Safe Sangthongsuk TU130 Integrated Science and Technology - Midterm Fall 2011 Science and Technology Animals rely on adaptations vs. Humans rely on science and technology Eg. The technology of stem cells allows us to select and operate organs to cure genetic diseases and abnormal genes versus... Adaptation of animals to survive - Seagulls fly high to search for prey Stem Cells: the cells that can stimulate cell expansion and division used in heart and kidneys Human and technology are inseparable because technology is a unique extension of the human minds that allows us to survive like no other organisms - We also possess the ability to extend our own capabilities by using tools Technology: the science or the study of practical or industrial arts, applied science, etc. - Develops more advanced economies (today’s globalized economy through communication and transportation) BUT produces pollution that depletes natural resources (paradox of progress) - Applied Science – creates products for the wealth of the country and devices that science is applied Science is our search and understanding of knowledge of the world we live in; from Human’s curiousity - Astronomy is the oldest science – uses math and scientific method to study Science: systemized knowledge derived from observation, study and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied; it employs formal techniques like the scientific method - Without experimentation we will draw wrong conclusions – Galileo didn’t believe the geocentric theory so he conducted and experiment himself and arrived at heliocentric theory Evolution of Animals to Human Primates: an of the Primates order of mammals characterized by flexible hands and feet each with 5 digits

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TU130 Integrated Science and Technology - Midterm Fall 2011Science and TechnologyAnimals rely on adaptations vs. Humans rely on science and technology

Eg. The technology of stem cells allows us to select and operate organs to cure genetic diseases and abnormal genes versus...

Adaptation of animals to survive - Seagulls fly high to search for prey Stem Cells: the cells that can stimulate cell expansion and division used in heart and kidneys Human and technology are inseparable because technology is a unique extension of the human minds

that allows us to survive like no other organisms- We also possess the ability to extend our own capabilities by using tools

Technology: the science or the study of practical or industrial arts, applied science, etc. - Develops more advanced economies (today’s globalized economy through communication and

transportation) BUT produces pollution that depletes natural resources (paradox of progress)- Applied Science – creates products for the wealth of the country and devices that science is applied

Science is our search and understanding of knowledge of the world we live in; from Human’s curiousity- Astronomy is the oldest science – uses math and scientific method to study

Science: systemized knowledge derived from observation, study and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied; it employs formal techniques like the scientific method- Without experimentation we will draw wrong conclusions – Galileo didn’t believe the geocentric

theory so he conducted and experiment himself and arrived at heliocentric theory

Evolution of Animals to HumanPrimates: an of the Primates order of mammals characterized by flexible hands and feet each with 5 digits

Humans, great apes, monkeys, lemurs (ancestors of apes) Charles Darwin: Human beings and monkey share the same characteristics

- Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: same species of animal with different food and place faces different evolution (geographical evolution)

Hominid: any of the Hominidae family of two-legged Primates including all forms of humans (extinct and living) Hardly looked like modern human beings but they possessed two unique characteristics…

- The ability to walk upright on two feet – to get a good view of predators- Ability to make stone tools

Homo Habilis: ancestors of modern humans, “clever human” They were the first known hominid to create customized tools because they have 2 free hands

- Stone axe to cut down trees and stone knife to cut mealsHomo Sapiens: modern humans, “intelligent human”

PrimatesMammals with flexible hands and feet (5 digits)

Hominid2 legged Primates walking, stone tools, ancestors of extinct and living humans

Homo HabilisClever human (Paleolithic stone age)

Homo SapiensIntelligent/modern human (Paleolithic, about 100,000 years ago)

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What makes people clever? The uneven rifts and valleys on the surface of the brain

Stone Age, The Stone Age is divided into 2 periods: Paleolithic (“old stone”) and Neolithic (“new stone”)

Paleolithic First use of stone and wooden tools by Homo Habilis (about 2.5 million years ago) Emergence of modern, intelligent humans, Homo Sapiens (about 100,000 years ago) Tools include crude stones, chopper, hand axe for chopping and breaking animal bones for nutritious


Neolithic Manipulating stones, wood and animal bones to form customized sharp cutting tools for use in farming Emergence of art and music (about 35,000 years ago)

- The first instrument is the drum (imitating mother’s heartbeat)

Beginning of Agricultural Revolution in SW Asia, Mesopotamia (about 10,000 years ago)

- When Hunter/Gatherers Farmers; people knew how to domesticate animals and farm vegetables- Crafted specialized/customized tools from stone, wood, and bones for growing and harvesting- Population increased dramatically which formed a community and settling downs

First known use of wooden plow in SW Asia (about 7,000 years ago)- Plowing : clear lands for farming which allows more harvest, more goods

First known use of the wheel ( about 5,500 years ago)

Bronze Age Bronze: an alloy, or a mixture, of copper and tin The use of naturally abundant metal ore deposits such as copper and tin to create innovative, stronger

tools Beginning of textile production in Mesopotamia – Commoners: Linen, Rich: Cotton About 5,000 years ago

Iron Age Found that iron was better and stronger than Bronze for making tools

- High heat resistance- Highly flexible- Can be shaped into different forms of equipment- Uses more than 1000 Celcius to melt iron

Iron is the most abundant mineral on Earth It quickly improved human’s tool-making abilities Smelting of iron in Africa (about 3,000 years ago) Use of iron in Europe and China (about 2,000 years ago) Construction of Roman aqueducts, system of water delivering which bacteria is killed by letting sunlight

shines on the water’s surface

At the end of the Iron Age is the Industrial Revolution- Began in Glasgow, England in the 18th- early 19th century- Human began to build cities, conquer the oceans, constructed complicated machineries

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Industrial Age Began in England through the Industrial Revolution Invention of steam engine (1720 A.D.)

- Steam engine is an engine that converts heat energy of pressurized steam into mechanical energy- James Watt invented the external combustion engine (heat boils water) cars nowadays develop to

have internal combustion engine (battery and oil)- Most important energy source throughout the emergence of the Industrial Revolution

Invention of the steamboat (1807 A.D.) First airplane flight by the Wright brothers, as adapted from Da Vinci’s ideas (1903 A.D.) First moon landing (1969 A. D.)

Information Age “The Computer Age” – telecommunication devices determined the end of the industrial age and marks

the beginning of information age at the end of the 20th century The first is the telegram by Samuel Morse The current stage in societal development which emerged at the end of the 20 th century Marked by increased production, transmission, consumption at the reliance of information Why is it crucial/important to have computer to travel in space?

- To calculate tedious and complicated calculations- ENIAC, the first electronic computer arguably invented in Pennsylvania

Civilization usually begins near sources of water – rivers Roman Civilization: Tigris/Euphratis Bangkok: Chaophraya

Huanghe/Yangtze Niles

The Birth of Science We are not really sure when humans began to practice science – assumed from ancient beginnings

If we knew how to grow vegetable and knew which season to grow…we know scienceThe birth of formal science most likely had its roots in the study of celestial objects

Eg. Sailors use sextan to locate their position at night which they calculate their position from stars Astronomy: science is we need to know the scientific method and math to study Celestial Objects Astronomical Phenomena Astronomy “Modern Science”

Many of the world’s most well-known scientists were and are astronomers who helped revolutionize science Aristotle

- Concluded without experiment that the earth is at the center of the universe – geocentric theory Newton

- Used gravitational force to prove that the sun is at the center of the universe but was wrong, the solar system

Kepler- Questioned, experimented, and expanded Copernicus’s heliocentric theory

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- Said that the earth rotates around the sun in an elliptical cycle Galileo

- Concluded Kepler’s theory of the elliptical cycle through observation- Observed objects in the sky and concluded that the Earth s not a unique planet- Believed that the Earth isn’t at the center of the solar system – was put in jail for this theory- Telescope inventor

The black spot of the sun and subordinates of Jupiter Supported the idea that the Earth orbits around the Sun Moon has phases

Copernicus- FIRST to portray the sun at the center of the model – heliocentric theory

Albert Einstein Hubble

- Hubble Space Telescope used to discover that the universe has been constantly expanding which is the most important discovery of the 20th century

Stephen Hawking- Physics and Math just like Einstein

Carl Sagan- NASA Exploration director

Scientific Method: A formal method of inquiry through a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge or collecting and integrating previous knowledge

(1) Observation (2) Experimentation (3) Development of theories (can be rechecked) or laws (ALWAYS true)1. Identify the Problem (What’s the problem?)2. Formulate a Hypothesis, an unproved theory tentatively accepted to

explain certain facts (what you believe to be the answer)3. Design and Conduct the Experiment, the way to prove whether the

hypothesis is correct or incorrect4. Collect Data – must not be biased5. Analyze the Data6. Draw Conclusions – compare with Hypothesis7. If it is correct then – Make Recommendations

The Scientific Method was developed by Francis Drake (?)

Theory: a formulation of apparent relationships or underlying principles of certain observed phenomena which has been verified to some degree- Can be changed in the future by law of nature

Law: a sequence of events in nature of human activities that has been observed to occur with unvarying uniformity under the conditions (Law of Nature)

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Experimentation: allows scientists to prove or disprove a hypothesis- Follows organized patterns which includes…

Stating the purpose of the experiment Formulating a hypothesis Step by step procedures Collecting and analyzing data And arriving at the conclusion

- Carefully conducting an experiment this way ensures that scientific discovery is documented and can be recreated

General goal of science is to try to understand how the natural world worksGeneral goal of technology is to take the knowledge gained by scientific inquiry and apply it in a practical way

Matter and EnergyMatter: substance that all objects are made up of

Made up of fundamental particles called atomAtom: extremely small particles that possess unique physical and chemical properties

Composed of 3 subatomic particles: protons, electrons, neutrons Protons and neutrons form the nucleus of an atom, around it are the electrons arranged in different

layers of different energy levels- Protons: subatomic particle that have a positive charge; heaviest- Electrons: subatomic particle that have a negative charge- Neutrons: subatomic particle that have no charge- Bohr Model: model of an atom which shows the nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud

Quarks: smaller basic particles making up subatomic particles which form protons and neutrons when combinedElement: a substance that contains only one type of atom

Atomic Mass = Mass Number = Nucleon number = Number of protons and neutrons (how heavy atom is) Atomic Number (number of protons) classify the different atoms that exists There are 118 different atoms or elements that have been identified – organized in the Periodic Table

- 90/118 elements exist by nature, the rest are man-made (synthetic)- Scientific Symbol : used to classify elements- Isotopes: atom of the same element but different number of neutrons in the nucleus

Because of the different number of neutrons, the isotope is an unstable material and gives out radiation

Medical: Radiotherapy, to treat patients with cancer – ability to control cancer cells growth and kills cancerous cells

Industrial: testing a product without destroying it HDO Heavy Water, water enriched in deuterium (H’s isotope). Used in certain types of nuclear

reactors where it acts as a neutron moderator to slow down neutrons so that they react Uranium in the reactor

Same chemical properties

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Extra neutron are not stable, causing it to give out radiation for medication (drinking radioactive material to remove cancer cells)

Isotope of Helium...on the moon's surface can produce energy which gives the reason to why superpowers compete to go to the moon

Photon: particle of lightElectron-microscope: allows us to see extremely small thingsElectromagnetic spectrum: red (longest wavelength, lowest frequency) - violet (shortest wavelength, highest frequency)

Elements Poisoning

Mercury, "matamata”: muscle weakness, damage to hearing and speech, paralysis, coma, effect on fetusCalcium, “itai-itai disease” : softening of the bones and kidney failure

States of MatterAll matter in the universe exists in 4 extinct states that possess unique physical properties

Matters are in their different states because of the different amount of energy – each states indicates the amount of energy it can withstand- Say…to change a Solid to a Liquid, melting occurs because of energy given to the matter, it creates

vibration which causes space between atom to move around until its form can’t be held as a shape anymore so it changes its state

Solids- State in which atoms most tightly packed together and are most restricted in their movement- Composed of atoms organized in a crystal pattern – an orderly reoccurring arrangement of atoms- Possess the least amount of atomic movement- Have a definite shape

Liquids- Composed of atoms that are more loosely arranged- Freedom of movement - Has no definite shape

Gasses- Provides atoms with the highest degree of movement

Plasma- Not a common state as the other three- When atoms composed of gas become exposed to high energy that they begin to ionize (lose

electrons)• Ionize: heating the gas; gain and loss of electrons

- Electrically conductive - electrons can move somewhat independently- Responds strongly to electromagnetic fields

- Stars are composed of plasma

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• Hydrogen gas in plasma state held together by gravitational force- Many applications for plasma technology because there is no limit of movement - Plasma TV – Tiny cells between 2 panels of glass holds a mixture of noble gasses. The gases in the

cells is electrically turned into plasma which then excites phosphorus to emit light Very small and large screen with no breaking dots Produces light themselves (high energy efficiency and better colors) Good for animation because of its high response time Heavier than LCD Use up more electricity than LCD screens

Photoelectric: A phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from matter after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation such as x-ray or visible light

NUCLEAR FISSION The process where a large atomic nucleus is split into smaller particles (lighter nuclei) Energy is released – exothermic Creates a “nuclear waste” which requires a place to store them…called nuclear power plants Produces energy for nuclear power and drives explosion of nuclear weapons

NUCLEAR FUSION The process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together to form a single heavy atom results in the

release/absorption of large quantities of energy Occurs naturally in stars Requires about 10 million to convert H to H2 (Helium) Scientists expect to store heat in the form of plasma in order for the temperature to be that high We have not figured out a way to achieve nuclear fusion…hopefully in 20 years we will be able to



Freezing Condensation

Sublimation (Solid to Gas)

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The relationship between matter and energy in the universe is the fundamental cause for the existence of the living and non-living world

Astronomers ask…How come big stars like the sun produced so much energy? Relationship between matter and energy E = mc2

- E is energy, m is mass, c is speed of light =2.998*10 8Energy: the ability to do work or cause change

Matter exposed to energy is said to be “in motion” Classified into two basic forms… Kinetic Energy

- Energy of motion- Movement of the Earth around the Sun- Gasoline is the source of energy for our cars…but where is gasoline from?

Crude Oil – stored energy from dead ancient sea plants since these plants went through photosynthesis, it stores energy from the sun

Potential Energy- Stored energy- Animals and plants in the sea store energy through photosynthesis

The Law of the Conservation of Energy- We cannot get free energy and we can never lose energy - energy in = energy out- Using energy efficiency by limiting resources and duration of energy taken- Energy does not disappear but simply changes form/states

Human and the Universe*Astronomical Units*

Light Year (ly) – used to measure distance between celestial objects- 1 ly is the distance that light can travel in one year = 9.5*1015m

Parsec – 206,256 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun- 3.26 ly = 3.09*1013km

Astronomical Distance Units (AU) – Average distance between Earth and Sun because rotation is an elliptical cycle- 1AU = 150*106km- If the distance is more than 1 AU, the object is further from the sun than us

Universe: The whole space time continuum in which we exist together with all the energy and matter within it Age of the universe: 13,750 million years old Composed of an enormous number of galaxies = 2*10 11 galaxies Edward Hubble discovered expanding universe We need to know about the universe so that we can protect our Earth

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Galaxy: A massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants; an interstellar medium of gas, dust and dark matter

It is the first thing we see when we enter space On average, it is composed of 100,000 million (10 11) stars

- “Observable galaxy” – we cannot see the whole galaxy because the galaxy is constantly expanding; the further it is, the faster it is expanding and soon enough, it will expand as fast as speed of light

Consists of Neutron Hydrogen (Low temperature Hydrogen) on each hand of the galaxy- Nucleus of the Galaxy: No spectrum (no light reflection like other elements…different color reflects

each element compared to earth’s elements Magnetic field – lets astronomers to identify galaxies The distance between galaxies is about 150,000 light years (ly)

- Since the distance is super far, technically, the image we are seeing is light from the past

The Milky Way The galaxy that our we belong to – the Sun is on the Orion arm of the

Milky Way Consists of Hydrogen (produces red color) Average size of the galaxy is 150,00 ly = average distance between

galaxies Consists of about 1011 stars Rotates clockwise Looks like Andromeda galaxy –

- Through the use of radio signal emitted by neutral Hydrogen gas in the Milky Way(wavelength 21)

- Andromeda and Milky Way might collideStars: Hydrogen gas in plasma state (high temperature, hot surface) held together by gravitational force

Inside the sun only in the form of plasma - organic acids like the one found in red ants

Formic Acid is an acid produced by red ants, injected into human's body to hurt them - also found in the nucleus- Supernova: a violent explosion caused by a dying star; at the end of a star’s life

Why does life exist on Earth and not Mercury? Distance from the sun is far enough Atmosphere makes it suitable for human beings; Ozone Layers prevent cosmic radiation but ultraviolet

still passes through Mercury has extremely high temperature (500C during daytime), no air, atmosphere or water and

nothing to protect from falling stars


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One of the 800 stars in the solar system…and countless more in the Milky Way The average star in terms of mass (2×1030 kg), luminosity, and temperature Consists mostly of hydrogen and some helium, trace quantities of iron, O2, Nickel, S, Mg 5,000 million years old – it is going to survive for another 5,000 billion then it will die The distance between the Earth and the Sun is 1.5*108km = 1AU It takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds for light from the sun to reach earth If there’s gravity, the sun will shrink to the size of earth in an hour – the balance of nuclear fusion

expanding and the contracting of gravitational force keeps the sun alive

Transportation of HeatConvection: Heat is transferred through the movement of liquid or gas – hotter part rise, cooler part sinks

Best/most efficient method of heat transportationConduction: Heat is sent from atom to atom without moving – through medium or conductorRadiation: Electromagnetic wave traveling through space – no medium/vacuum until it comes in contact with another object and returns to heatGalaxy Classification (by physical characteristics)

Elliptical Galaxy

PROMINENCEA large, bright feature extending outwards from the Sun’s surface contains colder Plasma than the Corona

CHROMOSPHEREThin layer of the Sun’s atmosphere

COREContains Helium – the sun uses it to form energy in nuclear fusion; Energy is sent to other parts by convection and sent to the Earth by radiation

CORONAA type of plasma atmosphere of the sun; much hotter than the visible surface of the sun – doesn’t emit much visible light. Can be seen when eclipse occur

SOLAR FLAREExplosion in the Sun’s atmosphere – releases a lot of energy

SUNSPOTS• Dark spots on the surface due to lower temperature than the

surface temperature• Marked by intense magnetic activity which inhibits convection• Visible w/o a telescope• Used to predict space’s weather – helps predict conditions of

satellite communication • Every 11 years = sunspot occurrence

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- Older galaxies – more mass- Minimal star formation- Scattered interstellar matter (ISM)- Surrounded by Globular Clusters- Maffei 1, closest giant elliptical galaxy

Spiral Galaxy- Flat and rotating disc of mostly newly created stars and ISM or Spiral Arms

Consists of young stars Interstellar gases (H, N, C) Molecular clouds and space dust (where new stars are formed)

- Nucleus (“bulge”) of millions of older stars (10,000+ years), central concentration of stars spiral arms are sites of ongoing star formation

- A spherical halo of stars including globular clusters- A massive black hole at the center of the central bulge- Has momentum so it rotates (momentum = speed * mass) – the speed of rotation also allows

scientists to determine the mass of the galaxy- Normal Spiral: Arms extend directly from the nucleus (eg. Seyfert galaxy)- Barred Spiral: Arms extended from the cluster of stars (eg. the Milky Way)

Irregular Galaxy- Does not have a distinct, regular shape, uncommon – as a result from gravitational pull disorders- Dwarf galaxies orbiting around big galaxies- Large Magellanic Cloud

All galaxies are formed in an irregular shape - it is gravity that pulls it together then forms a spiral (which can be “Normal Spiral” or “Barred Spiral” then it will become an elliptical shape

Galaxy rotates clockwise while Arms rotates anti-clockwiseStar Clusters: group of stars holds together by gravity

Globular Clusters: A gravitationally bound group of stars, symmetrical shaped- 105 - 107 stars – old stars- 100 parsec (about 300 ly) in diameter- Found in halo of the galaxy, orbiting the galactic center (nucleus)

Halo – galactic disk surrounded by a spheroid hole of old stars and globular clusters Open Clusters: A small group of gravitationally bound stars

- 10 to few hundred stars – young stars- Found in or near the plane of the galaxy- Eg. Pleiades in Taurus that contains about 100 stars in a 10ly diameter

Interstellar Matter (ISM): all the gas and dust found between stars Composed of mostly Hydrogen (about 90%)…other 10% are Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Sulphur

- Why? Because stars are made of Hydrogen since Hydrogen has the simplest compositionNebula: a type of interstellar matter that can be seen by the naked eye; “cloud”

Emission Nebula: A cloud of hot ionized gas, mostly hydrogen with an emission-line spectrum

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- Emission-line spectrum: source of ionization (process that gas becomes so hot) is high energy photons produced by radiation from hot star

- Simply…gas becomes hot enough that it produces its own light- Fluorescence process: physical process that is responsible for producing light in the emission nebula

Emission spectrum: why gas cloud, low temperature can produce energy? produced by the radiation of a hot star embedded in a nebula

High energy photon from the hot star hits the electron. Then electron jumps into an excited state, and jumps back to ground state and releases energy in a form of light or emitted-line spectrum

Excess energy is released, it produces light Reflection Nebula: A bright cloud of gas and dust visible because of the reflection of starlight by dust

- Temperature of the star is too low to product its own fluorescent process Dark Nebula: An interstellar cloud of gas and dust that contains enough dust to blot out light of stars

behind it- Between Earth and these stars…cold ISM (clouds of gas) are thick that it prevents light from stars

Solar System Sun is at the center of the system 8 planets orbiting around the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Moons or satellites orbiting around these planets Pluto and Charon are now dwarf planets – still part of our solar system

Asteroids: Minor planet; one of several thousand small members of the solar system that revolve around the sun – generally between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

Some asteroids fall towards the Earth’s atmosphere as falling stars by most of them burn out before reaching the surface

Comets: small, solid particles (probably of rocky material) embedded in frozen gases evolving around the sun in highly elliptical orbits

Non-periodic: comes once, never again Periodic: Comes back in a particular period of time Origins of Comets: Oort’s Cloud and Kuiper’s Belt Oort’s Cloud: a spherical cloud of comet nuclei in the outermost part of the solar system

- Origins of long-period comets (comets that takes more than 200 years to rotate around the Sun)- formed at the time the solar system formed – reservoir for new comets- 100,000 AU in diameter- Oort’s Cloud doesn’t explain all comets so a smaller band of comets must exist inside Oort’s Cloud

Kuiper Belt: a disk-shaped region beyond Neptune’s orbit- Origins of short-period comets (ones that takes less than 200 years to rotate around the sun- 30-500 AU from the Sun (closer than Oort’s Cloud)- Eg. Halley’s Comet

NUMBERSDistance between the Sun and….

Earth (light&km)…………………………..8min & 20 sec. or 1 AU

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Kuiper belt....................................................30-500 AU Oort’s Cloud.................................................50,000 AU Proxima Centauri..........................................4 ly

Distance between galaxies…………………150,000 ly Distance between Andromeda and Earth…..2,000,000 ly

Milky Way Diameter……………………………...…….100,000 lyGlobular Cluster

Diameter……………………………...…….100 parsec Stars…………………………………………105-107 stars

Open Cluster Diameter…………………………………….1-20 parsec (from internet) Stars…………………………………………100 stars per 10 ly diameter

Big Bang…………………………………….13.7 billion years ago (from internet) Milky Way…………………………………..13.2 billion years old (from internet) Earth and Sun………………………………..4.6 billion years old

Unit 1 AU = 1.5 x 108 1 ly =9.5 x 1011 1 Parsec = 3.26 ly

General Galaxy is normally composed of how many stars = 1011 Wavelength of radio signal emitted by the neutral hydrogen gas in the Milky Way = 21 cm of wavelength Hot Star temperature = >20,000

STUFF FROM PREVIOUS YEARS... Nanotechnology - the study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Deals with

structures sized about 1 nanometer (10 -9m) and - Involves developing meterials or devices within that size

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- Consists of process such as separation, consolidation, deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule

- Eg. skin care, muscle pain cream

Black Hole - theoretical celestial object with a strong gravitational attraction that prevents light from escaping its surface at the end of the nucleus of the galaxy

Meteoroids - a sand to boulder-sized of debris in the solar system. - Meteor - when it enters Earth's atmosphere - Meteorite - when it reaches the surface of the Earth

Ionosphere - a layer of the Earth's atmosphere where there exists a larger number of ions and free electrons

Stratosphere – an ozone layer of the atmosphere Ozone – colorless, gaseous compound composed of three atoms of oxygen Protostar – A stage in the life cycle of a star when a stellar nebula has collapsed and nuclear fusion is

beginning to occur, forming an embryonic star. Main sequence – Main life of the star which is the current stage of the Sun. Red Giant – The star that suddenly and temporarily brightens, though to be due to new material being

deposited on the surface of the star Superconductor material

- Useful in many industries- No resistance or friction, “absolute zero”- Application: produces strong magnetic field for high speed train in China and Germany


Describe Isotopes, give examples of how Isotopes are applied in the medical field Explain the Plasma state of matter, give examples of using the knowledge of plasma-state materials Sketch the Milky Way galaxy and label the locations of the following celestial objects (1) Solar System (2)

Globular Clusters (3) Open Clusters What is the molecular cloud and what is its composition? Something about the ISM? What is Timeline Information? What is the Milky Way and how do we know the structure of the Milky Way? What is the Superconductor? What is ISM? What is the visible nebula? Chemical components of the Nebula?

Essay What is the Scientific Method? How do we apply the Scientific Method to solving Global Warming Define technology and write an essay on the progressive evolutionary developments of human

technology (technology timeline)

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Write an essay about the four states of materials What must be the state of the materials in the Sun and explain the reason why? Write down one example of the industrial products on market nowadays that used the knowledge of

plasma-state materials Express your opinion on the impact of our society in the future derived from the plasma technology Write an essay about the three celestial objects (1)Solar System (2) Globular Clusters (3) Open Clusters Describe our Milky Way

- Milky Way is a galaxy which our solar system is located. It consists of about 1011 stars and a diameter of 100,000 ly. It is mostly contained with dark matter. It has 3 basic components including the nucleus, the disc, and the halo. In the nucleus, there are lots of old stars. In the disc, the densest part is a galactic plane which contained open clusters, small groups of new stars held by gravitational force. In the halo, there are globular clusters, which is a group of old stars held by gravitational force. It was thought to be a normal spiral galaxy but later it is proved that it is a barred spiral galaxy which has nucleus in the center and has arms from the clusters of stars.

Nanotechnology- What is Nanotechnology? The science of creating highly miniature machines that w- What are some of the applications of nanotechnology?

Nebula- What is the nebula? A type of interstellar matter means “cloud”; it is the gas and dust found

between stars that can be seen by the naked eye or small telescopes- What are the 3 groups of nebulae?

Emission Nebulae Reflection Nebulae Dark Nebulae

- What are the main composition of nebulae? 90% Hydrogen, the other 10% are Helium, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Oxygen, Carbon

- What is the physical process responsible for illuminating the nebulae? Fluorescent Process. As electrons cloud surround an atom’s nucleus, this process starts when an electron hits a high-energy photon. Before hitting the high-energy photon, the electron is in its normal state by when it hits the photon, it becomes excited and starts hitting other electrons. Through this process, light is emitted which is called the emission-line spectrum