Training Project

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SPINNING MILLA spinning mill is a labour intensive industry and it provides ample job opportunities. Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills is a unit of the subsidiary of NTC. The registered office of APKK & M is located in Bangalore. At present the capacity of the Cannanore Spinning mill has increased to 25920 spindles. The company is a spinning mill with weaving facilities. But currently no weaving process is going on in the mill.

Spinning mills used Line Shafting which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along rotating shafts (rods) to the spinning or weaving mills. Now, however electricity is being used which is much faster than hand spinning. Yar n is the final product of the mill. To maintain the quality aspects an efficient quality control team functions in the mill. Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced personnel to perform the activities that have to be done. If the curr ent or potential job aspirant can meet the requirement, training is not important. But when this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. Inadequate job performance or a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning of technological changes requires some type of training and development efforts. As the jobs become more complex, the importance of employee development also increases.


Cotton/man-made fibre textile industry is the single largest organized industry in the country employing nearly 10 Lakh workers. Besides this, there are large numbers of ancillary industries dependant on this sector such as those manufacturing various mac hinery, accessories, stores ancillary and chemicals. Even on a modest assumption that a workers family comprises of five persons, the direct dependents on the organized mill industry itself works out to about 50 Lakhs. Out of the 1837 cotton/man-made fibre textile mills, 192 mills are in the public sector, 154 mills in the co-operative sector and 1491 mills are in the private sector.Evaluation of the Textile Mill Industry

Whilst farmers were developing new and better methods of agriculture, life in other areas of work had changed little for hundreds of years. Early in the 18 th century most of the population lived in small rural settlements and only a few people lived in town. Many people worked as producers of woolen and cotton cloth. They cleaned, combed, spun, dyed and wove the raw materials into cloth and this work was done in their own houses. This type of production has become known by the general term of domestic (cottage) industry. Work within the cottage industry was usually divided up between the members of one family. The women and girls were responsible for cleaning the sheep fleeces, carding the wool and spinning it.

The process of weaving was physically hard work and traditionally it was the men who were responsible for it. Generally at regular intervals a cloth merchant visited each handloom weavers cottage. He would bring the raw materials and take away the finished cloth to sell at the cloth hall. As soon as the new wool arrived, it was washed to clean out all the dirt and natural oil. After this it was dyed with colour and carded. This was the process of combing the wool between two parallel pads of nails, until all the fibres lay the same way. Next the carded wool was taken by the spinner and using a spinning wheel the thread was wound onto a bobbin. The spun yarn was taken to the loom to be woven. In the weavers cottage the loom was often to be found on an upper floor. There are large windows in the room to let in plenty of daylight. Working of the loom was quite strenuous work, which is why it was traditionally the work of the men of the household. However, with the advent of the industrial revolution all the processes of yarn and the subsequent production of cloth underwent a dramatic change. The industrial revolution brought about the wid e spread replacement of manual labour by machines. Goods that were traditionally been made in the homes or in the small workshops began to be manufactured in factories. Productivity and technical efficiency, improved in part through the systematic and prac tical knowledge of the manufacturing process. Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable etc.) from various rows of fibre materials. Several fibres are twisted together to bind them into strong, long yarn. Characteristics of the yarn

vary based on the materials used, fibre length and alignment, quantity of fibre used and degree of twist. The earliest spinning probably involved simply twisting the fibres with the hand. Later the use of stick to help twist the fibre was invented. The spinning wheel was then developed which allowed continuous and faster yarn production. Spinning wheels are either foot or hand powered. Modern powered spinning used line shafting, which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along the rotating shaft to the spinning or weaving mills. Now, however, electricity is being used which is vastly faster than hand spinning. Another major invention was the power loom. The power loom was a steam powered mechanically operated version of a regula r loom, an invention that combined threads to make cloth. In 1785, Edmund Cartwright patented the first power looms and set up a factory in Doncaster, England, to manufacture cloth. William Horrocky and Francis Cobot Lowell improved it upon. Francis Cobot Lowell was an American businessman and the founder of the worlds first textile mill. Together with inventor Paul Moody, Lowell created a more efficient power loom and spinning apparatus.

All this accelerated the growth of the mill industry with more production capacity, and the labourers employed in the industry, rising to millions.

Present Scenario

Global trade in textile and apparels is expected to increase from US $ 356 billion in2003 to US $ 600 billion by 2010. The way forward for the textile mill sector is through transforming the sector from a resource intensive to knowledge intensive, highly innovative sector with high added value products and services. This can only ensure sustainable growth and jobs in the future. It would also help to secure a competitive advantage, which would be based on the best new products and processes in the world. The industry has made tremendous efforts in the last years to invest in new productive assets, to streamline operations and to intensify their innovation activ ities. To achieve a transformation, investment is needed in technological innovations that would assist industry in its transition from resources intensive to a knowledge intensive sector.

The Indian Textile Industry a legacy of its ownThe Indian textile industry has a great legacy, which is perhaps unmatched in the history of Indias industrial development, Indias textile industry evolved and developed at a very early stage and its manufacturing technology was amongst the best. Indias manually operated machines were among the best in the world and served as a model for production of the first textile machines were among the best in world served as a model for production of the first textile machines

in newly industrialized Britain and Germany. Indias textiles were sought after for their finesse, quality and design and attracted people from across the globe like the Chinese, Malaysians, Portuguese etc. Colonization put an end to Indias glorious textile legacy. By 1880, t he domestic market had grown to be served solely by the British manufactures. One of the aspects of freedom struggle led by Mahatma Gandhi was to weaken the British textile industry by weaving homespun clothes, as he was convinced that the textile sector w ould be a catalyst in advancement of the Indian population. Post independence, till 1980, the Government of India put numerous restrictions to ensure mechanization did not occur, labour intensive textiles were produced, which in effect led to increase in price, and decrease in productivity.

Structure of T e Indi n Textile IndustryThe Indi n Textile mill industIndian Textile Mill Industry

s st ucture is as follows:

Organised Sector

Unorganised Sector

Mill Sector (3%)

Handloom Sector

Hosiery Sector (97%)

Powerloom Sector

(% share in total cloth production)



Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills was originally started by a private owner Shri. Keyath Damodar in 1948 with about 20,000 spindle capacity. The mill earned profit and had no problems till 1970. Thereafter the company incurred heavy loss due to various reasons and hence the management was taken over by the Government of India. The mill was nationalized under Nationalizations Act with the effect from April 1st 1974 and is placed under National Textile Corporation (NTC). Since the production capacity of the mill has increased to 24,000 spindles. The Government introduced new machines and the mill functioned well till 1980. Thereafter the company again incurred loss for many years. Being a Government undertaking, financial support was received from Government and hence the mill was running without much problem. Furthermore the mill along with some other NTC units was referred to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) under the Stock Industrial Companys Act.LAND AREA STATEMENT

Area of colony compound Area of mill compound Pump House Road Total area

: : : : :

4.21 acres 8.32 acres 0.02 acres 0.04 acres 12.59 acres