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Mechanized Trail Equipment United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Technology & Development Program 2300—Recreation Mgmt 2600—Wildlife Mgmt September 1996 9623 1207—SDTDC FO R E S T S E R VIC E DE P A R T M ENT OFAGRIC U L T U R E

United States Mechanized Agriculture Trail Equipment · Figure 1—Takeuchi Excavator ... Figure 14—Takeuchi TB020 compact excavator .....28 Figure 15—Takeuchi TB025 compact excavator

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  • MechanizedTrail Equipment

    United StatesDepartment ofAgriculture

    Forest Service

    Technology &DevelopmentProgram

    2300Recreation Mgmt2600Wildlife MgmtSeptember 19969623 1207SDTDC

    FOREST SERVICE

    DEP A R T MENT OF AGRICUL T

    U RE

  • MechanizedTrail Equipment

    Ralph H. GonzalesProject Leader

    San Dimas Technology & Development CenterSan Dimas, CA 91773

    6E61A25

    September 1996

    Information contained in this document has been developed for the guid-ance of employees of the Forest Service, USDA, its contractors, and coop-erating Federal and State agencies. The Department of Agriculture assumesno responsibility for the interpretation or use of this information by otherthan its own employees. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names is forthe information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not consti-tute an official evaluation, conclusion, recommendation, endorsement, orapproval of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may besuitable.

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in allits programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex,religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or familystatus. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with dis-abilities who require alternative means for communication of program in-formation (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TAR-GET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).

    To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of CivilRights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue SW,Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD).USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

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    PREFACE

    This report documents an effort by the San Dimas Technology and Development Center(SDTDC) to catalog mechanized trail maintenance and construction equipment. The objectiveof this publication is to provide information on mechanized trail equipment, specificallyearthmoving and hauling machinery. Earthmoving equipment includes excavators, dozer, andtrail machines with a width not exceeding 72 inches (1.8m). Hauling equipment includesmotorized wheelbarrows, totters, and all terrain vehicles (ATV).

    Specifications and line drawings or pictures are provided to give the user information aboutthe machinery. Metric equivalents are provided for reference only, unless English inch-poundunits are in parenthesis. The dealers should be consulted for updates to these specifications.Purchase or rental costs are not included in this report due to the variability of this data. Someof the equipment presented in this report is no longer available for purchase through themanufacturer. However, they can be obtained through rental companies or used equipmentdealers.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    SDTDC would like to thank all he people who provided information, services andequipment. We would especially like to acknowledge the following individuals for theinvaluable information they have provided: Cam Lockwood, Angeles National Forest;Lois Bachensky, rocky Mountain Region; Gene Quintana, San Juan-Rio Grande NF;Randy Houtz,, San Juan-rio Grande NF; Jorge Herzel, Daniel Boone NF; don Clymmerand Karen Mobley, Mark Twain NF; Bill Crane and David Relph, San Bernardino NF;and Roger Bell, Western Trail builders Association.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    How to Use This Handbook ..................................................................................................1Planning Considerations ........................................................................................................1

    Type of Trail ................................................................................................................1Terrain ........................................................................................................................1Rental or Purchase Cost ..............................................................................................1Safety .........................................................................................................................2Maintenance Costs .....................................................................................................2Job Site .......................................................................................................................2

    Summary Table .................................................................................................................. 2-6

    Note: The summary Table included on pages 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 has been provided as aconvenient Table of Contents for the Specification Data for the various models of trailequipment included in this handbook. The location of the Specification Data page isshown in the right hand column of the Summary Table. Other information in this quickreference table includes data on the equipment type, equipment width, rated output,and comments.

    Excavators .............................................................................................................................6Configurations ............................................................................................................6Discussion..................................................................................................................6Bobcat X320, X325, X331 Compact Excavators ..........................................................7John Deere 15 and 25 Mini Excavators .....................................................................10Kobelco SS60 Super Shovel, SK015, SK025 Compact Excavators ..............................11Kubota KX-41, KX-71, KX-101, KH007 Mini Excavators ...........................................16Morrison Trailblazers ................................................................................................20Takeuchi TB007, TB015, TB020, TB025, TB035, TB045 ............................................23

    Dozers ................................................................................................................................30Configurations ..........................................................................................................30Discussion................................................................................................................30SWECO Dozer .........................................................................................................30Accutrac AC-30 ........................................................................................................33Pacific Crawler Dozer ...............................................................................................34

    Loaders ...............................................................................................................................35Configurations ..........................................................................................................35Discussion................................................................................................................35Bobcat 400, 500, 700, 800 Series Skid-Steer Loaders ...............................................36Takeuchi TL26 Compact Track Loader.......................................................................44

    Haulers ...............................................................................................................................46Configurations ..........................................................................................................46Discussion................................................................................................................46Chikusui GC-640R, GC-640K, GC-640RD3, GC-640KD3 ........................................46DR PowerWagon, PowerWagon II, PowerWagon Battery Electric ............................47Honda Power Carriers HP250, HP400......................................................................52

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    PeCo Tracker 1000 ...................................................................................................53Whiteman Power Buggy WBH-12, WBH-16/-16E .....................................................54Kawasaki Mule 1000/2510 .......................................................................................55

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATV) ....................................................................................................57Configurations ..........................................................................................................57Discussion................................................................................................................57

    Appendixes

    Appendix ADefinitions ....................................................................................................61Appendix BManufacturers ...............................................................................................65Appendix CTrails 2000 ....................................................................................................67

    Table of Contents ......................................................................................................69Preface .....................................................................................................................71Introduction .............................................................................................................72Trails 2000 Trail Construction and Maintenance .......................................................73Case Histories ..........................................................................................................76Trail Dozer Observations ..........................................................................................82

    Figures

    Figure 1Takeuchi Excavator ...............................................................................................7

    Figure 2Bobcat compact excavators construct trails throughout the Rio Grande National Forest ..................................................................................8

    Figure 3Kobelco super Shovel SS60 .................................................................................13

    Figure 4Kobelco SK025 ...................................................................................................14

    Figure 5Kubelco SK015 ...................................................................................................15

    Figure 6Kubota KX-41......................................................................................................16

    Figure 7Kubota KX-71......................................................................................................18

    Figure 8Kubota KX-101....................................................................................................18

    Figure 9Kubota KH007 ....................................................................................................19

    Figure 10Morrison Trailblazer (old) at San Bernardino National Forest .............................21

    Figure 11Morrison Trailblazer at San Juan-Rio Grande National Forest.............................21

    Figure 12Takeuchi TB 007 compact excavator .................................................................25

    Figure 13Takeuchi TB015 compact excavator ..................................................................26

    Figure 14Takeuchi TB020 compact excavator ..................................................................28

    Figure 15Takeuchi TB025 compact excavator ..................................................................28

    Figure 16Takeuchi TB035 ................................................................................................29

    Figure 17Takeuchi TB045 ................................................................................................29

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    Figure 18A & BSWECO trail dozers working in Angeles National Forest ..........................32

    Figure 19ABobcat 763 Skid-Steer loader with a modified blade .......................................37

    Figure 19BBobcat 400C-Series Skid-Steer loader .............................................................38

    Figure 20Bobcat 553C-Series Skid-Steer loader ...............................................................38

    Figure 21Bobcat 763 Skid-Steer loader ............................................................................39

    Figure 22Bobcat 873 Skid-Steer loader ............................................................................40

    Figure 23Attachments available for the Bobcat skid-Steer loaders ....................................43

    Figure 24Takeuchi TL compact track loader .....................................................................45

    Figure 25ADR PowerWagon .......................................................................................49

    Figure 25BDR PowerWagon .......................................................................................50

    Figure 26DR PowerWagon II ......................................................................................50

    Figure 27DR PowerWagon Battery Electric .................................................................51

    Figure 28Honda Power Carriers .......................................................................................52

    Figure 29Whiteman Power Buggies .................................................................................54

    Figure 30Kawasaki Mules ................................................................................................56

    Figure 31AATV dragging a harrow, Pacific Crest Trail, Angeles National forest .................57

    Figure 31BATV Permazyme at Mark Twain National Forest ..............................................58

    Figure 32Trail Dawg ........................................................................................................59

    Figure 33II Tracker ...........................................................................................................59

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    Abstract

    Land managers are looking for ways to appropriately mechanize their trail work. The USDAForest Service Washington Office is participating in this effort through its Technology andDevelopment program. About thirty years ago, there was considerable interest in the ForestService in mechanizing trail maintenance and reconstruction. Trail plows, rotor graders, gravelcarriers, trailer backhoes, etc., were evaluated. Much of this equipment was too heavy, toounreliable, and too dangerous to gain wide acceptance. In the intervening 30 years, progresshas been made in machine design and performance. Recently, the publics interest in usingtrails on National Forest system lands has increased. Our trail program has been funded tomeet that need.

    The objective of this document is to provide information on the mechanized trail equipmentcurrently available to the land managers. The equipment cataloged in this report includesexcavators, dozers, trail machines, loaders, haulers and powered handtools.

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    HOW TO USE THIS HANDBOOKThis handbook lists equipment available for purchase or rent. Some of the models discussed in thefollowing sections may have been discontinued or replaced by other models. The dealer is the bestsource of information for the newer models. Discontinued models may be available for purchase orrental through equipment rental companies.

    Table 1 provides an overview of equipment included in this document. The table is broken down bytypes of equipment, excavators, dozers, and haulers and the report specifications page number isprovided. The overall width of the machinery is provided to illustrate the type of trail suited for theequipment. The rated power output of the machinery is provided for quick comparison between similartypes of equipment.

    Each equipment type is discussed separately; including configuration, general discussion, advantagesand disadvantages, and equipment specifications. The configuration outlines the basic equipment type.There may be some deviation from the basic configuration, nevertheless the basic equipment functionis the same. The discussion section provides a summary, in generic terms, covering all the equipmentin the section. An advantages/ disadvantages section lists strong and weak points of each equipmenttype. These lists compare the use of the type of equipment to the manual method and/or to otherequipment listed in this document. The final section lists the equipment specifications. The equipmentis listed in alphabetical order. A short discussion precedes each specifications table. Trails 2000, AppendixC, is provided to illustrate some maintenance and construction techniques and furnish case historiesand field observations.

    PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

    Type of TrailThe trail type determines the equipment needed. Several small excavators have a track width of 24inches (0.6 m) or less. For wider trails, larger excavators or dozers can be used. The width of the traildictates what size and type of equipment to be used. However, as a rule of thumb, wider equipmentmay be used for rough cut on narrower trails; the actual trail tread will be narrower when the outsideberm is removed and material sloughs off. The presence of, or need for, waterbars, culverts, dips andswitchbacks on a trail should also be considered when making a decision on which type of equipmentto use. Some equipment is more versatile and can perform the various tasks necessary to construct ormaintain these items but performance may be compromised.

    TerrainRocky terrain and loose or plastic soils require more power to traverse. Steep terrain, with significantside slope, may require more stable platforms and operator experience. Soil type and distance totravel dictates whether a tracked or wheeled vehicle is more suitable. The machinery undercarriage isa major factor in determining stability, traction, and speed of travel. A tracked undercarriage, in mostcases, provides greater traction, a more stable platform, but a lower travel speed when compared to awheeled undercarriage. Tracked vehicles have slower travel speeds because of the greater rollingresistance. The rolling resistance is due to the greater contact area provided by a tracked undercarriage.

    Rental or Purchase CostThe cost to rent or purchase the equipment should be compared to the cost of using labor (handcrews). Once it is established that the cost to rent or purchase trail equipment is more economical thanusing labor, then determine whether it is more feasible to purchase or rent the equipment. The availabilityof funds as well as the anticipated frequency of equipment use are major factors to consider in decidingwhether to purchase or rent. Other costs, including ancillary equipment associated with the piece oftrail equipment needed and the use of a small crew (three people minimum) to work with the trailequipment should also be considered.

    SafetyOperator training and certification to operate the machinery should be considered. An inexperiencedoperator may be a safety risk in areas with significant side slope and narrow trails. Most of the equipmentlisted was not designed specifically by the manufacturer for trail building or maintenance; however,

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    these machines perform the tasks well. In some cases, these machines may need to operate on narrowtrails with steep side slopes; caution and common sense must be exercised in these situations. Alloperators of Forest Service owned or leased specialized equipment must be trained and authorized tooperate such equipment. See Forest Service Handbook FSH 7109.11 (f) and FSH 6709.11.

    Maintenance CostMaintenance must also be considered when purchasing equipment. A local equipment rental companymay be a good source for this information.

    Job SiteThe cost and effort to move equipment to the site is also a concern. In remote areas where movingequipment in and out of the work site is not economical, consider leaving the equipment in place untilthe project is complete. In cases like this, investigate the need for vandal protection accessories.

    Summary Table

    Make / Model Equipment Width Rated Comments Page Type in (mm) output

    HP (kW)

    Bobcat X320 Excavator 38.6 (980) 13.5 (10.1) Operating weight 3180 lbs.Steel track 9diesel, liquid cooled

    Bobcat X325 Excavator 55.1 (1400) 23 (17) Operating weight 5660 lbs.Steel track 9diesel, liquid cooled

    Bobcat X331 Excavator 60.7 (1542) 34 (25.4) Operating weight 7125 lbs.Steel track 9diesel, liquid cooled

    John Deere 15 Excavator 38 (956) 14.5 (10.8) rental onlyoperating weight 2930 lbs. 10-11diesel, liquid cooled

    John Deere 25 Excavator 57 (1447) 23 (17) rental onlyoperating weight 6426 lbs. 10-11diesel, liquid cooled

    Kobelco SS60 Excavator 19 (483) 3.5 (2.6) bicycle type seatrubber tracks 12-14operating weight 600 lbs.

    Kobelco SK015 Excavator 38 (965) 16 (11.9) expandable track & bladerubber tracks 12-14operating weight 3450 lbs.

    Kobelco SK025 Excavator 57 (1447) 21 (15.7) expandable track & bladerubber tracks 12-14operating weight 6250 lbs.

    Kobelco SK035 Excavator 64 (1625) 27 (20.1) rubber tracksconstant blade & track width. 12-14

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    Make / Model Equipment Width Rated Comments Page Type in (mm) output

    HP (kW)

    Kubota KH-007 Excavator 32.3 (820) 8.5 (6.3) rental onlyrubber track 19-20operating weight 1951 lbs.

    Kubota KX-41 Excavator 40.9 (1039) 22.2 (16.5) available in rubber or steeltrack 17-18operating weight 3485 lbs.

    Kubota KX-71 Excavator 61.4 (1560) 32.2 (24.1) available in rubber or steeltrack, ROPS/FOPS canopyor cab 17-18operating weight 6605 lbs.

    Kubota KX-101 Excavator 63.4 (1610) 36.6 (27.3) available in rubber or steeltrack, ROPS/FOPS canopyor cab. 17-18operating weight 8100 lbs.

    Morrison trail 24 ( 610) 25 (18.6) steel, expandable (manual)Trailblazer machine track

    dry weight 2150 lbs. 22Gasoline

    Takeuchi TB007 Excavator 29 (739) 8.0 (5.9) Steel or rubber tracks.Hydraulically expandabletrack frame width 24-25operating weight 1667 lbs.

    Takeuchi TB015 Excavator 38 (965) 16 (11.9) Steel or rubber tracks.Hydraulically expandabletrack frame width 24-25operating weight 3418 lbs.Simultaneous diggingfunctions.

    Takeuchi TB020 Excavator 51 (1295) 21 (15.6) Operating weight 4544 lbs.Steel or rubber tracks 24-25Simultaneous diggingfunctions

    Takeuchi TB025 Excavator 57 (1447) 26 (19.4) Operating weight 5958 lbs.Steel or rubber tracks 27-28Simultaneous diggingfunctions

    Takeuchi TB035 Excavator 66 (1676) 33 (24.6) Operating weight 7625 lbs.Steel or rubber tracksSimultaneous digging 27-28functions

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    Make / Model Equipment Width Rated Comments Page Type in (mm) output

    HP (kW)

    Takeuchi TB045 Excavator 72 (1828) 43.4 (32.4) Operating weight 10092lbs.Steel or rubber tracks 27-28Simultaneous diggingfunctions

    SWECO Dozer Dozer 48 (1219) 56 (41.7) 70 HP (52.2 kW) with turbogross weight 7800 lbs. 21-323 shank rippers available

    Accutrac AC-30 Dozer 48' (1219) 28.5 (21) rental only 33

    Pacific Crawler Dozer 47' (1194) 44 (33) rental only 34

    Bobcat 450 Loader 35.5 (901.2) 16.5 (12.3) Rated capacity 600 lbs.Tipping load 1217 lbs. 36-37Gas engine / air cooled

    Bobcat 453 Loader 35.5 (901.2) 15 (11.2) Rated capacity 600 lbs.Tipping load 1470 lbs. 36-37Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 553 Loader 49.5 (1257) 21.5 (16.1) Rated capacity 850 lbs.Tipping load 1700 lbs. 36-37Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 753 Loader 55 (1397) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 850 lbs.Tipping load 1700 lbs. 41Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 753H Loader 55 (1397) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 1300 lbs.Tipping load 2600 lbs. 41Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 763 Loader 68.1 (1730) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 1400 lbs.Tipping load 2900 lbs. 41Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 773 Loader 68.1 (1730) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 1700 lbs.Tipping load 3800 lbs. 41Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 853 Loader 61.5 (1562) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 1700 lbs.Tipping load 3420 lbs. 42Diesel / liquid cooled

    Bobcat 853H Loader 61.5 (1562) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 1700 lbs.Tipping load 3420 lbs. 42Diesel / liquid cooled

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    Make / Model Equipment Width Rated Comments Page Type in (mm) output

    HP (kW)

    Bobcat 873 Loader 74.1 (1882) 40 (29.8) Rated capacity 2300 lbs.Tipping load 4600 lbs. 42Diesel / liquid cooled

    Takeuchi TL26 Loader 60.2 (1529) 61.5 (45.9) Rated capacity 1310 lbs.Tipping load 3750 lbs. 44-45Diesel / liquid cooledRubber crawler belt

    Chikusui Hauler 42.7 (1085) 10 (7.5) Rental onlyGC-640R Chassis weight 1342 lbs.Series (610 kg) 46-47

    Max. load capacity1760 lbs. (800 kg)Gasoline

    Chikusui Hauler 42.7 (1085) 8 (6.0) Rental onlyGC-640K Chassis weight 1410 lbs.Series (640 kg) 46-47

    Max. load capacity1760 lbs. (800 kg)Diesel

    PowerWagon Hauler 35 (889) 6 (4.5) 800 lbs. rated capacityft3 vol. Capacity 47-48wheeled undercarriage

    PowerWagon II Hauler 27.5 (698.5) 4 (3) 500 lbs. rated capacity 47-482.0 ft3 vol. capacity

    PowerWagon Hauler 27.5 (698.5) 0.4 (0.3) 400 lbs. rated capacityBattery-Electric ft3 vol. Capacity 47-48

    electric motor

    Honda HP250 Hauler 24 (610) 2.4 (1790) Adjustable carrier bed400 level load capacity 52tracked undercarriage

    Honda HP400 Hauler 24 (610) 4.0 (2983) Adjustable carrier bed 52770 level load capacity

    PeCo Tracker Hauler 40 (1016) 12 -141000 (8.9 - 10.4) 1000 lbs. load capacity

    40'x60'x12 bed dimensions 53tracked undercarriagehydraulic dump bed

    Whiteman Hauler 32 (81) 8 (6.0) 1800 lbs. load capacityPower 12 ft3 tub capacity 54Buggy WBH-12 hydraulic dump & return

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    Make / Model Equipment Width Rated Comments Page Type in (mm) output

    HP (kW)

    Whiteman Hauler 44 (118) 11 (8.2) 2600 lbs. load capacityPower Buggy 16 ft3 tub capacity 54WBH-16/16E hydraulic dump & return

    Kawasaki Mule Hauler 51.8 (1316) 454 cc 1030 lbs. load capacity1000 ft3 bed capacity

    4-stroke liquid cooledDOHC 55-56Dual-mode differentialTilting cargo bed25 MPH max.travel speed

    Kawasaki Mule Hauler 57.5 (1460) 617cc 4-stroke liquid cooled2510 90o V-Twin OHC

    4-wheel drive 55-56800 load capacity13.3 ft3

    25 MPH max. travel speed

    EXCAVATORS

    ConfigurationThe most common excavator configuration is a boom and shovel with a dozer blade mounted belowthe boom. See figure 1. A tracked undercarriage is usually used. The primary earthworking implementis the bucket used to dig and move earth. If the excavator is equipped with a small blade, the blade isuseful in grading off excess material, leveling and back filling. Most excavator manufacturers havegrubhoes or different size buckets available as attachments.

    The smallest excavator evaluated has a track width of 19 inches (0.48m) and the largest has an overallwidth of 63 inches (1.6 m). On some models the track width is variable and can be adjusted dependingon trail conditions and operator experience. Horse power rating varies between 3.5 hp and 43.4 hp.

    DiscussionThe stability of the excavator is dependent on the center of gravity relative to the working surface andthe overall width of the platform. The closer the center of gravity is to the ground and the wider theplatform, the more stable the vehicle becomes. If equipped with a blade, the blade can act as anoutrigger when excavation is performed. The boom and shovel also serve as a counter weight whenusing the blade.

    Trail work with an excavator is most effectively accomplished with three person crews. One personoperates the machine. A second person works forward of the excavator performing grubbing, clearing,and/or splitting. The third person works behind the machine finishing the trail. Depending on poweroutput, the excavator could grub out stumps or move large boulders. The excavators also build aplatform from which to work. The travel speeds of an excavator are from 0.9 to 3.1 mph (1.4 to 5 kph);lower speeds as compared to a skid loader or dozer.

    The excavators evaluated for this project can easily be transported on the bed of a full size pick-uptruck or on a trailer.

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    Figure 1.Takeuchi excavator.

    Advantages/Disadvantages

    Advantages/disadvantages of excavators when compared to dozers and loaders are listed below. Theloader is assumed to be equipped with a backhoe.

    Excavator AdvantagesAvailable in smaller width. The smallest excavator evaluated has an overall track width of 19 inches (0.48 m).Able to build narrower trails.Ideal for trenching and digging tasks.Extensive attachments available.Able to dig out large boulders or tree stumps that a dozer or a loader would not be able to move out.Easily transported to-and-from job site.

    Excavator DisadvantagesStability is compromised with the narrower width especially when swinging the boom over large angles.Slower than available dozers and dozer-type trail machines. Cutting a trail tread with a shovel and leveling with a smaller blade takes more time than cutting a trail with a dozer blade.Requires an experienced operator.

    Equipment Specifications

    A. Bobcat X320, X325, X331

    Bobcat X320, X325, and X331 mini-excavators are new entries in the mini-excavator market. The oldermodel, Bobcat 220, has similar specifications as the Bobcat 320. The Melroe Company manufacturesBobcat Skid Loaders with backhoe attachments; these machines are discussed in the section on loaders.

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    Like most small excavators, these machines do not have outriggers for stability. The overall widthvaries from 38.6 inches (0.98 m) to 60.7 inches (1.5 m). The wider track increases stability, but requiresa wider operating surface. Stability while operating the blade is gained by using the bucket as acounterweight. Positioning the bucket on the uphill side of the slope shifts more weight upslope andreduces the likelihood of rollover. Conversely, the blade could be use as an anchor by lowering theblade to ground level when using the bucket and boom. These excavators are mounted on top of atracked undercarriage making them more stable than wheeled machines. The larger ground contactarea of the tracks provides a stable platform and more traction than wheeled vehicles. These excavatorscould be equipped with steel tracks for additional traction, or rubber tracks to minimize damage onfinished surfaces.

    These machines are equipped with Roll-Over Protection/Falling Object Protection (ROP/FOP) and anenclosed cab is available. (Heaters are available in the X325 and X331 models.). A seatbelt is theprimary operator restraint.

    The ergonomics of these machines are good. Three levers operate the bucket, the blade, and thetravel, making them easy to operate. Hydraulic lines on the machinery are routed to avoid being damagedduring operation and transport. These new models are a significant improvement from older models.Access to the engine is through the tailgate.

    Figure 2.Bobcat compact excavators construct trails throughout the Rio Grande National Forest.

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    Specifications: Bobcat 320 Excavator 325 Excavator 331 Excavator

    Overall Length: in (mm) 144.8 (3678 ) 166 (4217) 192.7 (4895 )Overall Width: in. (mm) 38.6 (980) 55.1 (1400) 60.7 (1542)Height: in. (mm) 88.8 (2243) 95.9 (2437) 96.4 (2448)Operating Weight: lb. (kg.) 3180 l (1442) 5660. (2566 kg 7125. (3231)Maximum Speed: MPH (KPH) 1.1 (1.73) 1.4 (2.2 ) Lo: 1.3 (2.0 )

    High: 2.3 (3.7 )Engine:Make: Kubota D-750-B Kubota D1402B Kubota V1902-BFuel: Diesel Diesel DieselFuel Tank Capacity gal. (L) 6.5 (24.6 ) 14 (54.5 )

    Cooling: Liquid Liquid LiquidDisplacement: cu. In. (L) 46.5 85.1 (1.4) 116 (1.9 )Horsepower: HP (kW) (10.1) 23 (17) 34 (25.4)@ RPM @ 2500 @ 2500 @ 2500Hydraulics :Pump type: Gear Gear Gear (3)Pump Total Capacity: GPM 12 (45.4.) 21.4 (81.1.) 27.3 (103.5.)(L/Min.)Pump Auxiliary 8.0 (30.3.) 14.3 (51.4.) 18.2 (69.0.)Hydraulic Flow: GPM (L/Min.)Hydraulic Tank Capacity: Gal (L) 3.75 (14.2 ) 6.8 (26 ) 10.5 (40 )

    TrackType: steel steel steelLength: 58.3 (1480) 70.9 (1800) 78.2 (19878)Width: in (mm) 9.84 (250) 12.6 (320) 12.6 (320)Ground pressure: PSI (KPa) 3.38 (23.3) 4.2 (26.9) 4.63 (31.9)ManeuverabilitySwing Speed: RPM 9 9.5 9.5Minimum Swing Radius: in (mm) 52.7 (1338) 80.8 (2052) 82 (2088)Boom Swing Left: 50 Left: 40 Left: 50

    Right: 90 Right: 77.5 Right: 90

    Blade: in (mm) Width x Height: 38.6 (980)

    Maximum lift 6.6 (167) 13.6 (346) 14 (357)(above ground): in (mm)Minimum lift 5.6 (142) 9.5 (241) 11 (280)(below grade): in (mm)

    Working Range

    Arm Length: in (mm) 40 (1023) 45 (1150) 55 (1400)

    Max. Digging Height: in (mm) 129.5 (3288 ) 148.1 (3761) 182 (4725)

    Max. Dumping Height: in (mm) 90.2 (2291) 101.3 (2572) 126 (3200)

    Max. Digging Depth: in (mm) 80.0 (2038) 97.3 (2472) 120 (3050)

    Max. Vertical Wall 61.8 (1571) 62.7 (1594) 82.5 (2097)

    Digging Depth: in (mm)

    Max. Digging Reach 144 (3657) 165.9 (4213) 190.5 (4840)

    at Ground Level: in (mm)

    Bucket Digging Force: lb. (kg) 3272. (1484) 3863. (1752) 5170. (2350)

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    B. John Deere 15 and 25 Mini Excavator

    The John Deere 15 and 25 excavators have widths of 38 inches (0.96 m) and 53 inches (1.3 m) respectivelyand must be operated on trails at least this wide. The finished trail may be slightly smaller when loosematerial sloughs off after the first season. Like the other excavators evaluated in these handbook,John Deere excavators do not have outriggers. Both models have a rated gradeability of 30 degrees or50% slope. These excavators are able to negotiate the rated slope independent of surface conditions.Traversing in steeper terrain depends upon the skill of the operator. Inexperienced operators shouldfirst gain experience on flatter terrain.

    These excavators are equipped with Tip-Over Protective Structure and are available with a cab. Likethe other excavators, a seat belt is the primary operator restraint. Control lever lockouts and swinglocks are standard equipment.

    The operator has ample room in the canopy and has good visibility while operating the boom andblade. The blade is controlled with a single lever. Instrumentation and warning lights provide the operatorwith information on the status of the machinery.

    Availability:John Deere Models 15 and 25 are no longer manufactured; they are available through equipmentrental yards.

    Specifications: John Deere 15 25

    Engine Make & Model YANMAR 3TNA72-UJB YANMAR 3TN78-RJB

    Horsepower (Mfg. Rating @ rpm) 14.5 (10.8 kW) @ 2250 23 (17 kW) @ 2500Bore & Stroke 2.83x2.83 in. (72x72mm) 3.07x3.39 in. (78x86 mm)Displacement 53.6 cu. In. (879 cc) 75.2 cu. In. (1232 cc)Hydraulic Pumps/SystemQuantity 3-section 3-sectionType Gear GearSystems open center/constant flow open center/constant flowTotal pump capacity 10.7 GPM (0.68 L/s) 25 GPM (1.58 L/s)Max. System operating pressure 2204 psi (15.197 KPa) 2133 psi (14,707 KPa)Performance RatingsArm Digging Force 1565 lb. (7 kN) 2910 lb. (13 kN)Bucket Digging Force 2315 lb. (10 kN) 4519 lb. (20kN)Max. Reach @ Ground Level 11 ft. 3 in. (3.44 m) 15 ft. 1 in. (4.60m)Max. Digging Depth W/ Blade 83 in. (2.12 m) 111 in. (2.84 m)Max. Dump Height 87 in. (2.20 m) 110 in. (2.83 m)BoomSwing Angle 45 left / 90 right 50 left / 90 rightArm length 37 in. (0.95 m) 47 in. (1.2 m)Offset distance L/R 18.5/15.4 in. (470/390 mm) 27.6/21.1 in. (700/535 m)TrackTrack Gauge 29 in. (0.73 m) 44 in. (1.13 m)Track Length 54 in. (1.37 m) 76 in. (1.94 m)Track Shoe Width 9 in. (230 mm) 13 in. (320 mm)Std. Ground Contact Area 842 in.2 (5432 cm2) 1635 in.2 (10,548 cm2)

    Std. Ground Pressure 3.48 psi (24 kPa) 3.93 psi (27.10 kPa)Track Rollers (each side) 3 4Track Carriers (each side) 0 1Max. Travel Speed 1.24 mph (2.0 km/h) 1.24 mph (2.0 km/h)Track width 38 in. (0.96 m) 57 in. (1.45 m)Gradeability 50% 30 50% 30Swing Speed 9 rpm 10 rpm

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    Specifications: John Deere 15 25

    Engine Make & Model YANMAR 3TNA72-UJB YANMAR 3TN78-RJB

    Tailswing 44 in. (1.11 m) 55 in. (1.40 m)Operating Weight 2930 lb. (1328 kg.) 6426 lb. (2915 kg.)Std. Bucket Capacity 0.05 cu. yd. (0.04 m3) 0.10 cu. yd. (0.08 m3)Ground Clearance 8.3 in. (210 mm) 11.8 in. (300 mm)CapacitiesCooling System 0.66 gal. (2.5 L 1.45 gal. (5.5 L)Fuel Tank 5.8 gal. (22 L) 12.9 gal. (49 L)Crankcase 0.5 gal. (1.9 L) 1.05 gal. (4.0 L)Hydraulic System 11.1 gal. (42 L) 22.5 gal. (85 L)Hydraulic Reservoir 9.0 gal. (34 L) 17.2 gal. (65 L)Propel drive gear case 0.09 gal. (0.35 L) 0.13 gal. (0.5 L)(each side)DimensionsStd. Transport width 39 in. (1.00 m) 57 in. (1.45 m)Std. Transport length 138 in. (3.50 m) 185 in. (4.69 m)Std. Transport height 83 in. (2.10 m) 94 in. (2.38 m)

    C. Kobelco SS 60 Super Shovel , SK015, and SK025 Compact Excavator

    The SS 60 Super shovel is the smallest earthmoving machine evaluated in this handbook and has anoverall width of 19 inches (0.48 m) and weighs only 600 lbs (272 kg). The operator rides behind theexcavator and balances the action of the bucket. The operator has the option of sitting on a bicycletype seat or standing on a platform while operating the machine. The bicycle seat can be folded upwhen the platform is in use. The platform can be lowered two-inches (51 mm) below ground level to actas an anchor and stabilize the machine. The excavator does not have a blade; all trail work is donewith the bucket.

    The machine is not equipped with ROP/FOP or a restraint system. In case of a roll-over, the operatorsteps off the machine.

    The machine is operated entirely with levers. Two levers control the boom and bucket; another twolevers provide directional control of the tracks, and two other levers are used to shift from high to lowtravel speeds and raising and lowering the platform.

    The SS 60 Super Shovel can be transported using a medium-size pickup truck. Mobility on the trail islimited by its maximum speed of 0.87 mph (1.4 kph). The tracks and low ground pressure provide goodtraction. The rubber tracks minimize damage to finished surfaces such as grass or concrete, but arenot as durable as steel tracks.

    The SK015 track and dozer blade can be expanded from 38 inches (0.97 m) to 52 inches (1.3 m) andcan be used to build or maintain trails of this trail tread width. The dozer blade extends and retracts tomatch the crawler width. Extending the track provides a wider stance and makes the machine morestable. Inexperienced operators should use a wider stance and avoid rough uneven terrain. The SK015has a greater travel speed, 2.6 mph (4.3 kph), as compared to the SS60. This improves mobility at thejob site. The SK015 is available with a rubber or steel track.

    Standard safety equipment includes an operator protective structure and seat belt. Swing flasherswhich warn workers when the machine is swinging, are a standard feature. An enclosed cab is beingdeveloped to provide the operator with ROP/FOP, and comfort controls are also being considered.

    The SK025 is larger than the SK015 and has a larger bucket and dozer blade. Unlike the SK015, therubber tracks and dozer blade are a fixed width. This excavator has a width of 57 inches (1.4 m) with

  • 12

    each track 12 inches (0.3 m) wide yielding a ground pressure of 3.9 psi (26.9 kPa) which is lower thanthe SK015. Travel speed ranges from 1.8 to 3.1 mph (2.9 to 5.0 kph). The safety equipment on theSK025 is similar to the SK015.

    Special Features

    Kobelco SK015

    Pilot control levers provide smooth and easy operation reducing operator fatigue.Swing flashers.Spanner undercarriage adds to the stability.Cushioned swing cylinders provides shockless stops and starts reducing operator fatigue.Dozer blade can be extended and retracted to match crawler width.Control panels on both sides of the seat tilt up to allow easier access and prevent accidental lever operation when mounting or dismounting the machine.Auxiliary hydraulics add versatility for operating attachments.Quick change buckets saves time when changing buckets.

    Kobelco SK025

    Pilot control levers provide smooth and easy operation reducing operator fatigueSwing flashers.Slow Swing mode provides precise control when working in tight quarters.Swing shockless valve minimizes rebound motion at the end of the swing cycle making starts and stops very smooth and limits spillage.Straight propel system keeps travel on a straight course even during simultaneous attachment operations.One-touch deceleration puts engine in low idle to reduce fuel consumption during inactive periods.Parking brakes for both swing and travel automatically engage when controls are in idle position.Auxiliary hydraulics add versatility for operating attachments.

    Specifications: Super Shovel

    SS60 SK015 SK025 SK035

    General:Overall Length: 7'1'' 12'1'' 14'9'' 16'3''Overall Width: 1'7'' 3'2'' / 4'4'' 4'9'' 5'4''Height: 3'7'' 7'5'' 8'1'' 7'9''Bucket capacity: 0.25 cu ft 1.4 cu ft 2.4 cu. ft. 3.5 cu. ft.Bucket width: 9 inches 16 inches 18 inches 24 inchesFuel Tank: 2.2 US gal 6.3 US gal 10.5 US gal 10.5 US gal

    PerformanceTravel Speed: 0.87 high, 0.50 low 2.6 mph 1.8 / 3.1 mph 2.9 mphBoom swing speed: 3.7 sec (90) 8.8 rpm 9.0 / 4.5 rpm 9.0 / 4.5 rpmGradeability: 47% (25) 30 30 30 Stick digging force 1830 lb. 3020 lb. 3860 lb.Bucket digging force 750 lb. 2450 lb. 4013 lb. 5300 lb.Operating weight: 600 lb. 3450 lb. 6250 lb. 7400 lb.Ground Pressure ~ 4.4 psi 3.9 psi 4.4 psi

    Engine:

    Type: 4-cycle, air-cooled YANMAR YANMAR YANMAR

    3TNA72L 3TNC78 3TN84 l

    gasoline Diesel Diesel Diesel

  • 13

    Specifications: Super Shovel

    SS60 SK015 SK025 SK035

    Rated output:

    (HP @ rpm) 3.5 @ 1600 16 @ 2,550 21 @ 2,500 27 @ 2,560Displacement 53.6 cu. in. 59.9 cu. in. 87.2 cu. in.

    Hydraulic SystemPumps: 2 gear pumps see note see note see noteMax. dischargepressure: 2,130 psi see note see note see noteHydraulic tank capacity: 1.85 US gal 7.6 US gal 15.8 US gal 15.8 US gal

    TrackType Rubber Rubber Rubber RubberOverall Length: 4' 6.5'' 6'3.9'' 6' 11''Overall Width: 3' 2'' / 4' 4'' 49'' 54''Shoe Width: 9.0'' 12.0'' 13.7''

    ManeuverabilityBoom Swing Angle 90L / 90R 90L / 90 R 90L / 90 RBoom Offset: Left 1'11'' Left 2'3'' / Left 2'5'' /

    / Right 1'8'' Right 1'10'' Right 2'1''

    Front Swing Radius: 4'4'' 4'10'' 5'7''Tail Swing Radius: 3'6'' 4'2'' 4'7''Travel Speed: 1.3 / 2.6 mph 1.7 / 2.9 mphDraw Bar Pull: 1917 lb. 2976 lb. 3968 lb.Ground Clearance: 6.8'' 11.4'' 11.4''

    Figure 3.Kobelco SuperShovel SS60.

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    Hydraulic System SK015 SK025 SK035

    Main PumpsType: Fixed Gear Variable Piston Variable PistonPressure: 2845 psi 2987 psi 2987 psiDelivery: 4.12 gpm 8.0 gpm 10.0 gpmNo. Of Pumps: 2 2 2

    Swing PumpType: Fixed Gear Fixed Gear Fixed Gear Pressure: 1635 psi 2204 psi 2631 psiDelivery: 2.9 gpm 5.0 gpm 5.7 gpmNo. Of Pumps: 1 1 1

    Pilot PumpType: Fixed Gear Fixed Gear Fixed Gear Pressure: 682 psi 497 psi 497 psiDelivery: 1.6 gpm 2.3 gpm 2.4 gpmNo. Of Pumps: 1 1 1

    Auxiliary Port Pressure: 2845 psi 2987 psi 2987 psi Delivery: 8.24 gpm 12.6 gpm 15.6 gpm Travel Motors Type: Orbit Motor Orbit Motor Orbit Motor No. Of Pumps: 2 2 2

    Figure 4.Kobelco SK025.

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    Figure 5. Kobelco SK015.

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    Figure 6.Kubota KX-41.

    D. Kubota KX-41, KX-71, KX-101, and KH007

    Kubota makes several mini-excavators. The models reviewed are KX-41, KX-71, and KX-101. The KX-41 is an improved version of the KH-007. These mini-excavators are equipped with a small blade thatcan be raised and lowered but not tilted or angled. Each excavator comes equipped with a short arm,and there are three dipper arm length options for each model. Each model is also equipped with eithera 4-post ROPS/FOPS or a ROPS/FOPS cab. The ROPS/FOPS are designed so the operator enters orexits the excavator from either side. This feature helps when working in confined areas. These newmodels have more foot space than the previous model.

    Operation is controlled by foot pedals and four levers. The bucket control levers are mounted on 5-wayadjustable towers on either side of the operator. The levers to control each track are located in front ofthe operator. All levers are easily accessible and intuitive.

    The hydraulic system on these excavators is designed to produce up to 15% more power when theturntable swing or dozer blade is not being used. A booster valve automatically increases the pressureof the first and second hydraulic pumps when the third pump (used for slewing, boom swing, and dozerblade operation) is not used.

    The Kubota KX-41 and KX-71 is designed with a two-speed swing system. With a flip of a lever, theoperator can reduce the swing speed up to 50%. This feature increases safety and adaptability. Aninexperienced operator should operate the machinery at the lower swing speed to reduce the probabilityof significant and sudden changes in center of gravity caused by rapid movement of the cab.

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    Feature KX-41 KX-71 KX-101

    ROPS/FOPS Type ROPS/FOPS Canopy Canopy Cab Canopy CabTrack Type Steel / Rubber Steel/ Steel/ Steel/ Steel/

    Rubber Rubber Rubber RubberEngineModel Kubota D1105-BH Kubota V1505-BH Kubota-V1902-BH5Cylinders 3-cyl, overhead valve 4-cyl, overhead valve 4-cyl, overhead valveCooling liquid liquid liquidFuel diesel diesel dieselFlywheel HP 22.2 @ 2400 rpm 32.2 @ 2600 rpm 36.6 @ 2450 rpm(SAEJ1349 gross)Displacement 68.5 in3 91.4 in3 113.6 in3

    DimensionsOverall Length 140.0 in. 177.8 in. 196.5 in.Overall Height 88.2 in. 96.3 in. 96.5 in. 97.0 in. 97.2 in.Overall Width 40.9 in. 61.4 in 63.4 in.Min. Ground Clearance 6.7 in. 11.6 in 11.6 in.Hydraulic SystemNo. of Pumps 3 3 3Pump Capacity 3.5 gal (P1,P2) 7.7 gal. (P1, P2) 8.5 gal. (P1, P2)

    2.6 gal (P3) 4.8 gal. (P3) 5.6 gal. (P3)Relief Valve Setting 2985 psi (P1, P2) 2845 psi (P1, P2) 2985 psi (P1, P2)(@ power up) 2775 psi (P3) 2275 psi (P3) 2775 psi (P3)Auxiliary Hydraulic Flow 7.0 gpm 15.4 gpm 17.1 gpmRateDrive SystemMax. Travel Speed 1.25 mph 1.31 mph low: 1.19 mph

    high: 2.25 mphMax. Drawbar Pull 3600 lb. 7125 lb. 9460 lb.Swing SystemUnit Swing Speed 8.3 rpm 8.7 rpm 9.4 rpmBoom Swing Angle(Left/Right) 90/ 50 90 / 50 80 / 43BladeBlade Width x Height 37.8" x 9.8" 57.1" x 15.2" 59.4" x 15.2"Max. Lift above Ground 6.5 in. 15.0 in. 15.2 in.Max. Drop Below 6.9 in. 19.5 in. 19.1 in.GroundUndercarriage Shoe 9.1 in. 11.8 in. 13.8" /11.8"WidthGround Contact 4.47 4.37 4.461&3-4.312&3 4.061&3- 4.592&3

    4.591&4-4.442&4 4.151&4-4.702&4

    Pressure psiMaximum Bucket 2810 lb. 5455 lb. 5940 lb.Breakout Force (@ powerup) (@ powerup) (@ powerup)Coolant & LubricantFuel Reservoir gal 6.34 15.06 15.06Coolant gal 1.06 1.32 2.11Engine Oil 1.19 1.53 2.19Final Drive 0.07 0.13 0.16 (each side) galSwing Drive 0.34 0.34(each drive) gal

    1Steel 2Rubber 3Canopy 4Cab

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    Feature KX-41 KX-71 KX-101

    ROPS/FOPS Type ROPS/FOPS Canopy Canopy Cab Canopy CabTrack Type Steel / Rubber Steel/ Steel/ Steel/ Steel/

    Rubber Rubber Rubber RubberHydraulic 3.17 11.36 15.58Reservoir galOperating Weight (lb.) 36151-34852 64151&3 62602&3 81151&3 79152&3

    66051&4 64502&4 83001&4 81002&4

    Standard Bucket 1.34 ft3 2.30 ft3 3.73 ft3

    Capacity (SAE J296)Performance Short-Long-Extend Short-Long-Extend Short-Long-Extend

    Arm Arm Arm Arm Arm Arm Arm Arm ArmArm Length (in.) 35.4 45.3 31.7 - 47.2 55.1 40.7- 51.2 63.0 47.2-

    49.4 64.4 78.7Max. Arm Digging Force 1995 1635 1540 3330 2900 2635 4330 3740 3320 lb.(@ power up)Max. Digging Height( In.) 121.5-126.-123.2 165.7-169.3-164.4 179.5-184.8- 182.1Max. Dumping Height 80.1- 84.6- 83.9 116.3-119.9-118.9 125.4-130.7- 139.7(inches)Max. Digging Depth (in.) 81.1-90.9-95.3 105.1-113.0-122.0 121.3-133.1- 149.0Max. Vertical Digging 64.0-73.4-68.9 76.8 84.4 71.1 88 99.4 104.9Depth (in.)Max. Digging Radius 142.1-151.4-154.7 182.5-189.6-196.1 199.4-210.7- 222.6(inches)

    Min. Swing Radius 64.8- 63.8 - 76.2- 76.2 - 85.8- 85 -w/o Boom Swing (in.) -Min. Swing Radius 46.1- 46.2 - 55.9- 57.3 - 68.7- 68.9 -w/ Boom Swing (in.)2 ft. Flat Bottom (in) 79.7-89.8-94.3 104.1-112.2-131.3 120.5-132.3- 146.48 ft. Flat Bottom (in) 55.1-68.9-75.4 84.1 -95.9- 105.5 102.2-116.1- 135.4

    1Steel 2Rubber 3Canopy 4Cab

    Figure 8.Kubota KX-101.Figure 7.Kubota KX-71.

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    Kubota KH007

    The Kubota KH007 wasreplaced by the KX-41,however, the model is stillavailable through used orrental equipment dealers.This model has a ratedflywheel horsepower of 8.5 hp(6.3 kw) which is lower thanthe KX41 (22.2 hp/16.5 kw).A double-section gear pumpis used in the hydraulic systemto power all the front attach-ments, dozer, and swing. Theboom, in this model, iscushioned by a boom cylinder.The cylinder absorbs theshock and minimizes spillage.Auxiliary hydraulic outlets arealso available as standardequipment. The swing systemis driven by an orbit motorwhich brakes automaticallywhen the swing control leveris in neutral. A counterbalancevalve is used in the swinghydraulic circuitry to makestarts and stops smoother.The counter balance valvealso minimizes body motion. Figure 9.Kubota KH007.

    Specifications: Kubota KH007

    Operating Weight 1797 lbs. (815 kg) w/ 2 post ROPS1951 lbs. (885 kg) w/4 post ROPSNoise level at operators ear 79 dB (A)Maximum travel speed 1.03 mph (1.65 km/h)EngineModel Kubota Z430-KType 4-cycle, water-cooled, vertical diesel engineFlywheel horsepower 8.5 hp (6.3 kW) @ 2500 rpmNumber of cylinders 2Displacement 25.9 cu. In. (425 cc)Hydraulic SystemCapacity (@ 2500 rpm) gpm x 2 @ 2062 psi

    (10.0l/min x 2 @ 145 kgf/cm2)Auxiliary hydraulic outlet:flow rate gpm (20l/min)Main relief pressure 2062 psi (145 kgf/cm2)Swing SystemSwing Speed 9 rpmBoom swing angle (L/R) 125 degrees (80/45)UndercarriageBlade width x height 32.3 inches (820 mm)Max. lift height above ground 5.9 inches (150 mm)

  • 20

    Specifications: Kubota KH007Max. depth below ground 3.75 inches (95 mm)Track Type RubberTrack Pad Width 7.1 inches (180 mm)Ground Pressure with 2 post ROPS psi with 4 post ROPS 3.78 psiTension System Screw boltCapacitiesFuel Reservoir 2.11 gal. (8.0l)Coolant 0.37 gal (1.4l)Engine Oil 0.40 gal. (1.5l)Hydraulic ReservoirTank 2.91 gal. (11l) (tank)System 3.96 gal. (15 l) (system)

    E. Morrison Trailblazer

    The Morrison Trailblazer was one of the first machines designed specifically for trail maintenance andconstruction. The machine has undergone several improvements since its introduction. Several trailcontractors use this piece of equipment, and it is still available for purchase and rent.

    The Trailblazer is equipped with a small blade that can be raised and lowered hydraulically and tiltedmanually, 15 degrees on either side. The small blade is useful for leveling and building a platform fromwhich the Trailblazer sits while building a trail. The blade also provides stability while operating thebackhoe.

    The tracks on the Trailblazer are expandable from 24 inches (0.6 m) to 30 inches(0.76 m). The widertrack provides added stability on steeper side slopes. The narrower tracks, however, make it unstableon steep and irregular terrain. The Trailblazer is not equipped with ROP and several trail contractorshave modified their equipment by adding a roll bar. Other contractors believe that ROP on the Trailblazeris not necessary because the operator could simply walk off before the machinery rolls over. Twoopposing opinions exist on the stability of the Trailblazer. The first is the machinery is unstable onirregular and steep side slopes due to the narrow track and the shifting center of gravity associatedwith the movement of the boom. The second is the stability of the machinery is dependent upon theoperator. The operator can use the blade as an anchor while using the backhoe adding to the stabilityof the Trailblazer. Inversely, the backhoe can be placed on the uphill side of the slope while using theblade.

    The overall consensus is that the Trailblazer, like any other piece of machinery, should only be operatedby an experienced operator. A new operator can gain experience with the equipment by expanding thetrack and working in flatter areas.

    The Trailblazer lacks the ergonomic features now available on newer excavators. Six levers operatethe blade, boom, and bucket. The location of the hydraulic lines also makes the Trailblazer more susceptibleto breakdown because the line is exposed and could easily shear off. Some of the routing problemshave been corrected in the newer Trailblazer models, however, the problem still exists.

    Two attachments are available, a grubhoe and a bucket. The grubhoe may be used to speed trailconstruction in light and medium soil with brushy cover. The bucket is used for digging. When used fortrenching, the Trailblazer is capable of digging a 12-inch (305 mm) wide trench 42-inches (1.1 m)deep. The hoe and the bucket are capable of moving large rocks or digging out stumps.

  • 21

    Figure 10. Morrison Trailblazer (old) at San Bernardino National Forest.

    Figure 11.Morrison Trailblazer at San Juan-Rio Grande National Forest.

  • 22

    Specifications: Morrison Trailblazer

    GeneralOverall Length 9 foot 3 inchesOverall Width 24 inchesHeight 45 inchesWeight 2150 lb.(dry)Maximum SpeedEngineMake ONANFuel GasolineCoolingDisplacementHorsepower 25 hp @3000 rpmDrives 2 DP Charlynn MotorsSteering Hydraulic ...independent motorsHydraulicsPump Type GearPump Total Capacity @ 3000 rpmBackhoe 6 gpmTrack Drives 12 gpmRelief Valve SettingsBackhoe 1500 psiTrack Drives 1500 psiCylindersSwing 2'' x 12'' Single Acting 2 cylindersBucket 3'' x 10'' Double Acting 1 cylinderStick 3'' x 10'' Double Acting 1 cylinderBoom 3'' x 10'' Double Acting 1 cylinderBlade 3'' x 6'' Double Acting 1 cylinderBoom Swing arc 180Turning Clearance within its own lengthWorking RangeArm Length 6' 3''Max. Digging Height 5'Max. Dumping HeightMax. Digging Depth 4' 6''Max. Vertical Digging DepthMax. Digging Reach at Ground LevelBucket Digging ForceBucket Capacity 2.7 ft3 (Approximately)Bucket Weight 87 lb.Grubhoe AttachmentBlade Height 13 inchesBlade Width 16 inchesGrubhoe Weight 120 lb.

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    F. Takeuchi TB007, TB015, TB020, TB025, TB035, TB045

    Takeuchi makes several excavator models. The six models discussed below have an overall width of72-inches (1.8 m) or less. Features common to all Takeuchi excavators are discussed first and specialfeatures are discussed separately. Like other excavators included in this document, Takeuchi modelshave a dozer blade. However, Takeuchi models have the unique feature of a hydraulically adjustabletrack frame width. In the narrow frame position the excavator can pass through narrow openings andoperate in confined areas. In the wide frame position the excavator gains greater stability for heavydigging, operation of attachments, and work on uneven terrain. All excavators have two-speed trackdrive motors for high torque grading and backfilling and high speed job site mobility. Takeuchi excavatorsalso have feathered action main control valve spools to eliminate abrupt machine response. Smootherstart/stop hydraulic functions provide for precise, safe operation and minimal operator fatigue. Theseexcavators use auxiliary hydraulics which allow the operator to run different implements without haltingoperation on the primary hydraulics. The auxiliary hydraulics are fully installed to the dipstick with stopvalves. The attachment hoses are routed through the boom yoke improving operator visibility andoffering additional protection from external hose damage.

    Special Features:TB 007Hydraulically adjustable track frame from 26.8 inches (0.7 m) for narrow areas to 35.4 inches (0.9 m) for greater operating stability.Boom swings 180 for maximum digging offset.Auxiliary circuit routed to the end of the arm permits quick hook-up of hydraulic attachments.Two-speed travel.Dozer blade for light grading and backfilling.Rubberized tracks.Tilt-back engine cover provides quick access to engine, battery, and filters.Wraparound counterweight protects the engine compartment.Wide angle independent boom swing.

    TB015Hydraulically adjustable track frame from 26.8 inches (0.7 m) for narrow areas to 35.4 inches (0.9 m) for greater operating stability.Electronic monitoring system apprises operator of vital engine conditions.Automatic fuel bleed system eliminates the need for fuel bleeding and priming.Synchronized bucket and arm cylinder speeds for flat bottom trenching.Two-way auxiliary circuit routed to the end of the arm for quick hook-up of hydraulic attachments.Simultaneous digging functions for fast cycle times.Wrap around counterweight protects the engine compartment.Available with steel or rubber tracks.Automatic arm acceleration.

    TB020Electronic monitoring system apprises operator of engine conditions.Automatic fuel bleed system.Synchronized bucket and arm cylinder speeds.Two-speed travel.Available steel and rubber tracks.Simultaneous digging functions.Variable displacement pressure compensated axial piston main hydraulic pumps. System flows and pressure vary according to the load demand placed on the hydraulic system.

    TB025 , TB035 and TB045Electronic monitoring system notifies operator of engine conditions.Automatic fuel bleed system.Synchronized bucket and arm cylinder speeds.Two-speed travel.

  • 24

    Available steel and rubber tracks.Simultaneous digging functions.Emergency shutdown system. Engine shuts down during low oil pressure or overheating conditions.Straight travel while operating other functions.Variable displacement pressure compensated axial piston main hydraulic pumps. System flows and pressures vary according to the load demand placed on the hydraulic system.

    TB007 TB015 TB020

    Dimensions & WeightOperating Weight 1667 lb. Steel Rubber Steel Track Rubber track

    track track 3418 lb. 3197 lb. Cab Canopy Cab Canopy

    4672 4544 4406 4278Overall Length(Transport) 9'0'' 12'2'' 13'4''Overall Width 29.1'' / 35.4'' 3'2'' / 4'3'' 4'3''Overall Height 6'8'' 7'7'' 7'9''Min. Ground Clearance 6.3'' 7'' 12''Min. Front Swing Radius 4'0'' (80 Boom Swing)Tail Swing Radius 31.5'' 43'' 4'0''EngineManufacturer Yanmar Yanmar Kubota D11053Horsepower @ rpm 8.0 @ 2550 16 @ 2550 21 hp @ 2500Cylinders 2 3 3Displacement (CID) 26.8 53.7 68.5 CIDFuel Tank Capacity 2.1 US gal 6.1 US gal 6.2 US galFuel Consumption 1.2 gal/hrPerformanceMax. Digging Depth 61 inches 87 inches 7'7''Max. Dump Height 79 inches 102 inches 9'3''Max. Reach 107 inches 145 inches 13'3''@ Ground LevelMax. Digging Depth 59 inches 84 inches 7'6''w/ 2 ft. Flat BottomMax. Digging Depth 4'11'' 5'7'' w/ 8 ft. Flat BottomMax. Bucket Digging Force 1874 lb. 2415 lb. 3308 lb.Max. Stick Digging Force 1323 lb. 1830 lb. 2426 lb.Travel Speed mph 1.2 / 2.3 1.4 / 2.6 steel track rubber track

    1.4/2.5 .5/2.6Gradeability 25 30 30BucketWidth 14 inches 18 inches 4feet 3 inchesCapacity SAE Heaped .81 ft3 1.3 ft3 2.0 cu. ft (1.5 SAE Struck)Dozer BladeWidth 26.8'' / 35.4'' 3'2'' / 4'3'' 4'3''Height 7.9'' 10'' 13''Max. Raise 6.1'' 7.8'' 15.1''Max. Lower 4.7'' 8.7'' 10.3''Swing SystemBoom Swing Angle (L/R) 90/90 90/50 80/50Slew Speed 9.1 rpm 10 rpmSlew Reduction BullgearSlew Brake Main Control Check valveSlew Motor GerotorSwing Speed 9.1 rpm 10 rpm

  • 25

    TB007 TB015 TB020

    UndercarriageTraction Motor Type Gerotor Gerotor GerotorTraction Drive Type Planetary Planetary PlanetaryTraction Brake Type Counter Balance Friction Friction

    ValveTrack Rollers Per Side 2 3 3Shoe Type Rubber Belt Double Crawler Type

    Semi-Grouser Double Semi GrouserShoe Width 7 inches 9.1 inches 10 inchesGround Contact Length 35.5 inches 40 inches 51 inchesGround Pressure 3.1 psi 4.1 psi Steel Track Rubber Track

    Cab Canopy Cab Canopy4.2 psi 4.0 psi 3.8 psi 3.5 psi

    Hydraulic SystemSystem Capacity 4.1 US gal 7.9 US gal 16.6 US galsSystem Operating Pres. 2133 psi 2774 psi 2698 psiPump Type Tandem Gear Triple Gear Triple GearHydraulic Flow 2.8 x 2 gpm 4.1 x 2/2.7 x1 gpm 5.3 x 3 gpmAuxiliary Hydraulic Flow 5.6 gpm 8.2 gpm 10.6 gpm

    Figure 12.Takeuchi TB007 compact excavator.

  • Figure 13.Takeuchi TB015 compact excavator.Figure 14.Takeuchi TB020 compact excavator.

    26

  • 27

    Takeuchi TB025 TB035 TB045

    Dimensions & WeightOperating Weight (lbs.) 5958 7625 10,092Overall Length(Transport) 14'6'' 16'6'' 18'4'Overall Width 4'9'' 5'4'' 6'0''Overall Height 7'11'' 7'11''/ 8'1'' 8'6''Min. Ground Clearance 12' 12'' 13''Min. Front Swing Radius 4'11'' 4'11" 4'11'"(80 Boom Swing)Tail Swing Radius 4'3'' 4'8'' 4'11''EngineManufacturer Yanmar Yanmar YanmarHorsepower @ rpm 26 @ 2450 33 @ 2600 43.4 @ 2000Cylinders 3 3 3Displacement (CID) 87.2 87.0 158Fuel Tank Capacity 7.6 8.9 15.3Fuel Consumption (gals/hr.) 1.4 1.9 2.4PerformanceMax. Digging Depth 8'6'' 10'2'' 11'6''Max. Dump Height 9'5'' 11'2'' 12'5''Max. Reach 14'7'' 16'6'' 18'9''@ Ground LevelMax. Digging Depth 8'5'' 10'1'' 11'4'' w/ 2 ft. Flat BottomMax. Digging Depth 6'8'' 8'7'' 10'0'' w/ 8 ft. Flat BottomMax. Bucket Digging Force 3968 5138 6967Max. Stick Digging Force 3020 3870 5270Travel Speed mph 1.3/2.5 1.4/2.7 1.7/2.9Gradeability 30 30 30BucketWidth 18'' 22'' 22''Capacity SAE Heaped (cu. ft.) 2.5 3.5 5.0Dozer BladeWidth 4'9'' 5'4'' 6'0''Height 13.8'' 15'' 16.2''Max. Raise 15.4'' 16.5'' 17.3''Max. Lower 11.8'' 14.9'' 13.6''Swing SystemBoom Swing Angle (L/R) 80/50 80/50 80/50Slew Speed 10 10.7 11.3Slew Reduction PlanetarySlew Brake Main Control Check ValveSlew Motor PistonUndercarriageTraction Motor Type PistonTraction Drive Type PlanetaryTraction Brake Type FrictionTrack Rollers Per Side 3 4 5Shoe Type Crawler Type Double Semi-Grouser Double Semi-

    GrouserGround Contact Length 4'7'' 5'3'' 6'3''Ground Pressure (psi) 4.0 4.0 3.8Steel Track CanopyGround Pressure (psi) 4.2 4.1 3.9Steel Track Cab

  • 28

    TB025 TB035 TB045Ground Pressure (psi) 3.8 3.7 3.8Rubber Track CanopyGround Pressure (psi) 4.0 3.8 3.8Rubber Track CabHydraulic SystemSystem Capacity (gallons) 21.7 26.4 31.7System Operating Pres. 2845 2845 2845Pump Type Triple Gear 2 x Variable Displacement Piston/

    1 x gearHydraulic Flow (gpm) x 2 x 2 x 2

    5.2 x 1 5.8 x 1 9.1 x 1Auxiliary Hydraulic Flow 12.6 15.0 14.8

    Figure 15.Takeuchi TB025 compact excavator.

  • 29

    Figure 16.Takeuchi TB035 compact excavator.

    Figure 17.Takeuchi TB045 compact excavator.

  • 30

    DOZER

    ConfigurationDozers are self-propelled machines mounted on either a wheeled or crawler tractor to exert a push/pullforce through a blade, drawbar, or ripper and are used to move objects or materials. The primary trailbuilding implement is the dozer blade.

    DiscussionDozers considered for this section are machines with a width under 72-inches (1.8 m), not includingthe width of the implement. The three trail building dozers discussed below, the SWECO Dozer, theAccutrac AC-30, and the Pacific Crawler Dozer are all mounted on crawler tractors. The SWECO dozeris the only one currently being manufactured. Information for the other two are provided because theymay still be available through used equipment or rental equipment dealers.

    All machines considered have quick attachments to an auxiliary hydraulic system to power the dozerblade, drawbar, ripper, loader bucket, and backhoe attachments. There are two primary earthworkingimplements that are used for trail building or maintenance; the dozer blade and a backhoe attachment.All of the equipment in this section have a 6-way dozer blade.

    The dozers evaluated all have engines mounted on the rear of the frame, making the tractor morestable when lifting or moving earth with the implements mounted in the front. The rear mounted enginealso gives the operator better visibility.

    Advantages/DisadvantagesThe advantages/disadvantages of dozers compared to excavators are listed below. Other advantages/disadvantages may be observed depending on use, terrain, and local.

    AdvantagesLarge dozer blade is faster cutting a rough trail tread than using a backhoe bucket.More stable than the backhoe because the center of gravity remains constant. These machines are usually wider than the compact backhoe thus making them more stable.Moving large boulders or tree stumps is easier with a dozer. The larger engine available in these machines makes pushing obstacles out of the way faster than digging them out.The auxiliary hydraulics available makes the dozer an excellent platform to power other hydraulic implements.

    DisadvantagesLarger than most compact backhoes; and cuts a wider trail.Larger trailers and towing vehicles are required for transport to the job site.

    Equipment Specifications

    A. SWECO Dozer

    The SWECO Trail Dozer is well designed and built for trail use. The dozer is equipped with full ROP, 11/4- inch (32 mm) steel plates, oversize hydraulic cylinders with triple filtration in both the hydraulicand air filters adding to the durability of the trail dozer. The dozer sits on top of a Berco carriage withthe engine mounted in the rear. Two 24-gallon (91 liter) hydraulic and diesel tanks are mounted oneach side of the dozer. The hydraulic pumps are easily accessible through a rear panel. The operatorsits forward of the engine and operates the dozer with six levers. Two levers control the tracks and fourlevers operate the blade, rippers, and other attachments connected to the auxiliary hydraulics.

    Unlike excavators, the SWECO dozer is able to cut a rough trail in one pass and has enough power toplow through brush and large rocks, thus reducing the need to blast. The dozer builds trail faster thanan excavator due to the larger blade and more power. The overall width of the tractor dictates the widthof the trail built. Although the dozer blade is wider than the tractor, the blade could be tilted or angledto reduce the effective width. The actual trail tread is smaller than the 48 inches (1.2 m) width of the

  • 31

    tractor when the outside berm is removed and when material starts to slough off the cut slope onto thetread. The dozer blade can be raised and lowered two feet, angled and tilted, making it ideal for buildingwaterbars and dips.

    The SWECO dozer is available with an air compressor and auxiliary hydraulic connectors. The aircompressor can be used to run pneumatic hand tools including pruners and chain saws. Auxiliaryhydraulics can power a backhoe or small hydraulic devices (rock drills).

    Like the excavator, the dozer needs an experienced operator especially in areas with steep side slopes.Since the dozer must operate on a platform, the operator must ensure that the platform is stable. Theoptional winch can aid in getting the dozer out of trouble or stabilizing the dozer for safer operation.

    The optimum number of people working with the dozer is three; the operator, one person ahead of thedozer for safety, and one behind to clean up the trail. The length of trail built or maintained is dependentupon the terrain, the type of work required, and the skill of the operator. For new trail construction theSWECO dozer has a range of 500 ft (152 m) per hour for rocky terrain to 1000 ft (305 m) per hour forsofter areas.

    The dozer is most efficient when used in conjunction with other equipment; an ATV dragging a harrow(see ancillary equipment section) could be used to remove the outside berm. The weight of the traildozer also helps in compacting the soil.

    Specifications: SWECO TRAIL DOZER

    Width 48 inchesLength (with blade & rippers) 128 inchesHeight 76 inchesGround Clearance 6.5 inchesGross weight (w/ blade & rippers) 7800 lb.Travel Speed 0 - 5 mphMax. Blade Lift 24 inchesMax. Blade Drop 24 inchesMax. Blade Angle 30 degreesMax. Blade Tilt 25 degrees

    Engine:Make Isuzu DieselHorse Power 56 hp @ 3000 rpm, 70hp w/ TurboType 4 cylinderCooling Medium waterElectrical System 12 voltsMax. Inclination, all angles 35 degreesFuel consumption (Avg.) 1.0 gal/Hr

    Transmission Sunstrand twin hydrostatic pumps & Fairfield torque hubs

    Steering Dual controls, full hydrostatic, counter rotatingHydraulics Gear pump 10-30 gpm, triple filtrationUndercarriageMake BercoTrack Frame Rigid FrameTrack Rollers 1 Top, 4 BottomShoes per Track 30Track Width 11 in.Ground Pressure 5.7 psi

  • 32

    Available AttachmentsDozer 6-way, 50 inches (1.2 m) or 60 inches (1.5 m)Rippers, 3 shankBackhoe, 8 ft (203 mm) or 9 ft 229 mm) reachAuger, 4''(101 mm) to 24''(610 mm) diameterLogging Arch/WinchAir Compressor

    Standard FeaturesSeat Belt Heavy Duty Engine Cooling SystemROPs Side Brush ScreensTach/Hourmeter Rock GuardsWarning lights Safety BrakeVandal Protection Kit Limb RisersFuel & Hydraulic Gauges Auxiliary HydraulicsCold Weather Starting Kit

    OptionsRock Points Hand Tool HoldersSpark Arrester Float Action on TiltFront & Rear Lights Backup AlarmDraw Bar (on rippers) Fire ExtinguisherTrailer (Standard or custom)

    Figures 18A & 18B.SWECO trail dozers working in Angeles National Forest.

  • 33

    B. Accutrac AC-30

    At the time of publication, the manufacturer could not be contacted. It is believed this machine is nolonger available for purchase; however, it may be available for rent. The machine is included in thispublication for reference only. The specifications used are based on data issued in 1988.

    Specifications: Accutrac AC-30Tractor Length 85 in. (2159 mm)Tractor Width 48 in. (1219 mm)Height (w/ ROP) 84 in. (2134 mm)Weight 4500 lb.EngineMake Deuts F2L511-2 cylHorsepower Continuous: 28.5 hp (21 kW)

    Intermittent: 34 hp (25 kW)Displacement 100 cu. in. (1625 cc)Cooling Forced AirElectrical System 12 Volt 33 AmpUndercarriage Full Floating Track & SprocketsTrack Rollers 4 (each side)Length of track on ground 51.5 in. (1308 mm)Shoes per Track 331Track Shoe Width 9.85 in. (250 mm)Track on Ground 1015 sq. In. (6548 sq. cm)Ground Pressure 4.35 psi (30KPa)CapacitiesFuel 19 US gal (72 L)Hydraulic 27 US gal (103 L)SteeringHydrostatic 3-way Full power on turns

    Lock one trackCounter rotate

    AttachmentsFront end LoaderBucket width 54 inchesLift height 96 inchesLoader Capacity 1/3 cu. yd w/ tilt 1200 lb. lift

    1/2 cu. yd. straight 1500 lb. liftSix way bladeMax. Blade Lift 20 inchesMax. Blade Drop 12 inchesMax. Blade Angle 30 degreesMax. Blade Tilt 30 degrees3-Point Hitch Frame Will accept category one 3 point attachments

    Standard Equipment Optional EquipmentROP Canopy Three shank ripperFull instrumentation & gauges 3-point hitch adapter, front & rearFull belly pan 6-way dozer bladeSeat belt 12-inch street padsRemote mount oil filter LightsSix-way hydraulic power front & rear DrawbarPower take off connections, front & rear Bolt on padsHeavy duty under carriage w/ 4 sealed PTO hydraulic drive motor w/ 1-inch dia. and prelubricated rollers each side keyed shaft and all connection hosesForced air hydraulic oil coolerCold weather starting aid

  • 34

    C. Pacific Crawler Dozer

    At the time of publication, the manufacturer could not be contacted. Although the equipment is notavailable for purchase, it may be available for rent. The equipment is presented for reference. Thespecifications are as of 1988.

    Specifications: Pacific Crawler Dozer

    Width 47 inches (1193.8 mm)Length (including rippers) 126 inches (3200.4 mm)Height 40 inches (1016 mm)Ground Clearance 36.5 inches (927.1 mm)Gross Weight 5000 lb. (2269 kg)Blade Width 47.5 in. (1206.5 mm)Blade Lift 21 in. (533.4 mm)Below Grade 14 in. (355 mm)Blade Tilt 15Blade Angle 25Travel Speed 0-5 mphEngineMake Hatz 2L or Deutz F2L-511D DieselHorsepower @ rpm 44 hp (33 kW) @ 2800 rpmType 2 cylindersCooling Air CooledElectrical System 12 voltsMax., inclination, all angles 35 (97%) (gradeability)TransmissionType Sundstrand w/ twin hydrostatic pumps & Fairfield torque hubs

    with independent track, hydrostatic propulsion fully reversible to control speed and direction of travel.

    Steering Wobble stick, full hydrostatic, counter rotatingHydraulicsPump Type GearNumber of Pumps 3Pump Capacity 12 gpm (20 gpm available)Hydraulic Tank Capacity 20 gallons (75.7L)UndercarriageMake BercoTrack Frame Rigid FrameTrack Rollers 4 bottom rollersCarrier Roller 1 carrier rollerLength of Track on Ground 48 inches (1219 mm)Shoe per Track 30Track Shoe Width 10 in (254 mm) / 12 in (304 mm)Ground Pressure 10 in. track width = 5 psi (34.5 kPa)

    12 in. track width = 4 psi (27.6 kPa)CapacitiesFuel Tank 10 gal (37.8 L)Hydraulic System 20 gal (75.7 L)Crankcase 5 qt.Frame Unitized with full belly pan

  • 35

    AttachmentsLoader with 1/2-cubic yard capacity4 post ROP6-way hydraulic dozer with wobble stick control3-shank parallelogram rippersBackhoe

    LOADERS

    ConfigurationLoaders are mounted on either a wheeled or tracked undercarriage. These machines have loaderbuckets up front with engines mounted in the rear. Loaders are ideal for moving rocks, soil, or othertrail building material to the job site. They are not designed to cut trail tread, however an angled bladeand a york rake attachment are available for that purpose.

    The smallest loader in this section is the Bobcat 453 with a width of 35.5 inches (0.9 m). The largest ofthe loaders is the Bobcat 873 with a width of 74.1 inches (1.9 m). Bobcat loaders come standard withwheels, but a track to fit over the wheels is available. The Takeuchi TL26 is the only tracked loaderreviewed.

    DiscussionThe size of the machine dictates the width of the trail on which the machine can operate. Tracks on thevehicle provide more traction because of a large contact area with the ground. The larger contact areaalso provides better resistance to inadvertent slipping, making it more stable. The larger contact areaalso provides more float over plastic soil conditions. The damping action provided by the pneumatictires gives the wheeled vehicle a smoother ride.

    The vast assortment of available attachments for these loaders makes them versatile trail machines.The loaders can be used to haul or move trail materials closer to the job site. The number of peopleworking with the machinery varies with the task. For example, when building a trail tread with a backhoeattachment, a crew of three is needed. The crews placement is the same as previously discussed forexcavators. The power output and safety considerations define the amount of material or the size ofboulders the loader can move. Never exceed the maximum operating capacity of the equipment.

    These machines are compact and maneuverable which allows operation in confined areas The smallsize of the loaders allows for easy transport via trailer or on a truck bed. The higher travel speedcompared to excavators and dozers allows for greater mobility in and around the job site and alsoreduces cycle time.

    Advantages/DisadvantagesThe following are the advantages/disadvantages of the loader compared to the excavator, dozer, andhauler.

    AdvantagesVersatile with the available attachments the loader performs many other functions. Able to move large volume of material.Higher travel speeds reduce cycle time.Parts and service are widely available.

    DisadvantagesPerformance is compromised when used as other than a loader or hauler.Additional cost to procure attachments.

  • 36

    Equipment Specification

    A. Bobcat 400, 500, 700, and 800 Series Skid-Steer Loaders

    This document evaluates the 400, 500, 700, and 800 series loaders. The skid-steer loaders are wheeledvehicles and have less traction in loose, plastic soil types than tract mounted loaders. Wheeled vehicles,in general, are not as stable on terrain with large side slopes due to smaller ground contact area thusproviding less resistance to slippage. These loaders are compact and very maneuverable making themideal for working in small areas. Their small size also makes them easy to transport to and from the jobsite. The Bobcat 453 Skid-Steer is the narrowest (35.5 inches/0.9 m) Bobcat loader evaluated.

    The operator compartment and controls are ergonomically designed. The operator seat is cushionedand can be adjusted fore and aft. The seat bar doubles as a cushioned arm rest when two controllevers are being used. The operator cab has ample room; entering and exiting the cab is easy. The twolevers control the steering and drive. A thumb switch on one of the levers allows the operator to controlauxiliary hydraulic functions. Two foot pedals control the hydraulics. Hydraulic hand controls are alsoavailable.

    Maintenance of the loaders is aided by easy access to the engine and hydraulic/hydrostatic components.The engine is accessed though a swing out tailgate. Fluid levels, battery, and oil drain are also easilyaccessed. Access to the radiator requires the removal of the oil cleaner. Hydraulics/hydrostatics areserviced by unbolting two nuts and lifting the cab back. The Bobcat Skid-steers also are manufacturedwith self lubricating axle bearings that do not need greasing.

    Safety devices in the Bobcat loaders include ROP/FOP cabs with a rear egress port which allows theoperator to exit the loader if the front exit is obstructed. All loaders are also equipped with the BobcatInterlock Control System (BICS). The BICS locks the hydraulic lift and tilt functions and the tractiondrive when the seat bar is raised and the engine is running. Also, if the operator moves off the seat formore than one second the seat sensor relays information to the controller which locks the hydraulic liftand tilt functions. Auxiliary hydraulics are not affected. The seat bar adds additional restraint and alsoserves as an arm rest. As a safety option, the Bobcat loaders are available with a sound cab whichreduces the noise level (at the operators ear) to 85 dBA. Spark arrester mufflers are standard equipmenton skid loaders.

    Additional attachments for these loaders are available and are listed in the specifications section below.Each model may not be equipped with the same attachments. In general, smaller loaders have feweravailable attachments. Changing attachments are facilitated by the Bob-Tach System. The operatormoves the frame into the attachment flange, pushes the two handle pins down and presses the wedgethrough the frame and attachment hole making a solid connection.

    The 400 and 500 series Bobcat Skid-Steer Loaders are steered and driven with two levers on eachside of the operator. The levers also control attachments which require auxiliary hydraulics (backhoes,grapples & forks). Hydraulics are controlled using two foot pedals. Applying pressure on the top orbottom of the pedal raises/lowers, dumps, and rolls back the bucket. This combination makes the skid-steer easy to control.

    Specifications: 450 453 553

    CapacityRated Operating Capacity 600 (272 ) 600 (272 ) 850 (408)lb. (kg)Tipping Load lb. (kg) 1217 (552) 1470 (667) 1700 (771)Hydraulic Pump Capacity 6.8 (25.7) 6.8 (25.7) 8 (30.3)GPM (LPM)DimensionsLength (w/ bucket) in. (mm) 97 (2464) 97 (2464) 106.6 (2708)Width (w/ bucket) in. (mm) 35.5 (901.2) 35.5 (901.2) 49.5 (1257)

  • 37

    Specifications: 450 453 553Height in. (mm) 72 (1829) 72 (1829) 72.8 (1849)

    450 453 553

    Height to Bucket Pin in. (mm) 92 (2337) 92 (2337) 102.5 (2604)EngineMake/Model Kohler M18QS Kubota D750-B Kubota D950-BFuel/Cooling Gas/Air Diesel/Liquid Diesel/LiquidCylinders 2 3 3HP/Displacement in3 (L) 16.5/42.19 (0.69) 15/46.5 (0.76) 21.5/56.6 (0.93)Fuel Tank Capacity gal (L) 6.5 (24.6 ) 6.5 (24.6 ) 10 (38)Operating Weight lb. (kg) 2195 (996) 2513 (1140) 3622 (1643)OperationSteering & Drive Forward, Reverse, Travel Speed & Steering controlled by 2 leversHydraulics 2 foot pedals raise/lower lift arms & dump/rollback bucketTransmission Hydrostatic, four wheel drive

    Figure 19A.Bobcat 763 Skid-Steer loader with a modified blade.

  • 38

    Figure 19B.Bobcat 400 C-Series Skid-Steer loader.

    Figure 20.Bobcat 553 C-Series Skid-Steer loader.

  • 39

    Standard FeaturesAdjustable Cushioned Seat Operator CabBobcat Interlock Control System Parking BrakeBob-Tach Seat BarFlotation Tires Seat BeltLift Arm Support Spark Arrester MufflerMeters/Gauges/Warning Lights

    Available AttachmentsAngle Blade Grapples and ForksAngle Broom Hydraulic BreakerAuger Pallet ForksBackhoe SweeperBox Scrapper Three Point HitchBuckets (3 styles available) York RakeEcono Grader

    Figure 21.Bobcat 763 Skid-Steer loader.

  • 40

    Figure 22.Bobcat 873 Skid-Steer loader.

  • 41

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