Trauma, Natural Disaster, and the Transition to Adulthood. Hurricane Katrina 2005. Timeline Hurricane Katrina came into the Gulf on August 25, and increased to a Category 5 (winds peaking at 175 mph) by August 28. Mandatory evacuation of New Orleans ordered on August 28. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Trauma, Natural Disaster, and the Transition to Adulthood1
4Hurricane Katrina 2005TimelineHurricane Katrina came into the Gulf on August 25, and increased to a Category 5 (winds peaking at 175 mph) by August 28.Mandatory evacuation of New Orleans ordered on August 28. Estimates are that ~1M (of ~1.2M) residents evacuated.Landfall in Louisiana: August 29. Category 3 with winds of ~125 mph.Extensive wind damage.53 levee breaches produced extensive flooding: 80% of the city of New Orleans was flooded as of September 2, with water levels reaching 20 feet.It took weeks to pump the city out. Both a natural and man made disaster.5Hurricane KatrinaOverall effects:Total costs estimated to be $81.2 billion.$30 billion in Federal aid.1836 deaths, majority in Louisiana.90,000 square miles declared a disaster area (Equal to the entire land mass of the UK)Displaced 650,000 peopleDestroyed 217,000 homes60% of housing stock in New Orleans city was destroyed30% of housing stock in New Orleans MSA was destroyedNew Orleans City lost 29.1% of its population between 2000 and 2010. (Detroit lost 22.2%)
6The Opening Doors Sample N=1019, at baseline92% female85% black19% marriedAverage age 2698% ever worked71% receiving government benefits.52% currently employed43% first in family to attend college69% had access to a working carAverage age of children 3 yearsA disproportionate number come from the 9th Ward.712 Month SurveySample A12/04-8/05N=492
Baseline Survey 11/03-2/05N=1019
Post Katrina SurveySample A5/06-2/07N=402Response Rate 82%Post Katrina 12 MonthSample B3/06-2/07N=309Response Rate 58%Hurricane Katrina 8/25/05Second Follow UpSpring 09-10Samples A and B1019 eligibleN=720Response Rate 70.6%Genetic Study N=270
Qualitative InterviewsN=57Qualitative InterviewsN=638Qualitative Interviews N=120First Wave Conducted after the 2006-2007 survey and linked to survey responses (57 interviews)Second Wave Conducted after the 2009-2010 survey and linked to survey and previous qualitative responses. (63 interviews) Equal number of people who were back in New Orleans, and who had relocated to Texas.Covered Hurricane Experiences, life history, politics, intergroup relations, experiences of young adulthood, and questions about how their children are doing.Transcribed and coded using Atlas Ti. Interviews were linked to the longitudinal survey data to contextualize the interviews and to give a rich understanding of the trajectories of individuals.
9Advantages of Our SampleMost studies of disasters do not have data on people before the disaster. We had two waves of data on Sample A and one wave on Sample B before the hurricane. Our data included physical and mental healtheconomic resources social supportsocial trustfuture aspirations and expectationsmeasures such as optimism, self esteem, confidence Disasters have unequal impacts, generally exacerbating inequality and differentially affecting women, the poor, and racial minoritiesThe scope of Katrina makes it a very unusual and important disasterDisasters are seldom studied longitudinally. We really do not know a lot about long term recovery.10
Distribution of individual applications for assistance from FEMA in 2007 at the Metro area level.
Longitudinal Data on Resources and OutcomesThe Overall PicturePsychological Resiliencedefined as a return to pre-disaster levels of psychological functioning is the normal reaction to a disaster, even though it is remarkable. Post traumatic growth is also widespread. Defined as subjective psychological gains directly related to the trauma they endured.There is a lot of research on psychological resilience, very little on how social and economic resistance is related to it.We know that community ties and social networks as well as socioeconomic resources are required for social well being. How does this affect recovery?Recovery in New Orleans overall has been market driven, with federal money distributed on an individual basis.New Orleans is recoveringbut it is a changed city. Post Katrina it is smaller, older, more educated, less poor, fewer renters, fewer households with kids. New Orleans has its lowest poverty rate since 1979.People who did not return are more likely to be poor, African American households with children.Dilemma that they face: better individual opportunities outside New Orleans vs. the sense of community they had.A false dilemma?Katrina TraumasIn the week after Hurricane Katrina hit was there a time when you:Katrina TraumasPercentDid not have enough fresh water to drink26Did not have enough food to eat35Felt your life was in danger32Didnt have medicine you needed32Needed medical care and couldnt get it30With a family member who needed medical care and could not get it.33Didnt know if child/children were safe23Didnt know if other family members were safe77Were any of your relatives or close friends killed because of Hurricane Katrina or Rita?31Mean # Katrina Traumas3.1415Trauma Exposure80.8% experienced home damage 32.1% experienced the death of a friend or relative (Paxson, et al. 2012.) Rise in domestic violence and stressed relationships with partners, even among people who had not experienced this before (Lowe, Rhodes, & Scoglio, in press). Post traumatic growth5 subscalesRelating to OthersI have a greater sense of closeness to othersNew PossibilitiesI developed new interestsPersonal Strength I have a greater feeling of self relianceSpiritual ChangeI have a stronger religious faithAppreciation of lifeI have a greater appreciation for the value of my own lifePost-traumatic growthPTG was found to be strongly positively associated with symptoms of PTSD Only those participants with high levels of PTSD at both time points maintained high levels of PTG over time (Lowe, Manove, & Rhodes, 2012).
Religion and PTGPre-disaster religious involvement and faith were predictive of better post-disaster social resources which, in turn, were associated with lower levels of psychological distress (Chan, Perez, & Rhodes, 2010). Religious coping affected post-hurricane outcomes (Chan, Perez, & Rhodes, 2012). Child FunctioningConcerns about child welfare affected maternal mental health (Lowe, Chan, & Rhodes 2011). There were strong associations between child externalizing and internalizing symptoms and maternal psychological functioning (Lowe, Godoy, Carter, & Rhodes, 2012).
Post traumatic growth5 subscalesRelating to OthersI have a greater sense of closeness to othersNew PossibilitiesI developed new interestsPersonal Strength I have a greater feeling of self relianceSpiritual ChangeI have a stronger religious faithAppreciation of lifeI have a greater appreciation for the value of my own lifePost-traumatic growthPTG was found to be strongly positively associated with symptoms of PTSD Only those participants with high levels of PTSD at both time points maintained high levels of PTG over time (Lowe, Manove, & Rhodes, 2012).
Other Findings Most people report personal and spiritual growth from the experience. Those who blamed God or who thought that God was punishing them were the most psychologically distressed four years later.For people with low social support at baseline, pet loss was the most significant predictor of psychological distress, and for many it was long lasting.People who had high Psychological Distress at baseline significantly overestimated flood depths, relative to geocoded data.Optimism was one of the best predictors of who did not evacuate.Studies to DateCollege Re-enrollmentPet LossPre-disaster social supportChild-related stressorsNatural mentorsIntimate relationshipsInterviewer raceDecisions to evacuateResilience TrajectoriesChildrens FunctioningCombining Quantitative and Qualitative MethodsReligionBarriers to Community College CompletionGeographic MobilityRelocation Decision MakingNeighborhood AttainmentEmployment TrajectoriesChanges in BMIPost Traumatic GrowthConservation of Resources TheoryTransition to Adulthood
Current studiesExposure meta-analysisPTG as a personality constructDisaster and Health (BMI)Legal issues, housing, etc. Community College students
How effective is youth mentoring?When are programs most beneficial?How does mentoring promote positive youth development?What are the implications for policy, practice, and research?35I want only the top question be bold and the others to fade away. And then, in the next slide like this, the second question is legible and bold and the others are faded, in the following the third question.etc.36-0.100.10.20.30.40.501234567891011Number of PracticesSize of Effect on Youth OutcomesEmpirically-BasedPracticesTheory-BasedPracticesSmall EffectMedium EffectEffect sizes37Study level variables (moderators) associated with different effectsYouth, Mentor, Program CharacteristicsEffect SizeProblem Behavior InvolvementYes: .29No: .20Youth Gender>50% Male: .25