Unit 6: Western Nationalism and Revolutions (1789 – 1900)

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Nationalism Leads to the Unification of Germany and Italy

Nationalism Leads to the Unification of Germany and ItalyUnit 6: Western Nationalism and Revolutions (1789 1900)Nationalism: Unity or Disunity?Nationalism loyalty and love for ones nation and culture. The most powerful force of the 1800s. It made countries and broke countries. It also upset the balance of power in Europe established by the Congress of Vienna.Nationalism in ActionGermany & Italy Politically divided, but culturally similar (Unification)Greece & Fr. Canada -Culturally different breaks away from state or tries to (Separation)U.S. & Turkey Culturally distinct groups buy into one culture (State-building)

The Breakup of the Austrian Empire1866 Austro-Prussian War Prussia wins in 7 weeks & forms North German Confederation (Prussia + 21 smaller Ger. States)Emperor Franz Joseph (Hapsburg) split Austria & Hungary into 2 separate nations with him the ruler of both. Nationalism would continue to hammer away at Austria-Hungary and it broke up for good after WW I as we will later see.

The Russian Empire CrumblesCzars ruled empire (Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Finns, & others) for 370 years. Czar Alexander III (Romanov Dynasty) began program of Russification forcing their culture onto other groups and Pogroms massacres of Jews in late 19th Century. This actually strengthened nationalist feelings and led to revolution in 1917 and overthrow of the czar for a communist dictatorship.

The Ottoman Empire WeakensRuled by Turks, they controlled Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, & Armenians.1856 Great Britain pressured them into granting all people equal rights of citizenship.Conservative Turks massacred and deported Armenians (most were Christians) in 1894-96 & in 1915. WW I would mark collapse of Ottoman Empire too.

The Unification of Italy (1858-1870)Much of Italy had been controlled by foreign nations prior to 1848.1852 Piedmont-Sardinias King Victor Emanuel II named Count Camillo di Cavour his Prime Minister. He set out to unite Northern Italy.1858 Napoleon III helped Sardinia drive out the Austrians & they controlled all of N. Italy except Venetia (Austria).

Giuseppe Garibaldi Brings UnityAided by Cavour, he raised rebel army in S. Italy. 1860 the Red-shirted One captured Sicily. Crossed into mainland & went north and united S. Italy with Sardinia with Victor Emanuel as King of Italy. This meeting in Naples was arranged by Cavour and Garibaldi agreed to step aside.1866 annexed Venetia (Venice)1870 Papal States taken by Italian forces except for Vatican City (controlled by Pope today)

The Unification of Germany (1861-1871) 1815 1st step German ConfederationPrussia leads the way. Austria (also Ger. speaking) was too diverse. Plus Prussia had greatest army in Europe and in 1848 riots gave it a liberal constitution.1861 King Wilhelm I succeeded King Frederick William to the throne and he chose Count Otto von Bismarck as his Prime Minister.

Bismarck Practices RealpolitikThe Politics of Reality; he was known as the Blood & Iron statesmen.He was a wealthy Junker, a conservative, who ruled for the King without Parliament or a budget.1864 war with Denmark. Victory aided unification of N. Germany.1866 Seven Weeks War defeated Austria & won more German land.The problem was how to unify S. Germany as the majority were Catholics in the South.

The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)Bismarck devised a plan to provoke France into attacking Prussia.Prussia invaded France in September 1870 and crushed main French force at the Battle of Sedan. Emperor Napoleon III was among 83,000 French prisoners.Paris surrounded and besieged; France surrendered in Jan. 1871.German unification complete. King Wilhelm I was now the Kaiser of the Second Reich.

Exit Slip Unification of Germany and Italy1. All of the empires were weakened during the second half of the 19th Century excepta. Russian b. Austrian c. Prussia d. Ottoman2. Count Cavours nation of ______ led the way in the quest to unify Italy.a. Sicily b. Sardinia c. Venetia d. Lombardy3. He was Germanys Blood & Iron Prime Minister most responsible for Germanys unification?a. Bismarck b. von Moltke c. Garibaldi d. Himmler4. After Prussias smashing defeat of _______ in 1871 Germany became unified.a. Russia b. Austria c. France d. Denmark