Uncovering Troy - Turkish Cultural Foundationturki .Uncovering Troy Prepared by ... site of Troy

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  • UncoveringTroyPreparedbyWhitneyHumphreyLessonspreparedfor57thgradestudents.Five6090minuteclassperiods.ImportanceofArcheology:Archaeologyisthestudyoftheancientandrecenthumanpastthroughmaterialremains.Theseremainsknownasartifactsareobjectsmadeorusedbypeoplefromagiventimeandlocation.Througharchaeologicalfindswecantellwhyandhowpeoplelived,examinechangesandthecausesofthosechangesinhumanculture,andseektolookatpatternsovertime.Thefieldofarcheologyconcentratesonboththerecoveryandthestudyofphysicalevidencetounderstandearlyhumanlife.Frommillionyearoldfossilizedremainsofourearliesthumanancestorsto20thcenturybuildings,archeologyanalyzesthephysicalremainsofthepastwiththeaimtounderstandhumanculture.Itsstudycontributesgreatlytotheunderstandingofbothancientandrecentpast.Thefieldofstudyspansallgeographicregionsandalltimeperiodsinhabitedbyhumankind.Eventhesmallestofarcheologicalsitescanrevealagreatamountofinformationaboutthepeoplewhooncedwelledupontheland.Purpose:Throughexperiencingtheactivitiesintheselessonsstudentswillunderstandthescopeofworkthatanarcheologistengagesinandtheprocessbywhichtheyrecoverandanalyzeartifacts.Studentswillbeginbylookingatlocalarcheologicaldigstobuildtheirunderstanding.Additionally,studentswillengageinacasestudyofthehistoricalsiteofTroy(Hissarlik,Turkey).TheywillapplytheseexperiencesinordertodrawconclusionsaboutthecultureandpeoplesinthiscasestudytoindividualresearchprojectsofarchaeologicalsitesthroughoutbroaderTurkey.LocalEngagement:BeforetakingstudentstotheChacoCultureNationalHistoricalParkreviewwiththemtheculturalfeaturesofthePueblopeoplesaswellastheorganizationalandengineeringabilitiesthattheyareknownforintheAmericanSouthwest.ChacoCanyonwascentraltothelivesofthousandsofpeoplebetween850and1250A.D.Thecanyonwasadestinationforancientceremonies,trade,andpoliticalactivityduringprehistorictimes.Thehighlyorganizedlargescalestructures,featuringmultistoreyconstructionandsophisticatedcoursedmasonry,illustratethecomplexityofChacosocialstructure.Structuresincludewallsbuiltofsandstoneandmudmortar,standingmorethanfivestoriestall,pineroofbeams,andwellpreservedarchaeologicalremainsthatprovideacomprehensivepictureoftheChacoculture.Somanystructureshavesurvivedduetohighqualitycraftsmanshipandthedry,remotelocation.Thepropertysgoodstateofpreservationmeansthatmanywalls,tools,personalgoods,andotherobjectsofinformationremainintheiroriginalcontext.

  • Duringandafterthevisitationtotheculturalcenterbesuretodiscussquestionsofthefollowingnaturewithyourstudents.

    Whatroledidmembersinthecommunityplay? Inwhatwayswherethecommunitybroughttogethertoshareculture? Howdidnaturalresourcesimpactthelivesofthecommunitymembers? Isthereevidenceofchangesinthecommunitieswayoflifeovertime? Howarethehomesreflectiveoftheregioninwhichthesepeoplelived?

    Transition:IntroducestudentstotheancientstoryofHelenofTroy.Thereareseveralwaystoachievethis.ForolderstudentsshowtheDVD,HelenofTroybySiennaGuillory.ForeducatorswantingtoofferstudentsanopportunitytoengageinpracticinglanguageartsskillsseeAppendixAattheendofthislesson.AnotheroptionistorecountthestoryandtheimportanceofthecityofTroyorally,withorwithout,aslideshowtoaccompanytherecitation.ProceduresforCaseStudy:

    1. SharethefollowingimageswithstudentsasyoudiscusstheprocessofuncoveringthesiteofTroybyHeinrichSchliemannandtheimpactithadonthearcheologicalcommunity,aswellastheethicsofuncoveringvaluableartifacts.

  • BackgroundFactsonTroy: In1870peopleknewlittleaboutarcheologyandwerecarelessanddidnotrecorddata

    andfindingsproperly. Broadtrenchesweredugacrosshillsidesinsteadof5footby5footsquaresresultingin

    destructionofmuchofthehillsideatTroy. Importantsitessuchasthislocationareoftenoccupiedovertimebymanyhumansfor

    thousandsofyearsresultinginmanynewcitiesbeingbuiltontheoldruinsofthepreviouscity.

    ThreeyearsafterbeginningthedigSchliemannfoundfurthercitywalls,analtar,andapavedroad.Apalacewasuncoveredinadditiontoahoardofpreciousobjects.

    SchliemanndiscoveredacacheofobjectswhichhethoughtwasKingPriamstreasurebutlaterwastobediscoveredthatthejewelsandshieldsweresomethousandyearsolderthantheIliadsTroy.

    ModerndatingofarcheologicalfindsplacescitiesonthesiteofTroyfrom3000BCtoAD400.Therearenolessthanninecitiestherenow.

    2. Dividestudentsintolargetablegroupsinwhichtheywillanalyzeartifactsthathavebeen

    foundatthesiteofTroy.Thegoalisforeachgroupofstudentstobegintothinkabouthowpeoplelivedintheregionandtheimportanceoftheartifacttotheirlives.Recommendedartifactsincludeimagesofsewagesystems,wells,cityplans,amphitheaters,walls,andpottery.(Seesamplesattheendofthisdocument.)Aftereachgrouphashadtimetoreviewtheartifact,discussitsimportance,andtakenotesrotatetheartifactsaroundtheclassforallgroupstoanalyze.

    3. Attheendofthelessonhavestudentschoosetwoofthesequestionstorespondtoin

    theformofashortessay. Wholivedhere,andwhen? Whatkindsofstructuresdidthesepeopleleavebehind? Whatelsedidthesepeopleleavebehind? Whatpracticesorcustomsdidthesepeoplefollow? Whathappenedtothepeoplewholivedhere?

    ProceduresforIndependentResearch:

    1.Dividetheclassintosmallgroupsthatwilleachresearchandorallyreportononeancientsiteuncoveredbyarchaeologists.Thegoalisfortheclassasawholetogainanappreciationforthevariationsandsimilaritiesamonggeographicallydifferentregionsinacountryandanunderstandingofscientists'andsocialscientists'studyofancientcultureswithtinTurkey.

    Assignoneofthefollowingarchaeologicalsites(orothersthatyoumayprefertofocuson)toeachofyourgroups:

    Troy(Hissarlik,Turkey) Aphrodisias

  • Catalhoyuk Ephesus GobekliTepe MountNemrut Pergamon Alacahoyuk

    2.Asaclass,comeupwithaseriesofquestionsthatmightbeaskedaboutanypriorcivilizationandthatstudentsshouldbeabletoanswerthroughresearchintotheworkofmodernarchaeologists.ThesemightbeginwiththesamequestionsyouaskedattheendofthecasestudyaboutTroyanddevelopintomorespecificinterestsofthestudents.

    3.Makesurestudentsuseuptodatereferences.Pointouttostudentsthatscientistsworkingatarchaeologicalsitesgeneratetheoriesthatastimepassesareconfirmed,modified,orreplacedwithnewtheories.Encourageyourstudents,ifpossible,tomentionintheirreportsearlytheoriesabouttheirsitesthatdidnotholduponfurtherstudy.4.Directthegroupstocollectorcreatevisualaidstouseaspartoftheirreportsonarchaeologicalsites.Thesemightincludecityplansshowingwhichstructuresmayhavestoodwhere,mapsshowingwherethesitesareinrelationtoothercitiesorcountries,photographsshowingarchaeologistsatwork,ortheartifactstheyfound,andsoon.

    Evaluation:

    Youcanevaluatestudents'groupworkusingthefollowingthreepointrubric:Threepoints:substantialfactualinformationincludingvisualsanswerstoorcommentsaboutallquestionswellpacedandclearlyarticulatedoralpresentationsTwopoints:substantialfactualinformationincludingvisualsanswerstoorcommentsaboutmostquestionsoralpresentationstoosloworfastandnotclearlyenougharticulatedOnepoint:notenoughfactualinformationorvisualsincompleteanswerstoorcommentsaboutquestionspoorlypacedandunclearlyarticulatedoralpresentationsYoucanaskyourstudentstocontributetotheassessmentrubricbydeterminingthenumberoffactstheoralreportsshouldcontain.

    Adaptations/Extension:

    1. ForadditionalsupportorextensionseelessonplansonhowanArcheologicalDigcanbesimulatedwithintheclassroom.

    http://www.nps.gov/inde/learn/education/upload/archeology-lesson-plans-september-2011.pdf

  • Bibliography

    ARCHAEOLOGICALSITESINTURKEY.ArchaeologicalsitesinTurkey.Web.17Nov.2015.

    ChacoCulture.UNESCOWorldHeritageCentre.Web.17Nov.2015.

    Devereux,Paul.Archaeology:TheStudyofOurPast.Milwaukee,WI:GarethStevensPub.,

    2002.Print.

    Introduction.ArchaeologyforEducatorsFromtheSocietyforAmericanArchaeology.Web.

    17Nov.2015.

    Panchyk,Richard.ArchaeologyForKids:UncoveringtheMysteriesofOurPast:25Activities.

    Chicago:ChicagoReviewPress,2001.Print.

    UnitedStates.NationalParkService.ChacoCultureNationalHistoricalPark(U.S.National

    ParkService).NationalParksService.U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior,Apr.2015.Web.

    17Nov.2015.

    Ventura,Piero,andGianPaoloCeserani.InSearchofTroy.Morristown,NJ:SilverBurdett,

    1985.Print.

  • AppendixA

    TheTrojanWarisoneofthemostfamouswarsinhistory.Itiswellknownforthe10yearduration,fortheheroismofanumberoflegendarycharacters,andfortheTrojanhorse.Whatmaynotbefamiliar,however,isthestoryofhowthewarbegan.AccordingtoGreekmyth,thestrifebetweentheTrojansandtheGreeksstartedattheweddingofPeleus,KingofThessaly,andThetis,aseanymph.AllofthegodsandgoddesseshadbeeninvitedtotheweddingcelebrationinTroyexceptEris,goddessofdiscord.Shehadbeenomittedfromtheguestlistbecauseherpresencealwaysembroiledmortalsandimmortalsalikeinconflict.Totakerevengeonthosewhohadslightedher,Erisdecidedtocauseaskirmish.Intothemiddleofthebanquethall,shethrewagoldenapplemarked"forthemostbeautiful."Allofthegoddessesbegantohaggleoverwhoshouldpossessit.ThegodsandgoddessesreachedastalematewhenthechoicewasnarrowedtoHera,Athena,andAphrodite.Someonewasneededtosettlethecontroversybypickingawinner.ThejobeventuallyfelltoParis,sonofKingPriamofTroy,whowassaidtobeagoodjudgeofbeauty.Parisdidnothaveaneasyjob.Eachgoddess,eagertowinthegoldenapple,triedaggressivelytobribehim."I'llgrantyouvastkingdomstorule,"promisedHera."Vastkingdomsarenothingincomparisonwithmygift,"contradictedAthena."ChoosemeandI'llseethatyouwinvictoryandfameinwar."Aphroditeoutdidheradversaries,however.ShewonthegoldenapplebyofferingHelen,daughterofZeusandthemostbeautifulmortalintheland,toParis.Paris,anxioustoclaimHelen,setoffforSpartainGreece.AlthoughParislearnedthatHelenwasmarried,heneverthelessacceptedthehospitalityofherhusband,KingMenelausofSparta.Therefore,

  • MenelauswasoutragedforanumberofreasonswhenParisdeparted,takingHelenandmuchoftheking'swealthbacktoTroy.MenelauscollectedhisloyalforcesandsetsailforTroytobeginthewartoreclaimHelen.1.Eriswasknownfor_________bothmortalsandimmortals.A.schemingagainstB.creatingconflictamongstC.f