Transport Telematics - Systemic View objective is to achieve principal transport, travel and forwarding

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  • Transport Telematics - Systemic View

    Editor

    Prof. Tomas Zelinka

    Authors

    Miroslav Svitek

    Zdenek Votruba

    Tomas Zelinka

    Vaclav Jirovsky

    Mirko Novak

    Published by WSEAS Press

    www.wseas.org

    ISBN: 978-1-61804-144-9

  • Transport Telematics - Systemic View

    Published by WSEAS Press

    www.wseas.org

    Copyright © 2013, by WSEAS Press

    All the copyright of the present book belongs to the World Scientific and Engineering Academy and

    Society Press. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

    system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or

    otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Editor of World Scientific and Engineering Academy

    and Society Press.

    All papers of the present volume were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was

    granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

    See also: http://www.worldses.org/review/index.html

    ISBN: 978-1-61804-144-9

    World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society

  • Preface

    Intelligent transport systems (ITS) link information technologies with transport engineering. The ITS

    objective is to achieve principal transport, travel and forwarding processes services improvement within the

    existing transport infrastructure. ITS services cover requirements from an individual local case up to the

    complex wide area solutions with wide scale of services complexity. The telematics services are an integral

    part of the ITS. They do not represent the only telecommunications solutions, but they are tightly connected

    with a wide variety of transportation services. “Intelligent” services with the ability to support the relevant

    environment of the complex system structures are provided. Consequently, this discipline is closely linked

    with managerial and legal topics due to their ability to principally influence the system behavior.

    There are numerous books and publication proceedings on the topic of ITS or transport telematics available

    but their approach and scope is different from ours. Typically, they describe the impact of ITS systems on

    traffic management e.g. real-time traffic management, planning of commercial vehicle operations,

    environmental management, etc. or they present parts of ITS solutions in big detail: e.g. electronic fare

    management, car navigation systems, fleet management, digital maps, strategies to reduce transport

    congestions, etc. In this book we introduce a very new system-oriented approach to the ITS design,

    operation and evaluation with respect to all predefined performance indicators like reliability, safety,

    security, integrity, etc.

    Systems Theory represents a significant theoretical background for any professional undertaking within the

    branch of ITS. There are several approaches to elaborating this kind of theory, however, for engineering

    purposes such as the ITS the classical approach called General Theory of Systems (GTS) is usually

    accepted as the most beneficial. The Systems science within its application areas means resolving tasks.

    Efficient handling of the systems ideas implies functional knowledge of a wide range of specific

    mathematical tools.

    The ITS applications require wireless seamless secure communications solutions with selectable level of

    services quality and mostly also with a wide-area coverage. Even though publically available wireless

    services usually provide reasonable coverage under acceptable cost conditions, most of the public providers

    do not offer any data service with the guaranteed quality. The principal improvement of the service quality

    can be reached by the selection of the best possible alternatives from the set of currently identified available

    services. Efficient decision processes must be adopted to reach the relevant service quality guarantee.

    Success of such approach relies on profound understanding of applied technologies and their performance

    described by the performance indicators.

    Critical system properties are represented by security aspects. The difference between security and safety

    must be well understood. Safety assures that a life-critical system behaves as needed even when certain

    elements fail. Security is a condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective

    measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences. Due to the fact that the human

    being has been a part of a system, security must be understood as a complex of measures leading to the

    survival of human beings in the system under the influence of an external hostile environment or any other

    influences. Analysis of potential threats and other security vulnerabilities specific for the telematic system

    represents the rest of this area. The behavior of a system consists of interactions among elements and it is to

    be assumed that these interactions have to be undisturbed, i.e. to be secure.

    The ITS solutions resolve interactions between systems of a dissimilar nature. The differences can be in its

    nature, the types of these systems or in the role a particular human subject plays in such aninteraction. The

    functional reliability has to be considered as an important factor specifying the practical applicability of any

    real system. The ITS system requires to be designed with high functional reliability. The original approach

    is based on understanding that reliable systems have to be constructed from adequately reliable parts. Such

    approach can, however, lead to unrealistic and extremely expensive solutions. Besides the usage of solely

    reliable components the method of lifetime minimization of system functional sensitivity to system

    parameter changes has been applied. The newest approach developed and used only quite recently has been

    based on the concept of the socalled prediction diagnostics.

    iii

  • This book addresses scientists, R&D specialists and transport systems designers, as well as students. While

    the articles were written by experts that are actively involved in the discussed areas research, our intention

    was to present the texts at a level suitable for a general science and R&D audience. Each article contains a

    list of references as a point of entry to the comprehensive resources. The preparation of this publication

    involved generous support from an extended specialist team and we would like to express our sincere

    thanks to each one of our colleagues.

    The Authors

    iv

  • Acknowledgements

    The materials used for preparation of this book were reached by research supported by programs of the

    Czech Ministry of Industry and Business (MPO), Czech Ministry of Transport (MD) via following grants:

    e-Ident (Electronic identification systems within transport process) MPO 2A-2TP1/108, DOTEK

    (Communication module for transport telematic applications), MPO 2A-2TP1/105, SRATVU (System

    Requirements and Architecture of the universal Telematic Vehicle Unit), MPO 2A-1TP1/138, and the

    project ME 949 of the Czech Ministry of Education.

    The Authors

    v

  • vi

  • About Authors

    Miroslav SVÍTEK Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Transportations Sciences Chapter:  Advanced Design of Intelligent transport systems Professor Miroslav Svítek was born in Rakovník, Czech Republic, in 1969. He graduated in radioelectronic from Czech Technical University in Prague, in 1992. In 1996, he received the Ph.D. degree in radioelectronic at Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague. Since 2002, he has been associated professor in engineering informatics at Faculty of Transportation Sciences, Czech Technical University in Prague. Since 2005, he has been nominated as the extraordinary professor in applied informatics at Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Matej Bel in Banska Bystrica, Slovak Republic. Since 2008, he has been full professor in engineering informatics at Faculty of Transportation Sciences, Czech Technical University in Prague and Honorary professor at Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga in Colombia. He is currently teaching courses and doing research in theoretical telematics, intelligent transport systems, quantum system theory and quantum informatics. Miroslav Svítek is president of Association of transport telematics of the Czech and Slovak Republic (it covers more than 70 public and private organization), Dean of Faculty of Transportation Sciences and Head of Department of Control Engineering and Telematics, Czech Technical University in Prague. He is author or co-author of more than 200 scientific papers and 6 monographs.

    Zdeněk VOTRUBA Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Transportations Sciences Chapter:  Systems Theory applied in Intelligent Transport Systems Proessor Zdeněk Votruba born in Prague, April 22, 1942. Graduated at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical University