Unit 4: Latin American Revolutions, Nationalism, and the Unification of Italy and Germany

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  • Slide 1
  • Unit 4: Latin American Revolutions, Nationalism, and the Unification of Italy and Germany
  • Slide 2
  • From 1500 to 1800, Latin America was colonized by Europe, especially Spain European nations used mercantilism to gain wealth from their American colonies Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians Mercantilism is when the colonies provide raw materials and markets for the mother country. Reasons to colonize 1.Gold 2.God 3.Glory 4.Greed
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  • Colonial Society Divided A Race and Class System A Race and Class System Latin America has social classes that determine jobs and authority Latin America has social classes that determine jobs and authority Peninsularesborn in Spain, they head colonial government and society Peninsularesborn in Spain, they head colonial government and society CreolesAmerican-born Spaniards who can become army officers CreolesAmerican-born Spaniards who can become army officers Mestizoshave both European and Native American ancestry Mestizoshave both European and Native American ancestry Mulattoshave both European and African ancestry Mulattoshave both European and African ancestry Slaves and Native Americans are at the bottom of society Slaves and Native Americans are at the bottom of society
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  • Quick Class Discussion: Yes you must think a bit but it shouldnt hurt too much (1)Which social group will lead these Latin American Revolutions? Why? (2)Where did they get the idea to revolt & created democracies?
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  • By the late 1700s, Latin Americans were inspired to gain independence because of the success of the American & French Revolutions The ideas of the Enlightenment inspired independence especially among the well-educated Creole class
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  • Latin American Revolutions
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  • Revolutions in the Americas Revolution in Hispaniola (Haiti) Revolution in Hispaniola (Haiti) Haiti is the first Latin American territory to gain freedom Haiti is the first Latin American territory to gain freedom Toussaint LOuverture leads 100,000 slaves against the French (1791) Toussaint LOuverture leads 100,000 slaves against the French (1791) Napoleon will send army to combat the Haitian Revolt. Napoleon will send army to combat the Haitian Revolt. Toussaint eventually dies in a French prison in 1803. Toussaint eventually dies in a French prison in 1803. French soldiers weakened by outbreak of yellow fever. French soldiers weakened by outbreak of yellow fever.
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  • Revolutions in Haiti Haitis Independence Haitis Independence Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue (western third of Hispaniola) a country in 1804 Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue (western third of Hispaniola) a country in 1804 Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independence Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independence Renamed Haiti, means mountainous land in the Arawak language Renamed Haiti, means mountainous land in the Arawak language Emperor Jacques is assassinated in 1806 by disaffected members of his administration. Emperor Jacques is assassinated in 1806 by disaffected members of his administration. In 1820, Haiti became a republic. In 1820, Haiti became a republic.
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  • Mexico Ends Spanish Rule A Cry for Freedom A Cry for Freedom Father Miguel Hidalgopriest who launches Mexican revolt (1810). Creoles supported revolt at first, but then rejected Hidalgos call for an end to slavery. 80,000 Indian and Mestizo followers march on Mexico City Jose Maria Morelosleads revolt after Hidalgos defeat, but loses Both Hidalgo and Morelos were executed.
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  • Mexico Ends Spanish Rule Mexicos Independence Mexicos Independence Mexican creoles react; Augustin de Iturbide (a Mexican General) declares Mexico independent (1821) Mexican creoles react; Augustin de Iturbide (a Mexican General) declares Mexico independent (1821) Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823. Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823. Republic of Mexico setup. Republic of Mexico setup. In 1823, United Provinces of Central America breaks away from Mexico In 1823, United Provinces of Central America breaks away from Mexico Agustn de Iturbide
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  • Iturbide is credited with designing the first Mexican flag. (1821-1823) Todays Flag of Mexico The tri-color flag is still used, and the presence of the eagle is also used in the modern flag of Mexico used since 1968.
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  • Creoles Lead Independence The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionaries Enlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionaries Creole Leaders Creole Leaders Simn Bolvar The Liberatorwealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution Simn Bolvar The Liberatorwealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution Jos de San Martnleader of Argentinean revolutionary forces Jos de San Martnleader of Argentinean revolutionary forces
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  • 1.Bolivars 1807 return from Europe by way of the United States allowed him to study the American system of government. 2.In 1810, Bolivar went to London to seek support for the revolution in Latin America. At the same time, he studied British institutions of government.
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  • Portraits of Bolivar and San Martin
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  • Creoles Lead Independence Bolvars Route to Victory Bolvars Route to Victory Venezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by 1821 Venezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by 1821 Liberates New Grenada (Columbia) and Ecuador. Liberates New Grenada (Columbia) and Ecuador. San Martn Leads Southern Liberation Forces San Martn Leads Southern Liberation Forces Argentina is independent in 1816; San Martin helps free Chile Argentina is independent in 1816; San Martin helps free Chile Bolvars and San Martns armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824. Bolvars and San Martns armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824.
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  • Brazils Royal Liberator A Bloodless Revolution A Bloodless Revolution Napoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807) Napoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807) Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleons defeat (1815) Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleons defeat (1815) The Imperial Palace in Rio de Janeiro where King John VI of Portugal had transferred the Portuguese Royal Court to Brazil.
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  • Brazils Royal Liberator Portuguese prince Dom Pedro stays behind in Brazil Dom Pedro accepts Brazilians request to rule their own country He officially declares Brazils independence (September 1822) He accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press, religion and an elected legislature. By 1830, nearly all of Latin American regions win independence Pedro I of Brazil
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  • Flag of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro I
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  • European and American Reaction British were interested in establishing commercial opportunities and prevented intervention from other Europeans in Latin America. American President James Monroe demanded that Europeans stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. (Monroe Doctrine)
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  • Throughout Latin America, new democratic republics were created But, Latin Americans did not have a history of self-government & many of the new govts were unstable In many nations, military dictators called caudillos seized power & made few reforms for citizens Latin America became dependent on the USA
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  • Clash of Philosophies Three Philosophies: In the early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in Europe Three Philosophies: In the early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in Europe Conservativelandowners and nobles want traditional monarchies Conservativelandowners and nobles want traditional monarchies Liberalwealthy merchants and business owners want limited democracy Liberalwealthy merchants and business owners want limited democracy Radicalbelieve in liberty and equality. They want everyone to have a vote. Radicalbelieve in liberty and equality. They want everyone to have a vote.
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  • Conservatives Wanted to return to the way things were before 1789 & The French Revolution. Wanted to return to the way things were before 1789 & The French Revolution. Resist change Resist change Want stability Want stability Those who ruled Europe after the French Revolution were conservatives Those who ruled Europe after the French Revolution were conservatives The Concert of Europe (periodic meetings between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France) was an attempt to limit revolution and maintain conservative control The Concert of Europe (periodic meetings between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France) was an attempt to limit revolution and maintain conservative control
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  • Conservatives of the early 1800s Preferred a social order where the lower classes respected and obeyed the upper classes Preferred a social order where the lower classes respected and obeyed the upper classes Most backed an established church (Catholic, Orthodox, or Protestant) Most backed an established church (Catholic, Orthodox, or Protestant) Believed in slow change Believed in slow ch