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Unit 11 Intelligence and PersonalityHumanistic and Trait Perspectives to PersonalityHumanistic Perspective
1960sFreud was so negativeSkinner was so mechanical
There must be some other way to describe us in a positive lightIf Freud and psychoanalysis asks, Why are you sick? then Humanistic psychology must ask what?
Maslow and the Self-Actualizing PersonHumans are motivated by what?Came up with idea by studying the healthyHumanistic psychology strives to study those that are self-determined and self-realized
What do Thomas Jefferson, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt all have in common?Share common characteristicsSelf-aware, self-accepting, open and spontaneous, not paralyzed by opinions of others
Maslows studiesMY MISSION IN LIFE ISPeople who are moved by peak experiences (spiritual or personal) reach self actualizationWhich arousal theory works best here?Conclusion?Bandura and Social-Cognitive PerspectiveEmphasized the interaction of our traits with our situationsSelf-efficacyCarl Rogers and the Person Centered PerspectiveBelieved people were born good with self-actualizing tendencies (meaning he agreed with whom?)Growth according to 3 key areas
Personal Growth1. GenuinenessOpen about feelings, self disclosing
Unconditional positive regard for lifeGraceKnowing our failings, accepting them Speak in I statements2. 3. EmpathySharing and mirroring our feelings with our truthsAka LISTENING and not just hearing
Rogers contdIdea of the self concept
Self-conceptPositive self-concept: we act and perceive our world positively (can reach and be satisfied with goals)Negative self-concept: we fall short of our ideal selfExamples with grades?
Conclusion: be true to yourself and youll be happyWhen you feel heard, youre more likely to listenHow do you calculate self-concept?Rogers used interviews, questionnaires, and conversationsQuestionnaires alone are not personal enough Concluded that a positive self concept occurs when your ideal self and your actual self are closely related by scoreHumanistic Perspective isEVERYWHERE Pervasive in societyExamples?
Criticisms of Humanistic PsychologyFocus too much on the positiveGo back to TJ, FDR, Eleanor are there any others that are self-actualized according to Maslow that may come from the other side of the spectrum?
Other criticismsCulture: collectivist vs. individualSelf-actualization and self-concept have to deal with the selfWhat happens in your life is based on the whole?Humanistic psych is IDEALIST, what about those who identify as REALIST?Perspective encourages hope without reality of evil in the world
Trait Perspectives in Personality
Gordon AllportUsed labels less explaining, more describing
Central traitsReliable, silly, smart
Secondary traitsYou cant take him to a restaurantShe gets angry when you try to tickle herRaymond CattellUsed Allports adjectivesFactor analysisPeople rate themselves16PF 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire
Eysenck and Eysenck Biological trait theoryIntroversion and extroversionUnstable and stablepsychoticismMost normal people will fall somewhere in the middleBiological Perspective (minor)Sheldon somatotypes (personality based on genetics)Endomorphs: social, amiableMesomorphs: assertive, adventurousEctomorophs: emotionally restrained, secretiveMBTIDeclared preferencesNot a research instrument (not linked to performance) not conclusiveCan be used as a counseling and coaching tool
The Big 5 ModelCosta and McCraePersonality is organized around only 5 basic factors
The Big 5Answer to Eysencks dimensionsBig 5 is used more today than anything elseTake inventory -CANOE in an OCEAN
Reciprocal DeterminismAssessing Traits: MMPI Personality inventoriesMMPIMinnesota Multiphasic Personality InventoryAssesses abnormal personality tendencies rather than normal traitsEmpirically derived data based on discrimination among groupsAssessing the trait perspectivePersonality changes over time, yet consistent thru social developmentNot predictableScores on inventories mildly predictUseful as descriptive OF behavior, does not offer explanation of the DEVELOPMENT of personality