Unit 3: Nationalism Spreads to the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Chapter 25. Essential Questions. What causes people to develop feelings of nationalism? Is seeking divisions/enemies/others an inevitable part of human nature? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 25Unit 3: Nationalism Spreads to the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin AmericaEssential QuestionsWhat causes people to develop feelings of nationalism?
Is seeking divisions/enemies/others an inevitable part of human nature?
Is it possible for humans to define who they are without comparing themselves to who they are not?
What are the pros and cons of nationalism?
What are the modern-day implications of decisions made during this time period around the world?Ottoman Empire During WWIBackgroundOttoman Empire founded in the 1300s At its height controlled most of the Middle East, North Africa, large parts of EuropeBy WWI much weaker, Sick man of EuropeSided with the Germans/Central Powers in WWI, was defeated by the AlliesNationalism in the Ottoman Empire Before/During WWINationalism appealed to a small elite (ex. Young Turks) but not to most people before WWIDuring WWI, extreme nationalists took control of Ottoman GovernmentOttoman Empire was culturally and ethnically very diverse, lots of religions, lots of ethnic minorities, why would that be a problem for ultra-nationalists?Result: Armenian Genocide, 1 to 1.5 million people killedDecline of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire becomes Turkish RepublicTreaty of SevresTreaty signed by Turkey after the end of WWI (Turkeys version of the Versailles Treaty)Turkey lost all its possessions in the Middle EastAllied countries occupied large chunks of TurkeyBritain/Francesoutheast cornerGreecewestern coastItalysouthwestern coastInternational Zonenorthwest cornerOttoman Sultan unable to do anything to repel the foreign invadersSultan overthrown by the military, Mustafa KemalMustafa Kemal pushed all foreigners off of Turkish landRepublic of Turkey established, Mustafa Kemal became first president
Modern Turkey under AtaturkModernizing Turkey: Mustafa Kemal wanted Turkey to become more like the WestLast names: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (father of the Turks)Arabic alphabet replaced with Roman alphabet5 year plan to encourage industrializationSecularization: outward signs of religion banned (no veils for women), religious toleration institutedWestern styles of dress: no fez hats for menEducation: free public school establishedWomens rights: legal equality for women, women encouraged to go to school and work outside the home, voting rights for women (1934)Ataturk Introducing the New Alphabet to a Turkish Village
Ataturks Legacy TodayAtaturks ideas still are very influential in TurkeyNationalismSecularismRepublicanismProblem: Turkey was/is a very religious place, lots of people didnt like Ataturks reformsAtaturk hand-picked candidates for the Turkish Parliament, only his political party was allowed, all other political parties were bannedSince Ataturks death the military and the courts have seen themselves as the guardians of his legacyOften elections would put very religious politicians into power, who wanted to dismantle some of Ataturks reforms, the military would overthrow those elected politicians. (1960, 71, 80, 97) Is that right?Since 2002 Turkey has become more democratic, the current Prime Minister has slowly allowed religion to become more prominent in Turkish society, is this good, bad, something else?What caused the Turks to become nationalistic and rally around Ataturk?Nationalism in the Middle East: Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, and PalestineOttoman Empire during WWIBritish and French vs. OttomansWar not going well for the British/French, needed the Arabs to join their sideHussein-McMahon CorrespondenceBritish ambassador (McMahon) promised the Sharif of Mecca (Hussein) that the British would support Arab independence if the Arabs revolted against the Ottoman TurksArabs joined the BritishFighting against the Ottoman Turks helped build Arab nationalism and desire for an independent Arab state after the warThings Get Messy: End of WWIContradictory PromisesHussein-McMahonBritish promised the Arabs independenceBalfour DeclarationBritish promised Jewish Zionists support for a Jewish homeland in PalestineSykes-Picot AgreementBritish and French promised each other that they would divide and colonize the Middle East after WWIContradictions were settled at the Paris Peace ConferenceBritain gained control of Mesopotamia (split into two and renamed Iraq and Trans-Jordan) as well as Palestine (open to Jewish immigration)France gained control of Syria (split into Syria and Lebanon)Arabs gained independence only in the territory around Mecca and Medina in the Arabian Peninsula (Hejaz)Arabs tried to establish an independent state in Syria/Iraq but were forced out by the French militarySykes-Picot Agreement 1916
Eventual Partition of the Middle East
RecapArabs PromisedIndependent Arab state in the Middle EastArabs GotSyriaFrench MandateLebanonFrench MandatePalestineBritish Mandate, with Jewish migrationTransjordanBritish Mandate with Arab King (Abdullah I)IraqBritish Mandate with Arab King (Faisal)HejazIndependent Arab state with Arab King (Sharif Hussein)Hejaz conquered by Ibn Saud, became part of Saudi Arabia 1930s
Problems In the Middle EastArbitrary BordersBritain/France drew lines on a map, didnt correspond with who actually lived in those placesDifferent ethnic/religious groups lumped into the same countryEx. Kurds and Sunni and Shiite Arabs in IraqEx. Alawites, Sunni and Shiite Arabs, and Christians in SyriaEx. Christians, Druze, and Sunni and Shiite Arabs in LebanonEx. European Jews, Arab Jews, and Arab Muslims in PalestineEthnic and Religious Composition of Iraq
Ethnic and religious Composition of Syria
Religious Composition of LLebanon
Modern-Day Legacy in the Middle EastPalestineBalfour Declaration=increased Jewish migrationPlans to split Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state after WWII failed1948 war broke out between Jewish and Arab Palestinians1948 Jewish Palestinians won, Israel createdUnresolved issues between Israelis and Palestinian Arabs till this dayLebanonChristian majority given most of the power by the FrenchBy 1980s Christians no longer a majority still had the majority of the powerCivil war broke out in the 1980sShiite militant group, Hezbollah, gained powerUneasy peace between Hezbollah, Christians, and Sunni Arabs todayModern-Day Legacy in the Middle EastIraqKing Faisals descendants overthrownBaath Party representing Sunni Arabs took control in the 1960sSunnis were a minority in IraqSaddam Hussein, Sunni Baath Party member, became dictator, brutally repressed Kurdish and Shiite rebellionsAfter US invasion in 2003 Saddam overthrown, Shiites in powerEthnic tension between Sunnis and Shiites still remains todaySyriaMilitary dictatorship took control in the 1960sCivil War broke out in 2011Minority ethnic groups: Alawites, Shiites vs. Sunnis and KurdsJordanAbdullahs descendants still on the throne (Abdullah II)Slowly making democratic reformsNationalism in AfricaNationalism in Africa = Desire For Independence Factors that caused a rise in nationalism in Africa after WWIAfricans sent to Europe to fight in WWIWoodrow Wilsons 14 PointsTired of European ImperialismYoung Africans educated in Europe coming back to AfricaEffect of Nationalism in AfricaRise in desire for independenceIncrease in rebellions against European ruleNo independence (not until after WWII)Nationalism in AsiaFrench Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)Wanted independence from FranceHo Chi Minh = the leader of the Vietnamese movement for independenceVietnamese heavily influenced by communism, ideas of Lenin and the USSRNo independence until after WWIIVietnamese defeated the French in 1954 gained independenceJapan1920s and 1930s Japan was a liberal democracyHeavily industrialized economyProblems: Japan had a lot of people but not many natural resourcesLate 1920s the economy began to decline many turned away from liberalism and towards militant nationalismNationalists saw the military as the solution to Japans economic problems
Japanese Military and Extreme Nationalism1931 Invasion of ManchuriaMukden IncidentJapanese military destroyed their own railroad in Chinese ManchuriaJapan gained control of Manchuria1937 Invasion of ChinaJapanese military blamed Chinese nationalists for attacking Japanese soldiers in BeijingJapan responded by invading China Japan vs. China 1937-1945 (end of WWII)Military in ControlMilitary used the war in China as an excuse to take over total control of Japanese society, government, cultureQuestion: What explains the rise of the military/nationalism in Japan?Nationalism and Communism in ChinaQuestions to think about: What things caused nationalism in China in the early 1900s?What happened to unity within the Chinese nationalist movement as time went on?Background: China in the early 1900sChina was once the most powerful/advanced country in the worldDuring the late 1800s imperialized by European powers, spheres of influenceChinese government lost control of most of the country to either European powers or local warlords who did whatever they wantedSun Yat-sen founded the Chinese Nationalist party to fight against European Imperialism and Chinese warlordsParis Peace Conference: many in China hoped that the major powers would support Chinese independence, no more imperialism in China, that didnt happen, led to a major upsurge in Chinese nationalismNationalists and Communists in ChinaChinese Nationalist PartyLed by Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai ShekMostly a middle and upper class movement, popular in citiesWanted to make China an independent Republic (like the US or Great Britain)Wanted to kick imperialists and Chinese warlords out of ChinaChinese CommunistLed by Mao Tse Tung (Mao Zedong)Mostly a lower class movement, popular in the countrysideWanted to make China an independent communist state (like USSR)Wanted to kick imperialists and Chinese warlords out of ChinaNationalists and Communists wanted mostly the same things, so they u