Unit01 bac

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  • 1. :2008 :. q = 12C ( H 2O2 )2 H 2O2( aq) = 2 H 2O( l ) + O2( g ) :( VM = 24 L.mol -1 ) . [ H 2O2 ]0 = 8, 0 10 -2 mol.L-1VS = 500mL t =0 :(V ) O2 t ( min )0 4 812 16 2024 28 32 36 40VO2 ( mL )060114 162204 234253 276 288 294 300[ H 2O2 ] mol.L-1..1 . VO2 VM VS [ H 2O2 ]0 : t [ H 2O2 ].2 . - .3. [ H 2O2 ] = f ( t )- . - . . t2 = 24 min t1 = 16 min -.t1 2-..[ H 2O2 ] q= 35C .4.: 2 H 2O2 (aq ) O2 ( g ) + 2 H 2O(l ) . .1 : ( mol ). n = [ H 2O2 ]0 .VS = 8, 0 10-2 0,50 n00. n = 4 10-2 molx (t )n - 2x (t )x (t ) 2x ( t ) [ H 2O2 ] .2xfn - 2x fxf 2x f . VO2 VM VS [ H 2O2 ]0 :tni ( H 2O2 ) - 2 x ( t ) x (t )[ H 2O2 ] == [ H 2O2 ]0 - 2.n( H 2O2 ) ( t ) = ni ( H 2O2 ) - 2 x ( t ) : tVSVS 2VO2. [ H 2O2 ] = [ H 2O2 ]0 -.VO :n ( O2 ) ==x :VS .VM 2VM.- .312. [ H 2O2 ] = 8,0 10-2 - .VO2 : [ H 2O2 ] = 8, 0 10-2 -.VO :60, 5 24 2 1

2. t ( min ) 0 481216 20 24 28 323640 [ H 2O2 ] 10-2 mol.L-1 8,07,06,15,3 4,64,13,83,43,23,13,0 . [ H 2O2 ] = f ( t )-. - 1 dxvvol = . : VS dtd [ H 2O2 ] 1 d 2 dx.= ( n - 2x) = - :dt VS dt VS dt1 d [ H 2O2 ]vvol = - . :2dtd [ H 2O2 ].t [ H 2O2 ] = f ( t ):dt. t2 = 24 min t1 = 16 min -1 ( 7, 0 - 4, 6 ) 10 -3 vvol ( t1 ) = - . = 7, 5 10 -4 mol.L-1 .min -1216 - 0 1 ( 7, 0 - 5,5 ) 10-3vvol ( t2 ) = - .= 3,1 10-5 mol.L-1.min -1 224 - 0 . . t1 2 -[ H 2O2 ]0xmax( ) . [ H 2O2 ] ( t1/2 ) = :x ( t1/ 2 ) =:22 0, 08.( ) t1/ 2 20 min :[ H 2O2 ] ( t1/2 ) == 40mmol .L-1 : 2. ( ) q= 35C [ H 2O2 ] .4,2008 : .( ) 30mL m = 36mg Mg ( S ) ...1 (H (+aq ) ) / H 2( g ) :.2 ( . Mg 2 + ( aq ) / Mg( s )) : .3 t ( min )024 6 81012 1416 18VH 2 ( mL ) 012,019,225,228,8 32,434,8 36,0 37,237,2 x ( mol ) 2 3. . x-.x = f (t ) -. t =0- .pH = 1.4 . VM = 24, 0 L.mol -1M ( Mg ) = 24 g .mol -1:.: ..1..( ). .2. Mg( S ) Mg 2+ ( aq ) + 2e- :. 2 H + ( aq) + 2e - H 2( g ) : Mg( S ) + 2 H + ( aq ) Mg 2+ ( aq ) + H 2( g ) : Mg( S ) + 2 H + ( aq ) Mg 2+ ( aq ) + H 2( g ) .- .3: ( mol )m 36 10-3 0n1 n0 00 . n1 = =1,5 10-3 molM24 x (t )n1 - x ( t )n0 - 2 x ( t ) x (t ) x (t )xf n1 - x f n0 - 2 x f xfxf x t ( min ) 0 2 4 6 810121416 18 . x = n ( H2 ) =VH 2 : VMx ( mmol ) 0 0,50 0,80 1,05 1,20 1,35 1,45 1,50 1,55 1,55. -. x = f (t )- . t =0 - dx:t =0v= : dt 17 10-4 - 0 .v = = 2,83 10-4 mol .min -1 6-0. .4 . x f = 1,55 10 -3 mol . n f ( H + ) = 3 10-3 mol :n f ( H + ) = H + f .V = 10 - pH .V = 10 -1 30 10 -3 : H+ n0 ( H + ) = n f ( H + ) + 2 x f : n f ( H + ) = n0 ( H + ) - 2 x f : 6,110-3 0 30 10-3 0, 2mol.L : n0 ( H ) = 3 10 + 2 1,55 10 = 6,1 10 mol :H + =-1 +-3-3-33 4. 2008 ::MgMg( s ) + 2 H 3O + ( aq ) = 2 H 2O( l ) + Mg 2+ ( aq) + H 2( g ) C = 5, 0mol.L-1V = 60mL m = 1,0 g .. t ( min )012 3 4 5678 VH 2 ( mL )0336 625 810 910 970985 985985 x ( mol ). .1 .x .2.x = f (t ) .3.xf .4. ( t = 3min ) ( t = 0 min ).5. t1 2.6 (H O ) 3+.7. VM = 24 L.mol -1M ( Mg ) = 24,3 g.mol -1 :.:. .1 + 2+Mg( s ) + 2 H 3O ( aq ) = 2 H 2O( l ) + H 2( g ) + Mg ( aq )::( mol ) . n1 = m = 1 00 0M 24 n1 n0 n1 4,1 10-2 mol xn1 - xn0 - 2 xxx: xf n1 - x fn0 - 2 x fxf xf . n0 = C.V = 5 60 10-3 = 0,3mol t ( min ) 0 12 3 45678 ..2x ( mmol ) 0 14,0 26,0 33,7 37,9 40,4 41,0 41,0 41,0 x VH 2. x = n ( H2 ) = : VM . x = f (t ) .3. xf.4 n0 ( Mg )n1 ( H 3O + ) = 4,110 -2 mol= 0, 3mol :21 n0 ( Mg ) n1 ( H 3O )+-2. Mgx f = 4,110 mol :< 2 1 4 5. . : ( t = 3min ) ( t = 0 min ).5 dnH 2 dx 33, 7 - 17dnH 2 dx 35 - 0 vH 2 ( 3) = == 5, 6mmol.min -1 vH 2 ( 0 ) ==== 17,5mmol.min -1dt dt 3-0dtdt 2-0. t1 2 .6x ( t1 2 ) = xf. t1 2 = 1,5 min 20, 05mmol :2(H O )3+ .7n0 - 2 x f xf 4,110 -2 H 3O + = f =C -2 = 5, 0 - 2 : x f = 4,110-2 mol :VV60 10-3 . H 3O + ; 3, 6mol.L-1 : f2008: ( S2 ) ( 2K (+aq ) + S2 O82 - ( aq ) )( S1 ) . (K (+ aq )+ I -( aq ))V2 = 50mLC1 = 2, 0 10-1 mol.L-1 ( S1 )V1 = 50mL t =0S 2O82 -. C2 = 1, 0mol.L-1( S2 ). -3- :. 2 I -( aq ) + S2O82-( aq) = I 2( aq ) + 2SO4 -( aq) 2.ox / red.1 . .2..3. t1 .4 2 .5 . t12 .6 . t = 10 min. : . ox / red.1 . (S O 2-28 / SO4 2 ) :-S 2O 8-2(aq ) + 2e - = 2SO 4-2( aq ) :-2--2(I 2 / I-):2I - (aq ) = I 2(aq ) + 2e - : S 2O 8 (aq ) + 2I(aq ) = 2SO4 ( aq ) + I 2( aq )..2mmol :0n1 = 10n2 = 5000 n1 = C1.V1 = 0, 2 50 10-3 = 10-2 mol x n1 - x n2 - 2 x2xx. n1 = 10mmol : xfn1 - x f n2 - 2 x f2x fxf5 6. . n2 = 50mmol :n2 = C2 .V2 = 1, 0 50 10-3 = 5 10-2 mol : I- . .3 . xmax = n1 = 10mmoln2 - 2 xmax = 0 n1 - xmax = 0 :. S 2O 8-2 : . t1.42 n1 10xf nS O -2 = = = 5mmol :x ( t1/ 2 ) =: 2 8 2 22. t1/2 = 17,5 min :nS O-2 = 5mmol2 8 . t1.52t1 22n + nx1/ 22 x1/ 2 n - 2x1/2 n -xK + = 1 2 V +V[I2 ] = SO4-2 = I - = 2 V +V S2O8-2 = 1 1/2 V +VV1 + V2 V +V 1 21212 12 20 + 50510 50 - 1010 - 5 === = =100100 100100 100 K = 0, 7 mol.L-1 +[ I 2 ] = 0, 05mol.L-1 SO4 = 0,1mol.L-1-2 I - = 0, 4mol.L-1 S2O8-2 = 0,05mol.L-1 . t = 10 min.6 dxdnS O-2 .=-2 8 : nS O-2 = n1 - x : dtdt2 81 dx1 dnS2O8-2vvol = =-:V dtV dtdnS O-2 . t = 10 min 2 8dt 1 6,6 - 9,3 vvol = -= 2,7mmol.L-1.min -1 :0,1 10 - 02009::(I ) -(S O ) 2 2- 8 S 2O82- ( aq) + 2 I -( aq ) = 2SO42- ( aq ) + I 2( aq)V1 = 100mL (t = 0) (q = 35C ).IV2 = 100mL C1 = 4, 0 10-2 mol.L-1( 2K ++ S 2O82 - ). VT = 200mLC2 = 8, 0 10-2 mol.L-1 (K ++ I-). -( I2 )[ I2 ]V2 V1C1 S2O82- -. (I ) -(S O ) 2 2- 8 (t = 0) S 2O82- 0 -V0 = 10mL. ti ........ t2 t1.II( 2Na ++ S2 O32 - )ti6 7. :VC= 1,5 10-2 mol.L-1 t ( min )0510 1520304560V( ml )04,06,78,7 10,4 13,115,3 16,7[ I 2 ] ( mmol / l ) - . I 2( aq) / I -( aq) S 4O62-( aq) / S 2O32-( aq ) :- . 1 C V[ I2 ] = :-2 V0 .-. [ I2 ] = f (t ) - . ( t = 20 min )-.: . - .I2- - 2-S 2O8 ( aq ) + 2I( aq ) = 2SO4 ( aq ) + I 2( aq) S 2O2- 8( mmol ). n1 = C1.V1 = 4, 0 10-2 10-1 :n1 = 4, 0 10 -3 mol = 4mmol 048 00 : I- x (t )4 - x (t )8 - 2x (t ) 2x ( t ) x (t ) . n2 = C2 .V2 = 8, 0 10-2 10-1 xf 4-xf 8 - 2x f 2x f xfn2 = 8, 0 10-3 mol = 8mmol . S2O82- - n - x C1.V1 x S 2O82- = 1 =-: () VT V1 + V2 V1 + V2 C .V S 2O82- = 1 1 - [ I 2 ] :x V +V. [ I2 ] = : nI 2 = x :1 2V1 + V2. S 2O82- 0 -4 10-2 10-1 C .V . S2O82- = 0-1-1= 2 10-2 mol.L-1 : S 2O82- = 1 1 : 0 V + V 10 + 1012 . ( I2 )- .II.-2- 2- - . 2 S 2O 3 ( aq ) S4 O6 ( aq ) + 2e :. I 2(aq ) + 2e - 2 I - (aq ) : 2S 2O32-( aq ) + I 2( aq) S4O6 - ( aq ) + 2 I - ( aq ) :2.-2S 2O32-( aq ) + I 2( aq) S4O6 - ( aq ) + 2 I - ( aq ) 2 . ( mol )n - 2 xE = 0n0 - x E = 0 : 0 n n00 0 nxE = n0 =: xEn - 2 xE n0 - x E xE 2x E 27 8. t ( min )1 C .V n00 5101520 3045 60 . [ I2 ] = .:[ I2 ] = :2 V0[ I 2 ] ( mmol.L-1 ) V00 3,0 5,0 6,5 7,8 9,8 11,5 12,5 .- 1,5 10-2 1 C .V( mmol.L-1 [ I2 ]mLV) . [ I2 ] =V= 0, 75 V: [ I2 ] =.:2 10 10-32 V0 . [ I2 ] = f (t ) - .. ( t = 20 min ) -d x d [I2 ] 1 dx . vvol = = : vvol = :dt VT dt VT dt d [ I2 ]. t = 20 minvvol = dt 7,8 - 3, 2 . v vol == 0, 23mmol .min -1 .L-1 :20 - 02009:2,0g. (H++ Cl - ) . C = 1,0 10-1 mol.L-1100mLCaCO3 : t (s) 2060100 (1L ) P(CO2 ) ( Pa )228055607170:T = 25C n( CO2 ) ( mol ): x ( mol ). CaCO3( s ) + 2 H + ( aq ) = CO2( g ) + H 2O( l ) + Ca 2+ ( aq ) .1 . ( x)(n )CO2.2. ( P.V = n.R.T ).3 . 1L = 10-3 m3 R = 8,32SI . x = f (t ).4 : : (H )+ t (s) 20 60100.(n H + )( ).1 H + ( mol.L-1 ) 0,0800,0560,040 (n H + ).2 ( ) n H + ( mol ). ( n0 ) ( x) ( ) x ( mol ) . ( x) .3 x = f (t ) .4. .5 . t1/ 2.6 . t = 50s.7 . M ( Ca ) = 40 g .mol -1 M ( C ) = 12 g .mol -1M ( O ) = 16 g .mol -18 9. . : : CaCO3( s ) +2 H + ( aq ) = CO2( g ) + Ca 2+ ( aq ) + H 2O(l ). .1( mol ) :0n = 2 10-2n0 = 10-2 0 0 n0 = C .V = 0,1 0,1xn- x n0 - 2 x xx . n0 = 10-2 mol : xmaxn - xmax n0 - 2 xmaxxmaxxmax :m 2n==M 100 . n = 2 10-2 mol : t (s) 2060 100 . nCO2 = x : .2 n( CO2 ) ( mmol ) 0,922,24 2,89. .3 x ( mmol )0,922,24 2,89VCO2 nCO2 = PCO2 : PCO2 .VCO2 = nCO2 .R.T : R.T 110-3nCO2 = 4, 03 10-7.PCO2 :nCO2 =.PCO2 :8,32 . ( 25 + 273).. x = f (t ) .4 :. (n H + ) .1( ). n H + = H + .V = 0,1 H + :t (s)20 60 100 ( ) n H + ( mmol ). ( n0 ) ( x ) (n H + ) ( ) .2( ) 8,0 5,64,0 . n H + = n0 - 2 x :x ( mmol )1,0 2,23,0 ( ) . ( x).3 1 -2 1 . x= 10 - n( H + ) :x= n0 - n( H + ) : n H + = n0 - 2 x : 2 2 ( ).(). :. . x = f (t ) .4..5xmax = 5mmol :(H ) +n0 n< :2 1n1= 2 10-2 mol n0 2= 5 10-3 mol :. t1/ 2 .6 x ( mmol )( )x5 x t 1 = max = = 2,5mmol :222 . t 1 70s :2( ) = 2,5mmol x t12. t = 50s .7dx 1 dx . t = 50s vvol= :dt V dt dx (1,95 - 0, 45 ) 10 -3 == 3 10-5 mol.s -1 : dt50 - 0 1 t ( s). vvol = 3 10-4 mol.L-1.s -1 : vvol = 3 10-5 :0,1 9 10. 2009:.( H 2O2( aq) )10L (1L ) (10V ). Vm = 22, 4 L.mol -1 . 2 H 2O2( aq) = 2 H 2O( l ) + O2( g ) :.1 . C = 0,893mol.L-1 :- . 100mL V1- . C1 = 0,1mol.L-1 V1 (K ( +aq ) + MnO4-( aq )) 20mL (10V ).2. VE = 38mL C0 = 0, 02mol.L-1(O ( ) / H O ( ) ) :2 g2 2 aq-( . MnO4 ( aq ) / Mn 2 + ( aq )- ).-.: . C = 0,893mol.L-1 :- .1 VO2 10 . nO2 == 0, 4464mol : (1L ) Vm 22, 4ni ( H 2O2 ) = 2n f ( O2 ) = 2 0, 4464 0,893mol :ni ( H 2O2 ) 0,893 .C=== 0,893mol.L-1 : VH 2O21.-. V1 - 0,1C1 . V1 = .100 = 11, 2mL :V1 = .V : CV1 = C1V :0,893 C.- .2(). 2 MnO4 ( aq ) + 8H + ( aq ) + 5e - Mn 2 + ( aq ) + 4 H 2O( l ) : -. 5 ( H 2O2( aq ) O2( g ) + 2 H + ( aq ) + 2e - ) : . 2MnO4 ( aq ) + 5H 2O2( aq ) + 6 H +( aq) 2Mn 2+( aq) + 5O2( g ) + 8H 2O( l ) : -.-n ( MnO4- )n ( H 2 O2 ) . xmax ==:n ( H 2O2 ) - 5 xmax = 0 n ( MnO4- ) - 2 xmax = 0 : 255 5 . n ( H 2 O2 )( t ) = C0 .VE :V0 = 20mLn ( H 2 O2 ) n ( H 2 O2 ) = n ( MnO4- )2 2 5 C .V5 0, 02 38 C= [ H 2 O2 ] = . 0 E = . = 0, 095mol.L-1 : 2 V02 2010 11. C .V 0, 095 100 C= = = 0,848mol.L-1 :V1 11, 2 C C2009 :20m3SO2.SO2 ( S0 )V = 50mL.( SO2) ( S0 )1L. C1 = 2, 0 10-4 mol.L-1(K ( + aq )+ MnO4-( aq ))( . MnO4 ( aq ) / Mn 2 + ( aq )- ) ( SO2- 4 ( aq ))/ SO2( g ) :.1.2. (C ) VE = 9,5mL(K ( +aq ) + MnO4-( aq ) ).3. SO2 .4. 250m g.m -3 SO2 .5 . M ( O ) = 16 g .mol -1 M ( S ) = 32 g .mol -1 :.:: .1 (. 5 SO2( g ) + 2 H 2O( l ) SO4 -( aq ) + 4 H + ( aq ) + 2e - : 2 ) (. 2 MnO4 ( aq ) + 8H +( aq ) + 5e - Mn 2 + ( aq ) + 4 H 2 O( l ) - ) : 5SO2( g ) + 2 MnO4-( aq ) + 2 H 2O( l ) 5SO4 -( aq ) + 2Mn 2+ ( aq ) + 4 H + ( aq ) :2. MnO 4-( ) .2 .(C ).3n0 ( SO2 ) n0 ( MnO4 ) - C.V C1 .VE= : =:( )52 5 2 5 C1.VE 5 2 10-4. C = 10-2 mol.L-1C== : 2 V2 50 10 -3.SO2.4Cm = M .C = 64 10-2 = 0, 64 g .L-1 ..5 SO2 m =