Unit 4 Enhancing Physical Performance. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Chapter 7 Fitness Definitions and Components Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education.

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  • Unit 4Enhancing Physical Performance

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Chapter 7Fitness Definitions and Components

    Text SourcesNelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006.

    2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • The Definition of Fitness & ComponentsFitness definitions and components

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4The Definition of FitnessWhat does it mean to be Fit?

    Physical fitness can be defined as; The ability to carry out tasks with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample reserve energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforseen emergencies. World Health Organisation

    Health can be defined as; The absence of disease or illness. Also includes wellness (quality of life).

    Obtaining an acceptable definition of fitness and being healthy is difficult as they are often vague and very generalised.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Physical Fitness as a ContinuumEveryone has some form of fitness. By training we can move towards the maximum end of the scale. Less activity means a decreased fitness level. Low Adequate Maximum

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete the case study task on page 149 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Complete the written report on page 150 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.

    Coursework 7.1 and 7.2

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete questions 1-3 page 150 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Checkpoints

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4The Components of FitnessFitness is made up of many components. These components are used in sporting settings and can be trained to improve performance and fitness levels. These components can be broken down into two groups; Health related and motor-skill.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Health and Motor-Skill ComponentsHealth relatedCardio-respiratory endurance p.153-4Muscular Strength p.154-6Local Muscular endurance p.156-7Anaerobic power and speed p.157-8Flexibility p.158-160Body composition p.160-161

    Motor-skillMuscular power p.162Agility p.163Coordination p.163Balance p.164Reaction time p.164-5

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Fitness Components and Energy SystemsAnaerobic energySports which rely on rapid and explosive movements obtain their energy anaerobically.Anaerobic power and speedLocal muscular enduranceMuscular strengthMuscular powerAgilityBalanceReaction timeSee figure 7.5 p.152Aerobic energyProlonged and sub maximal activities longer than 60 seconds rely on aerobic energy production.Uses stored carbohydrates and fat.The maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during aerobic activities is called VO2 max.Aerobic sports require;Cardio respiratory endurance.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete questions 1-2 page 153 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Checkpoints

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Health Related Components of FitnessFitness definitions and components

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Cardio-respiratory EnduranceFitness level of the cardiovascular system.It delivers oxygenated blood to working muscles, and nutrients, while performing and removes wastes. Also know as aerobic endurance, aerobic capacity, aerobic fitness or aerobic power.Most essential component at rest and during recovery.Examples: Team sports netball, football, hockey, soccer, volleyball, water, polo, basketball, lacrosse and rugby. Racquet sports such as tennis and squash. Extended athletic events such as the marathon, triathlons and cross country skiing.

    Improvements: Cardio-respiratory endurance is developed through the use of continuous and interval training. Thus improving VO2 max (continuous), tolerance lactic acid raising the Lactate Inflection Point (LIP) and improving efficiency of the heart as a pump (interval).

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Muscular StrengthThe force or tension a muscle or muscle group can exert against a resistance in one maximal contraction (1RM)It is an integral part of anaerobic power, muscular power and local muscular endurance and is rarely used in isolation.Improvements; Circuit and weights training improves the explosive acceleration required for muscular strength.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Factors Affecting StrengthAge Max strength obtained at 25-30 years of age and decreases thereafter.Gender Same pre-pubescent, however females 2/3 strength of males thereafter.Size (Cross-sectional area) The larger the muscle, the more force it can applyMuscle shape Strength is specific to specific muscles /groups. See picture next slide.Muscle fibre type FT produce more force than ST. A muscle biopsy can determine percentage of FT fibres.Muscle fibre recruitment The stronger the nerve impulse, the greater the amount of fibres contracted. Eg. 1RM all fibres recruited. Joint angle and muscle length Max strength at 120o. See fig 7.8 p.155Speed of contraction As speed increases, strength decreases.Type of contraction - isometric (static), isokinetic, isotonic (concentric and eccentric)

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Local Muscular EnduranceThe ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain an activity for a short time in the face of considerable local fatigue (eg push-ups).Tasks may require anaerobic energy in addition to aerobic because contraction of the muscle may occlude (block) the blood vessels that supply the muscle tissue.Closely linked with muscular strength. Improvements; Continuos training or weight training

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Factors Affecting LME fatigueInorganic phosphate Rising levels of Pi is considered the major cause of fatigue. Note. Lactic acid is not directly associated with muscular fatigue.Age Fatigue levels increase with age.3. Temperature Optimal muscle temperature is 37oC. Temperatures outside this range will affect fatigue levels4. Circulation Improved circulation as a result of training can reduce fatigue levels. New clothing such as Skins can also help.5. Cross-education effect Training one limb has the same effect in the other limb.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Anaerobic Power and SpeedAnaerobic PowerAnaerobic power is required for most sports. It is explosive movements performed quickly. It produces its energy in the absence of oxygen. An athletes power is a measure of their anaerobic pathways.SpeedSpeed is the ability of the body to perform a task or movement quickly. Power and speed are very closely related.Improvements ;In sprint or high-level interval training (at least three times per week), keep the heart rate in the training zone for at least 20 minutes.Undertake 2080-metre interval running sprints, starting with a walk back recovery and progressing to a jog back recovery.Undertake 300600-metre running cruisesThe same interval concept will produce anaerobic gains, when used for related sports such as cycling or swimming. Weight training can also improve anaerobic power.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Factors Affecting SpeedSpeed can be affected by an athletes; Acceleration levels, initial velocity, strength and fatigue tolerance levels. Reaction time is an indirect factor.Speed is also influenced by our genetics; Bone size, angle of joints, position of ligament and tendon attachments, muscle fibre types.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete questions 1-4 page 159 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Checkpoints

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete the case study task on page 159 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.

    Coursework 7.3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4FlexibilityFlexibility is the ability to gain the range of movement required for a particular sport.Flexibility is based on skeletal and muscular interaction. It is very important for injury prevention, ease of movement and aesthetic appearance.Flexibility can be static (Eg. Sit and reach test) or dynamic (Eg. Range of motion during a skill).Improvements; Flexibility training.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Factors Affecting FlexibilityJoint Structure and capsule The greater the stability of a joint, the less flexible it will be.Length of muscle at rest Inactive people have shortened muscle length which reduces flexibility levels.Muscle temperature Warming of the muscle to 37oC and stretching will assist with flexibility.Specific flexibility - for particular sportsAge Lose flexibility with ageGender Females more flexible than malesBody build Leaner people are generally more flexibleInjury Prior injuries reduce flexibility levelsSkin and bone resistance Disease

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Body CompositionProportion of bone, muscle and fat in an athlete. Body composition can be measured three ways;SomatotypesEndomorph Short/fat Mesomorph- muscular Ectomorph Tall/thin2. Body fat determinationDensitometry Submerging the athlete in water to determine lean body mass (LBM) in comparison to fat mass (FM)Skinfold measurements Skin thickness is measured at various sites on the body.Body mass index (BMI)Height / weight2

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Body Mass Index (BMI)

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Motor Skill Related Components of FitnessFitness definitions and components

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Muscular Power Powerful movements lasting for a few seconds only. It is the ability to exert a maximal contraction in one explosive act.Dependant upon speed and strength.Max power is generated when the speed of contraction is around 35% of its max and the force contraction is about 35% of its max. Power is required for most sports Eg, field events such as shot-put, discus, javelin, high jump, long jump and hammer throw, tackling in football or rugby, a spike in volleyball etc.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4AgilityAbility to change direction with maximal speed and control Combination of; power, speed, flexibility, balance and coordination.Important in sports which require sudden changes of direction.Improvements; Training can improve speed, reaction time, flexibility, coordination and balance thus improving agility.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4CoordinationAbility to link muscle groups to appear well controlled and efficient. Involves the nervous system and muscular system working harmoniously in hand-eye and foot-eye coordination activities.Improvements; Can be developed through specific skill training and through enhancement of core stability and balance.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Balance & Reaction TimeBalanceThe ability to remain in a state of equilibrium while performing a desired task.Dynamic movingStatic Not moving Relies on core stabilityImprovements; Training methods such as Pilates and Swiss balls.Reaction TimeAbility to react to an outside stimulus Improvements; Practice with starter guns, overload with quicker stimuli (eg quicker squash balls).

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete questions 1-4 page 165 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Checkpoints

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete the review questions 1-2 page 167 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Test Your Knowledge

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Complete the chapter questions on page 51-57 of Nelson Peak Performance Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Peak Performance

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Read the summarised information of pages 54-67 of PHYS ED Notes and complete the revision questions.PHYS ED Notes

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Web Links Chapter 7

    United States Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.os.dhhs.gov/ World Health Organisation (WHO) health topics: http://www.who.int/topics/en/ Sports Coach UK conditioning: http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/conditon.htm Sports Coach UK ideal weight: http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/idealw.htm#bmi International Association of Athletics Federations: http://www.iaaf.org Life coaching (UK): http://www.coaching-life.co.uk Athletics Australia: http://www.athletics.org.au/

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

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