear,iv b 85, v 287, xi 141, xvii 47,55; intr. to be afraid, iva 31(with of), 6 1, v 143 ; rejl. to be

    afraid, XI a 61, XilJ 67, 108(dradde him unto, was afraid of).Dradde, pa. t. xn

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    GLOSSARY193 ; as }ai mljt driue, as fast

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    GLOSSARYxi b 25, 241, 246, xvi 305, &c. ;

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    GLOSSARYEngendren, v. to beget offspring,IX 59. [OFr. engtndrer.~\Engendroure, n. parentage,

    origin, vm a 228. [OFr.engendrure.~\Engynys, . //. machines, X 33.[OFr. engin^\ See Gyn(e).Engynour, n. engineer (contriverof machines), X 71, 89. [OFr.engigneor.~\ See Gynour.

    Engli^sch, n. English (language),XI a 30, 37, 64, 65 ; Englysch,XIII b 29, 34, &c.; English,XI a 2 ; Englis(s), III introd. ;Englysshe, VII introd. Inglis,I introd. [OE. englisc.']

    Englijsch, adj. English, xi a 34 ;Englisch,xivEr(e), Eir (x), adv. before, V 209,xil b 113; ere now, xvn 328;formerly, vi 12 ; earlier (withbefor*) X 1 40 ; conj. before (usual lywith subj.), II 190, 256, V 152,204, 223, XII a 104, b 19 ; prep.before (in time), vm a 140.[OE. *r.] See Ar, Are, Or.

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    GLOSSARYEr(e),/m. are, I introd.,iv a 60, b 8, 53, 54, xiv a 6, 7,

    1 2, 1 8, 85, &c. [ON. eru.] SeeAr(e), Es, &c.Ere, . ear, n 528, vin a 263,xn a 104, 32; Eris, //. xi159. [OE. eare.]

    Erie, Erye, z>. to plough, vin a4> 5> 67, ioo, 1 10. [OE. erian.]

    Erles, Erls, n. pi. earls, n 202,503, vn 84. [OE. tori, sense by cognate GN.jarl.]

    Erliche, adv. early, vuib 15;Erly, VI 146 ; e. and late, atall times, VI 32. [OE. eer-lice.]See Er(e), Ar.Ernde, w. the business (on whichone has come), v 235. [OE.terende, message ; ON. erinde,&c. message, business.]Erre, v. to err, xi b 14. [OFr.errer.]Errour, . error, falsehood, here-tical opinion, VII 46, XI b 44, 77,215 ; speke errour, say what ismistaken, vi 62. [OFr. errour^\Ert. See Art.

    Erth(e), EorJ>e (xm, xiv c),Vrpe (vi), n. earth, soil, iv 4,12 ; the ground, iv* 36, V 161,IX 149, xm a 8, 15 ; the world,vi 82, xi a 8, xva 180; inerth(e), on earth, in the world,iv a 47, ix 332, xvi 363, xvn42, &c. ; in eorpe, XIV c no;vpon erthe, v 30 ; in erlh (sc.lufe in erth}, earthly (love), IV a10. [OE. eorfe, e"orj>e.] See Erde.

    Erth(e)ly, adj. earthly, iv a 29,b 12, 29, xvi 134, &c. [OE.eorf-lic.]Erytage, Herytage, . inheri-tance, vi 57, 83. [OFr. (Ii)eri-tage.]

    Es, 3 sg. prts. ind. is, I 7, *I28(note), IV a i, 5, 10, &c., 65,XIV a 5, 20, b 8, 9, xv a 9. [ANorthern form. ON. es.] SeeIs, &c.

    Eschue, Eschuie, v. to avoid,escape, vin a 55, xn b 8. [OFr.eschiwer, eschuer.]

    Ese, Ays, n. comfort, pleasure, in

    him is ays, gives him pleasureor comfort, n 239 ; at ese, com-fortable, vill a 144 ; well off,xvn 388. [OFr. aise, eise.]See Malais, Missays.

    Esely, Esily, adv. without dis-comfort, XII b 91 ; easily, IX119. [From M E. ese, OFr. aide(related to prec.).]

    Est(e), Best (xvn), east ; adj. ix2 ; adv. XVI 333; n. IX 73, XIIIb 5 1, xvi 1 453. [OE. east, adv.,taste, n.]

    Ete(n), v. to eat, vin a 1 29, 258,298, ix 142, 242, xv g 25, xvn395 (see Bred), &c. ; Eet, pa.t. sg. VIII a 291 ; Ete, pa. t. pi.I 158, n 396 ; Eten, //. vin a261, ix 144 ; Etin, xiv b 74,76, 77. [OE. etan.]

    Euaungelistis, n. pi. evangelists,xi b 306. [L. evangelista.] SeeAwangelys.

    Euel(l). See Yuel.Euen, Eve, n. evening, III 54,Vina 178, xn b iS,_ xvn 205;see Morwe. [OE. s,fen, efen.]Euen(e), Euyn, Evin, adv.

    equally, exactly, just, quite, in-deed, I introd., vn 27, XII b 49,xvn 125, 290, 379, 462, &c. ;also, too, VII 51, 154; evin (till),just opposite, x 8 1 ; euene ryjt,exactly, xm a 47 ; euen Hymby, GO. a level with Him, xvn1 8 ; ful(f] euen, equally, as well,quite, xvi 280, XVII 10, 344.[OE. efen, efne.]Euenly, adv. exactly, XVII 258.[OE. efen- lice.]Euensong(e), . evensong, ves-pers, vi 169, xi b 131, 189, 224,241. [OE. efen-sang, -song.]Euentyde, n. evening, VI 222.[OE. efen-tid.]

    Euer(e), adv. ever ; always, con-tinually, for ever, I 94, vn 2,vni a 271. b ioo, &c. ; at anytime, n 42, v 57, ix 327, &c. ;added to indef. relatives (?..),i 2, xvn 210, &c. [OE. &fre.]Euerich, Euerych(e), Eueri,adj. every, each, I 9, n 60, 517,

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    GLOSSARY580, ix 63, xin a 22, 26, &c. ;

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    GLOSSARYFairi, -y, Feyre", Paierie (xn),

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    GLOSSARY178. [Shortened from OFr.en/a(u]nt.~]

    Pauour(e), n. grace, beauty, VI 68,xvii 79. [OFr. favour.']Fautlest, adj. superl, in on fe /.,the (one) most faultless, V 295.[Error for, or red. of, faullesest ;OFr./awfc +OE. -leas.]Fautours, M. //. supporters, xi ai, 49. [L.fautor.']Fawty, adj. faulty, V 314, 318.[From ME., OYr.faute, n.]Fe. See Fee, n.


    Feaw, Few(e), adj. pi. few, vi212, vn 52, xin b 50, xv a 19,&c. [OE. feawe.} See Fone.Fecche, v. to fetch, vma 150;Fette(n), fa. t. vm a 287,XII b 150, xvi 382 ; Yfet, //.II 170. [OE.feftan,/euan.]Fede, v. to feed, vm a. 247, xi b281 ; Fedde, pa. 1. vm a 292,xi /; 278, &c. ; TJedde, subj.would feed, III 8 ; Fedde, //.iv b 39. [OE. /&.]Fedynge, . feeding ; inf. of, forfeeding, xi b 258. [QE.fcding.~]Fee, Fe, . 1 goods, xvn 309,326. [OE. fe(o}k, feo-.~\ Dis-tinguish next.Fee, rc.2 fee (as a term of venery,the share given to the dog,falcon, &c.) ; some small gainin their hunting, xvii 490.[OFr. feu,fe, &c.]Feeldes ; Feele ; Feende ;Feere ; Feest. See Feld(e) ;Fele, adj. ; Fende; Fere M. 1 ' 2 ;Fest.

    Feghtande. See Fight.Feye, adj. doomed to die, XV c 20.[OE.y^.]Feill. See Fele, adj.Feynd(is). See Fend(e).Feyne(n), Fayne (vn), v. to

    feign, pretend, invent, vil 41,XI b i, 8 1, &c. ; feyned hem,pretended to be, villa 115; tofalsify, VII 34; Feynit, //.false, VII 1 8 ; feynitfare, deceit,VII 44. [OFr. feindre,feign- .]

    Feyre"; Feyre(st). See Fairi;Faire.

    Feith, Fayth, Fath (xvn), &c ,.faith, xi b 13, 1 7 1, xvi 364, &c. ;plighted word, troth, v 216;**' my feith, in (god} fayth,&c., upon my word, V 297,Vina 266, xvn 228, 330, &c.[OFr.feid, later/**.] See Fai.Feythful, adj. honest, vm a 247 ;Feithfulliche, adv. honestly,villa 71; Faithfully, accu-rately, vn 78. [Prec.+OE.-ful.}Fel. See Falle(n).Felajschip, Felaschipe (xn),Felaushepe (i), Felowship(xvn), n. community, I introd. ;company, in here, don /. (withdat.pron.}, keep (one) company,v 83, xn a 24; friendship, xvn363. [Next + OE. -sape.]Felawe, Felowe, . fellow, I in-trod., xiv 0*7, 1 6 ; (contemptu-ous), XVI 284. [OE. feo-laga,from ON.fe-Iagt.']

    Feld(e), Filde, Fylde, n. field,II 60, Vina 134, 232 ; field ofbattle, vn 45, 93; Feeldes,//. xiil a 19. [OE. /W.] SeeAfelde.

    Fele, Feele (xvi), FeiU (x),TJele (in), adj. many, II 401,522, m 2, v 349, vi 79, vn 29,x 55, 63, 141, xv b 10, xvi 61,&c. [OE.feIa, adv.]

    Fele, Feele, v. to feel, perceive,experience, iva 25, b 45, VI25,xiil a 26, xvi 346 (see Fitte),xvn 121, &c. ; 2 sg. subj. v 204 ;Felte, pa. t. I 156, 163. [OE.fe!an.~]

    Fell, v. to fell ; to destroy, iva 47.[OE. fellan.}

    Fell(e), Fellen. See Falle(n).Fell(e), adj. deadly, cruel, v 154,VI 7, VII 82, 109, XIV b 33;

    Felly, Fellyche (i), adv. cru-elly, terribly, I 130; fiercely,V234 . [OFr.//.]Felloune, adj. grim, deadly, X115, 192. [QT?T.feloun.'\Femayll, Femele (ix), adj.female, IX 58, XVII 152. [OFr.


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    GLOSSARYFend(e), . devil, Devil, V 125,viii a 82, ix 93, xi b 3, 220,xvi 340, &c. ; Feende, xvi 9,

    14, &c. ; Feynd, xvn 35, 43.[OE. feond.~]Fende, v. to defend, xvi 30.[Shortened from Defende, q.v.~]Fenyl, n. fennel, xv b 18. [OE.

    Fenyx, n. Phoenix, VI 70. [OE.fenix, L. pJunnix.]Per, Perre, Par, adj. and adv.far, IV b 36, v 24, XIII a 27,xv-5,xvii439, &c. ; as/eras,in so far as, ix 293 ; (vn]to thefer(re) ende, to the very end, VH78, 95. Per(re), Pyrre (v, vi),compar. farther, v 83, xiv 18 ;away, XVI 156, 336; further,vu 97 ; moreover, v 53, vi 184;fyrre pen, beyond, vi 203. [OE.feorr ; feorr, firr compar.] SeeFerforth, Fyr}>er.Perde, n. fear, in for ferde, infear, v 62, 204, xvil 315.[Prob. false division of for-fer(e)d, pp., terrified ; OE. */or-fxran, -feranj] See next.

    Ferd(e), //. afraid, v 314, XIV b93, XVII 102 ; at xvi 209 rimerequires fiaide (see Flay andnote). [OE.faeran,jferan.']

    Perd(e), pa. t. fared, xn a 43,145 ; ferd with, dealt with, X172. [OE./mz.] See Fare, v.Fere, Peere (xvi ), n? companion,xv/ 5 ; wife, v 343, xvi 352.[OE./2nz.]Pere, Feore, .* company, in infere, &c., all together, collec-tively, xvi 126, 364, 385. [; but this use is prob.partly developed from ME.y-fere(n\ OE. ge-Jeran, pi., (as)companions.] See Yfere.Fere, n? fear, villa 177, 292.

    Fere, .4 outward appearance,vu 1 8. [Shortened from OFr.afe(i}re.~\Fere-flunderys, fiery sparks,XV A 12. [See Fyr ; cf. Mn.E.and &\o\.flinders, splinters.]

    Ferforth, adv. far, xn b 190.[OE.feorr + forj>^ See Fer.Perked, pa. t. sg. flowed, v 105.[OE.fer(e')i:taii, go.]Perly, adj. wonderful, II 4 (note) ;adv. wondrously, extremely, Ixv b 10. [OE. fier-ltce,

    ly, prob. infl. by ON.ferliga monstrously ; see next.]Ferly, n. a marvel, v 346, x 1 34 ;Farleis, Ferlies, pi. vu 95,xvi 6r. \OE. f&r-lic, sudden,prob. infl. by ON. ferliki (ME.ferlike) monster.] See prec.Perre. See Fer.

    Ferryit,pp. ;f. wes, had farrowed,X 109. [Formed on farrow,ferry ; OE. fxrh, ferh, youngpig-]

    Pers(e), adj. fierce, bold, II 293,xiv b 33, xvi 131. [Or./er-s,nom. sg.] See Fuersly.Persoh, adj. fresh, xin a 29, 49.[OE. fersc.'] See Fresch.Perste, Uerst. See Furst.Peruent, adj. hot, IX 10 ; burning

    bright, xvil 8 ; eager, xvil 77.\OYi.fervent.~]Pest, Feest (xvil), n. feast,festival, v 333, xvn 454 (?withtopical allusion to the CorpusChristi festivities). [OFr./te.]Feste-dayes, . feast-days (of theChurch), vin b 30. [Fromprec.]

    Fest(e), v. make fast, confirm,xvi 340; pa. t. v 279; //.fixed, made fast, iva i, 82,xvi 335, 337. [OE. fmtan ;on the vowel see Cast.]

    Pestnyt, pp. fastened, x 124.[OE. fsestnian ; see prec.]Fet(e). See Fote.Pethre-bed, n. feather-bed, xn a

    94. (QE..feper-l>edd.~]Pette(n). Sue Fecche, Fote.Peurpe, adj. fourth, xin a 18.[OE. feor}a, feower]>a.~\ SeeFowre.

    Fewe. See Feaw.Pioht. See Fight.Fift, Fyft, adj. fifth, VII 129, x 2., yt, a.


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    GLOSSARYPyfteyn ; Uyf-, Vif-, Vyftene

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    GLOSSARYPitte, . ; felt ]>i fitte, undergo

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    GLOSSARYPlume, n. ; flume fordanne, River

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    GLOSSARYII 37, X 143, &c. (iv) Equiva-

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    GLOSSARYForpered,//. furthered, advanced,xi b 231. [From prec. ; cf. OE.fyrj>r(i}an,forfian.']

    Forpi (-J>y, -thi, -thy), adv. andconj. wherefore, and so, there-fore, II 461, iv b 35, v 42, 50,VIII a 79, 88, b 86, xil introd.,b 170, xv c 22 ; because, iv b26. [OE. for-pi, for-piJ>e.~\Forwake,//. wor