Unit 2: Latin American Revolutions & The Rise of Nationalism Chapter 24

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Only ones who could hold political office

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Unit 2: Latin American Revolutions & The Rise of Nationalism Chapter 24 I.Latin American Colonial Society A. Influenced by French Revolution, Enlightenment, and American Revolution B. Similarly unjust social structure cture Only ones who could hold political office II. Revolutions in Latin America A. Haiti 1. French colony: enslaved nearly 500,000 Africans on plantations 2. August 1791: led by Toussaint LOuverture a. Purposefully timed at the same time as the revolution in France b. LOuverture removed from power in 1802, but colony freed in 1804 i. First black colony to free itself from European control B. The Spanish colonies 1. Revolutions led by Creoles a. Best educated of all classes read about and adopted Enlightenment ideals after travel to Europe b. Inspired to revolt after Napoleon took over Spain in the Peninsular War and put his brother on the thronefelt no loyalty to a French King 2. Venezuela a. Led by Simon Bolivar: defeated the Spanish in 1821 after a march over the Andes Mountains 2. Venezuela 3. Argentina a. Technically independent since 1816, but still threatened by Spanish forces in Chile and Peru b. Revolutionary leader Jos de San Martn met up with Simon Bolivar i. San Martin handed over control of Argentinian armies to Bolivar: defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho 4. Mexico a. Unique because revolution was led by mestizos/mulattos, not creoles i. Due to the fact that ethnic and racial groups mixed more freely b. Padre Miguel Hidalgo (priest): rang the bells of the village church and called for rebellion against the Spanish peninsulares i. Grito de Dolores (Cry of Dolores) ii. Easily gained followers because he was poor, but well-educated iii. Developed army of over 80,000 mestizos and mulattos: c. Defeats for the rebels i. Spanish army defeated Hidalgo in Rebel army taken over by Padre Jos Maria Morelos (another priest) ii. Morelos defeated in 1815 by a creole officer, Agustn de Iturbide: Spanish appeared to be winning the war d. 1820: The tide turns i. Revolution in Spain: new ruling party was very liberal, and Spanish colonists feared losing their rightscreoles joined the independence movement, led by de Iturbide aa. Mexican independence declared in 1821 C. Brazil 1. Portuguese colony until Unique revolution: very little bloodshed a. Supported in its independence by a member of the Portuguese crown III. Revolutions in Europe A. Congress of Vienna tried to minimize the spread of French revolutionary ideals: restore previous monarchies and territorial divisions that existed prior to Napoleons wars 1. Successful: no more international wars 2. Unsuccessful: Enlightenment ideas about self-rule had already spread B. Philosophical Conflicts 1. Conservatives: Wealthy property owners and nobility, pro-monarchy 2. Liberals: middle-class business leaders and merchants: favored elected parliaments, but only wanted to give the vote to landowners 3. Radicals: Favored drastic changes to extend democracy to all people of all social classes C. Nationalism: Developed out of debates between 3 philosophies 1. Usually favored by liberals or radicals major challenge to conservative ideals of monarchy 2. Belief that the peoples greatest loyalty should not be to a ruler, but to the idea of a statea nation of people who share a common history a. Only England and Spain functioned as nation-states: other regions were not yet fully united D. Challenges to conservative power s uprisings a. Old Order that Congress of Vienna tried to preserve was actively breaking down b. Liberals and radicals actively challenging conservatives across Europe: riots in Belgium, Italy, Poland i. Eventually crushed, but not for long 2. Revolutions of 1848 a. Ethnic uprisings (map pg. 679) led to political instability b. Constant see-saw between liberal gains and conservative re-takeovers c. Overall: Failed to do much to unite countries into nation-states d. Except in France e. and in Russia i. Was deeply behind the rest of Europe in terms of modernization ii. Czar Alexander II began moving Russia towards industrialization after a humiliating defeat in the Crimean War: freed the serfs IV. Artistic Revolutions A. Romanticism 1. Deep interest in nature a. Especially untamed nature and a simpler time 2. Focus on thoughts/feelings and emotion rather than reason a. Idealized the past, the supernatural, folk tales 3. Writing a. Wordsworth, Lord Byron, John Keats, Victor Hugo i. Fairy tales, passionate love, rebellious heroes, tragedy b. Gothic novels: Frankenstein 4. Composers a. Movement away from tightly controlled, formal rules b. Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, Wagner i. Dramatic, theatrical, use of minor chords B. Realism 1. Showed life as it was, not how it should be 2. Opposite of romanticism 3. Photography: new art of the industrial era 4. Writers a. Described struggle for wealth and power documented political struggles i. Dickens: Londons working poor C. Impressionism 1. Rebellion against realism 2. Tried to show their impression of a subject or a moment in time a. Pure, shimmering colors and use of light 3. More positive view of new society than Realists a. Monet, Degas, Renoir: artists 4. Composers: music evoked particular sensationsflashing lights, sea waves a. Debussy D. ALL of these changes were a result of industialization