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Tupolev Tu-154 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tu-154

Slovak Air Force Tupolev Tu-154M Role Narrow-body jet airliner Soviet Union/Russia Tupolev

National origin Manufacturer

Designer Tupolev Design Bureau First flight Introduction Status 4 October 1968 February 7, 1972; 40 years ago (Aeroflot)

Out of production, In service UTair

Primary users Yakutia Airlines

Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise Tajik Air Produced Number built Unit cost 19682011[1] 1025 $45 million[citation needed]

Variants Tupolev Tu-155 The Tupolev Tu-154 (Russian: -154; NATO reporting name: Careless) is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid 1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. As the mainstay 'workhorse' of Soviet and (subsequently) Russian airlines for several decades, it serviced over a sixth of the world's landmass and carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries (137.5 million/year or 243.8 billion passenger kilometers in 1990). Having been exported and operated by 17 non-Russian airlines and a number of air forces, it remained the standard domestic route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid 2000s. With a cruising speed of 975 kilometres per hour (606 mph), the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in operation and has a range of 5,280 kilometres (3,280 mi). Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields, it was widely used in extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern and eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate and where service facilities were very basic. With a service life of 45,000 hours (18,000 cycles) but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it is expected to continue operations until

2016, although noise regulations have seen services to western Europe and other areas restricted. In January 2010, Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years of service with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009.[2] Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft or by its extensive use in demanding conditions.[3][4] Contents [hide] 1 Development 2 Design 3 Variants 4 Operators 4.1 Civil operators 4.2 Former civil operators 4.3 Military operators 4.3.1 Current 4.3.2 Former 5 Incidents and accidents 6 Specifications 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links [edit]Development

The Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot's requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104, the Antonov An-10 'Ukraine' and the Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of 16 18 tonnes (35,00040,000 lb) with a range of 2,8504,000 kilometres (1,7702,500 mi) while cruising at a speed of 900 km/h (560 mph), or a payload of 5.8 tonnes (13,000 lb) with a range of 5,8007,000 kilometres (3,6004,300 mi) while cruising at 850 km/h (530 mph). A take-off distance of 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) at maximum take-off weight was also stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, and the Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu154 would be marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62. The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot's anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s.[5]

The first project chief was Sergey Yeger but in 1964, Dmitryi S. Markov assumed that position. In 1975 he turned it over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt.[6] The Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight (mail) services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009, despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006.[7] 1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which are still in service as of 14 December 2009.[8] [edit]Design

Tu-154M of Cubana The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged similarly to those of the Boeing 727, but it is slightly larger than its American counterpart. Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle (number 2) engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a relatively high thrust to weight ratio which gave excellent performance, although at the expense of poorer fuel efficiency, which became an important factor in later decades as fuel costs grew. The flight deck is fitted with conventional dual yoke control columns. The cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, and up to 180 passengers in high-density layout. The layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are also smaller than on its Boeing and Airbus counterparts. Furthermore, luggage space in the overhead compartments is very limited. Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35 at the quarter-chord line. The British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a slightly smaller sweepback angle of 32. The wing also has anhedral (downward sweep) which is a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have Dihedral (upward sweep). The anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but also have weaker dutch roll tendencies, eliminating the need for a yaw damper.

Tu-154M on departure at Domodedovo airport Like many other Soviet-built airliners, the Tu-154 has an oversized landing gear enabling it to land on unpaved runways, once common in rural areas of the Soviet Union. The aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings (a common

Tupolev feature), plus a two-wheel nose gear unit. Soft oleo struts (shock absorbers) provide a much smoother ride on bumpy airfields than most airliners, which only very rarely operate on such poor surfaces. The original requirement was to have a three-person flight crew captain, first officer and flight engineer as opposed to 4/5-person crew on other Soviet airliners. A fourth crew member, a navigator, is usually also present in the former Soviet Union, due to union rules. Navigators are no longer trained and this profession will become obsolete with the retirement of older Soviet-era planes. The plane's avionics suite, for the first time in the Soviet Union, is built to American airworthiness standards[citation needed]. The latest variant (Tu-154M-100, introduced 1998) includes an NVU-B3 Doppler navigation system, a triple autopilot, which provides an automatic ILS approach according to ICAO category II weather minima, an autothrottle, a Doppler drift and speed measure system (DISS), "Kurs-MP" radio navigation suite and others[citation needed]. Modern upgrades normally include a TCAS, GPS and other modern systems, mostly American or EU-made. Early versions of the Tu-154 cannot be modified to meet the current Stage III noise regulations and are banned from flying where those regulations are in force, such as Europe. The Tu-154M may use hush kits to meet Stage III and theoretically Stage IV. However, current European Union regulations forbid the use of hush kits to meet Stage IV[citation needed]. The Tu-154M would need to be re-engined to meet Stage IV within the EU, an extensive and potentially expensive upgrade[citation needed]. [edit]Variants

Yakutia Airlines Tu-154M

LOT Polish Airlines Tu-154M

Air Koryo Tu-154B-2

Tu-155 Many variants of this airliner have been built. Like its western counterpart, the 727, many of the Tu-154s in service have been hush-kitted, and some converted to freighters. Tu-154

Tu-154 production started in 1970, while first passenger flight was performed at 9 February 1972. Powered by Kuznetsov NK-8-2 turbofans, it carried 164 passengers. About 42 were built. Tu-154A The first upgraded version of the original Tu-154, the A model, in production since 1974, added center-section fuel tanks and more emergency exits, while engines were upgraded to higher-thrust Kuznetsov NK-8-2U. Other upgrades include automatic flaps/slats and stabilizer controls and modified avionics. Max. take-off weight 94,000 kg (207,235 lb). There were 15 different interior layouts for the different domestic and international customers of the airplane, seating between 144 and 152 passengers. The easiest way to tell the A model from the base model is by looking at the spike at the junction of the fin and tail; this is a fat bullet on the A model rather than a slender spike on the base model.[9] Tu-154B As the original Tu-154 and Tu-154A suffered wing cracks after only a few years in service, a version with a new, stronger wing, designated Tu-154B, went into production in 1975. It also had an extra fuel tank in fuselage, extra emergency exits in the tail, and the maximum take-off weight increased to 98,000 kg (216,053 lb). Also important to Aeroflot was that the increased passenger capacity led to lower operating costs. As long as the airplane had the NK-8-2U engines the only way to improve the economics