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• Unit 2 Transformations and RIGID MOTIONS

Summary Sheet

1. Pre-image: the shape that you start with.

2. Image: The new shape after the mapping (transformation) takes place.

3. A TRANSFORMATION is when you have the same number of points in the pre-image as in the image.

1 Example of Transformation 1 NON-Example of a Transformation

4. RIGID MOTION (also known as an isometric transformation) is a transformation that results in an image

that is CONGRUENT to the pre-image.

• PRESERVED: Distances, angle measures, parallelism, collinearity,

5. Orientation is the direction (clockwise/counterclockwise) in which the vertices are lettered.

o Direct Rigid Motion is when orientation is preserved from pre-image to image.

o Opposite Rigid Motion is when orientation is reversed from pre-image to image.

LINE REFLECTIONS REVERSE ORIENTATION!

6. TYPES OF ISOMETRIC TRANSFORMATIONS:

a. Line Reflections: Always Reverses Orientation (AKA Opposite Isometry)

o rx-axis (x, y) → (x, -y)

o ry-axis (x, y)→ (-x, y)

o ry=x (x, y) → (y, x)

o ry= - x (x, y) → (-y, -x)

o reflection in any other line, graph and count!

Points on line of reflection are INVARIANT

Pre-image to Image PATHS are: Parallel, Not Equal.

b. Point Reflections: Same as a rotation of 180°. Always PRESERVES Orientation.

(AKA Direct Isometry)

o rorigin or ro (x, y) → (-x, - y)

o reflection in any other point, graph and count!

Point of reflection should be the midpoint between the

pre-image and image.

You can always count the number of spaces

(perpendicular to the line of reflection) and

then continue that number of spaces to

You can always count the number of

spaces (to the point of reflection) and

then continue that number of spaces to

x = # is a VERTICAL LINE

Y = # is a HORIZONTAL LINE

• c. Rotations: Always PRESERVES orientation.

(AKA Direct Isometry) Positive rotations Counter Clockwise

Negative rotations Clockwise

o R O,90 (x, y) → (-y, x)

o R O, 180 (x, y)→ (-x, - y)

o R O, 270 (x, y) → (y, - x)

Points on center of rotation are INVARIANT

Pre-image to Image PATHS are : NOT Parallel, Not Equal.

(+) Rotation (-) Rotation

COUNTER- CLOCKWISE

CLOCKWISE

Equivalent Rotations : example R90 is equivalent to R -270. The images will be in the same location!

d. Translations: Always Direct Isometry.

o , b (x, y) → (x + a, y + b) Ta o < a, b > is vector notation for a translation.

NO Invariant Points

Pre-image to Image PATHS are : Parallel, Equal

7. SYMMETRY:

a. Line Symmetry (reflectional symmetry) A set of points has line symmetry if and only if there is a line, l, such that the reflection through l of each point of the set is also a point of the set.

b. Rotational Symmetry An object has rotational symmetry if there is a center point around which

the object is turned (rotated) a certain number of degrees and the object looks the same.

o Regular Polygons ���

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You can always rotate your paper and

note the new coordinates. Then return

your paper to the normal position and

plot the image point.

You can always count the translation.

x + # moves RIGHT

x - # moves left

Y + # moves UP

Y - # moves DOWN

• c. Point Symmetry: exists when a figure is built around a single point called the center of the

figure. For every point in the figure, there is another point found directly opposite it on the other

side of the center.

9. 2 figures are CONGRUENT if one figure can be mapped onto the other using one or more rigid motions.

a. CLUES:

i. Orientation reversed look for a single line reflection (or an odd number of line reflections)

ii. Paths not parallel look for a rotation (use patty paper)

iii. Can always try to translate obvious points 1st then go from there!

10. Composition of transformations: when a transformation is performed to get an image point and then that

image point is used to find a second image point. DO not go back to pre-image.

A simple test to determine whether a

figure has point symmetry is to turn it

upside-down and see if it looks the

same. A figure that has point

symmetry is unchanged in appearance by

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