Towards ‘post-multiculturalism’? - MPI-MMG .Towards ‘post-multiculturalism’? 1. Multiculturalism 2. Challenges to multiculturalism 3. In response: policies & public opinion

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  • Towards post-multiculturalism?

    Prof. Dr. Steven VertovecMax-Planck-Institute for the Study of

    Religious and Ethnic Diversity

  • Towards post-multiculturalism?

    1. Multiculturalism2. Challenges to multiculturalism3. In response: policies & public opinion4. Post-multiculturalism?

    -- copy of powerpoint from

  • I. Multiculturalism and immigration

    from 1970s Corrective to Assimilation Policies/Structures meant to: Ensure

    equality, respect, tolerance Enable

    continuity of traditions and identities

  • Structures of Multiculturalism

    Representation in local forums (community leaders)

    Public support for community associations, activities

    Culturally sensitive service provision (in schools, healthcare, policing, social work, courts, etc.)-- based on corporatist model of

    ethnic groups

  • Multiculturalism in public policy I

    Public recognition: support for organizations, facilities, activities; consultative bodies

    Education: dress & gender issues; sensitive & promotional curricula; mother tongue teaching & language support; own schools

    Providing public materials in multiple languages (e.g. health promotion)

  • Multiculturalismin public policy II Law: e.g. exceptions; oaths; marriage/divorce;

    inheritance; protection from discrimination & incitement to hatred

    Religious accommodation: places of worship; cemeteries and funerary rites; time-off for worship

    Food: ritual slaughter, provision in public institutions

    Broadcasting & media: positive images; own facilities

  • By early 1990sMulticulturalism everywhere

    Multicultural Mathematics (1993) Medical Practice in a Multicultural Society (1988) Dance: A Multicultural Perspective (1986) Multicultural Pharmaceutical Education (1993) Counselling and Psychotherapy: Multicultural Perspective (1993) Managing Substance Abuse in a Multicultural Society (1994) Marginality: The Key to Multicultural Theology (1995) Marketing in a Multicultural World (1995) Multiculturalism: Criminal Law (1991) Multicultural Public Relations (1995) Multicultural Manners: New Rules of Etiquette (1995)

    Nathan Glazer: We are all Multiculturalists Now (1997)

  • 2. Challenges to Multiculturalism

    Socio-economic indicatorsLow educational attainment high unemployment poor jobs low income bad quality housing extreme segregation highest rate of ill health largest households little social mobility

    Multiculturalism as failing? Unemployment Germany, 2002-3

  • ChallengesNew immigration Too many, too fast, too diverse?

  • But confused public?

  • Challenges

    Islamophobia Islam is seen as monolithic, static, ahistorical Assumed incommensurable values, unassimilable group Seen as inferior, irrational, sexist Considered violent, demanding, threatening

    Multiculturalism as pandering to Muslims?

  • Challenges

    parallel societies? residential segregation, effectively separate schools, different places of worship, disparate community associations, discrete social networks, discrete places of leisure

    Multiculturalism as creating these?

  • Challenges

    Security concerns Difference & dissatisfaction

    disparity & alienation leading to extremism, conflict or terrorism?

    Multiculturalism as creating context for this?

  • Challenges

    Public discourse: turn against diversity?

    suggests Multiculturalism = accentuated/preserved difference; separateness social breakdown

    no common values? political correctness

  • 3. In response to such challenges, new political calls for:

    integrationsense of common citizenship

    shared values strengthened civic/national identity

    social cohesion immigration limits

    ... and especially, rejecting multiculturalism

  • New policy initiatives:Integration and Cohesion

    Citizenship in school curricula Classes for immigrants

    -- history, customs, services Stress on language acquisition Citizenship tests: Knowledge based? Ceremonies for new citizens Citizenship/Integration Day Gesinnungstest?

    But what is an immigrant supposed to integrate into, and when is the process completed?

  • M[ulticulturalism]-word out, integration and cohesion in

    But diversity still very much in policy aims And few M-word policies/structures have actually

    been dismantled especially on local level




  • What are the effects of recent years of anti-multiculturalism public discourse on public opinions regarding immigrants and ethnic diversity?

  • European Commission Eurobarometer 2007:

    Almost three-quarters of EU citizens believe that people with a different background (ethnic, religious or national)

    enrich the cultural life of their country

  • European Commission Eurobarometer 2007:

    Day-to-day interaction among people belonging to different cultures is a reality in Europe

  • European Commission Eurobarometer 2007:

    Random encounters in public are most typical. ...over half (53%) of the intercultural exchanges took place in a public space (while out walking in the street, while shopping, etc).

  • Integration in urban life fleeting encounters

    Ephemeral, but may be regular Shared meanings, values,

    cooperation: expected, acceptable behaviour; principles for stranger interaction

    Basic, unspoken modes of civility: competence in everyday conventions of interaction including indifference to diversity

  • 4. post-multiculturalism?

    Much anti-mulcultulturalism in public discourseyet

    National policies have only slightly changed More integration, but still strong on diversity No return to assimilation

    Local policies have hardly changed Perhaps more inter-culturalism, but not new idea

    Public opinion hasnt gotten worse If anything, (surprisingly?) better

  • Concluding remarkSocial cohesion and national identity can coexist

    with a valuing of diversity in the public sphere, programmes to recognize and support cultural

    traditions, and institutional structures to provide ethnic

    minority community representation all without reference to the M-word

  • Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

    Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung multireligiser und multiethnischer Gesellschaften

    Hermann-Fge-Weg 11, D-37073 Gttingen, Germanytel. +49/0 551 4956-0, fax +49/0 551 4956-111

    Towards post-multiculturalism?Towards post-multiculturalism?I. Multiculturalism and immigrationStructures of MulticulturalismMulticulturalism in public policy IMulticulturalismin public policy IIBy early 1990sMulticulturalism everywhere2. Challenges to MulticulturalismChallengesBut confused public?ChallengesChallengesChallengesChallenges3. In response to such challenges, new political calls for:New policy initiatives:Integration and CohesionM[ulticulturalism]-word out, integration and cohesion inFoliennummer 18Foliennummer 19Foliennummer 20Foliennummer 21Foliennummer 22Foliennummer 23Foliennummer 24Integration in urban life fleeting encounters4. post-multiculturalism?Concluding remarkFoliennummer 28