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Seminar Report Powerline Communication 1.0.0 Introduction Connecting to the Internet is a fact of life for business, government, and most households. The lure of e-commerce, video on demand, and e-mail has brought 60 million people to the Internet. Once they get to the Internet, they find out what it’s really like. That includes long waits for popular sites, substantial waits for secure sites, and horrible video quality over the web. Telephone companies have offered high bandwidth lines for many years. For the most part, the cost of these lines and the equipment needed to access them has limited their usefulness to large businesses. The lone exception has been ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) which has won over some residential customers. ISDN offers fast Internet access (128k) at a relatively low cost. Dept. of EEE BMSCE, Bangalore 1

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Seminar Report Communication1.0.0

Powerline

IntroductionConnecting to the Internet is a fact of life for business,

government, and most households. The lure of e-commerce, video on demand, and e-mail has brought 60 million people to the Internet. Once they get to the Internet, they find out what its really like. That includes long waits for popular sites, substantial waits for secure sites, and horrible video quality over the web. Telephone companies have offered high bandwidth lines for many years. For the most part, the cost of these lines and the equipment needed to access them has limited their usefulness to large businesses. The lone exception has been ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) which has won over some residential customers. ISDN offers fast Internet access (128k) at a relatively low cost. Here the solution is Powerline communications (or PLC). Powerline communications is a rapidly evolving market that utilizes electricity power lines for the high-speed transmission of data and voice services. None of the available Internet access services offer the right balance of cost, convenience, and speed. Digital Powerline technology could change all that. It gives customers high speed Internet access through electrical networks. Lower costs are achieved because the service is implemented on standard electrical lines. The service is also convenient

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because its already in your home. Internet access through Digital Powerline would be at (at least) 1Mbps, 20 times faster than a standard phone/modem connection.

1.1.0 HistoryThe technology has roots going back to the 1940s.It has been used by power utilities for simple telemetering and control of electrical equipment in their networks. What is new is the integration of activities outside the building with those inside the building at a much higher bandwidth, 2.5 mbps or higher.

1.2.0 Overview of TechnologyPLC works by transmitting high frequency data signals through the same power cable network used for carrying electricity power to household users. Such signal cannot pass through a transformer. This requires devices that combine the voice and data signals with the lowvoltage supply current in the local transformer stations. The signal makes its way to neighborhoods and customers who could access either it wirelessly, through utility poles. Digital Powerline use a network, known as a High Frequency Conditioned Power Network (HFCPN), to transmit data and electrical signals. A HFCPN uses a series of Conditioning Units (CU) to filter those

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separate signals. The CU sends electricity to the outlets in the home and data signals to a communication module or "service unit". The service unit provides multiple channels for data, voice, etc. Base station servers at local electricity substations connect to the Internet via fiber or broadband coaxial cable. The end result is similar to a neighborhood local area network. 1.2.1 The Server The Digital Powerline base station is a standard rack mountable system designed specifically for current street electricity cabinets. Typically, one street cabinet contains twelve base station units, each capable of communicating over 1 of 40 possible radio channels. These units connect to the public telecommunications network at E1 or T1 speeds over some broadband service. Several options, with different costs, can provide broadband Internet service to each base station. The simplest solution is connecting leased lines to each substation. This solution is potentially quite costly because of the number of lines involved. A wireless system has also been suggested to connect base stations to the Internet. This option reduces local loop fees, but increases hardware costs. Another alternative involves running high bandwidth lines, along side electric lines, to substations. These lines could be fiber , ATM, or broadband coaxial cable. This option avoids local loop fees, but is beset by equipment fees. The actual deployment of Digital Powerline will probably involve a mix of these alternatives, optimized for cost efficiency in different areas and with different service providers.

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These base stations typically serve approximately 50 customers, providing over 20 MHz of usable spectrum to near end customers and between 6 and 10 MHz of useable spectrum to far end customers. The server operates via IP to create a LAN type environment for each local service area. 1.2.2 The HFCPN Conditioning Unit The conditioning Unit (CU) for the Digital Powerline Network is placed near the electric meter at each customers home. The CU uses band pass filters to segregate the electricity and data signals, which facilitate the link between a customers premise and an electricity substation. The CU contains three coupling ports. The device receives aggregate input from its Network Port (NP). This aggregate input passes through a high pass filter. Filtering allows data signals to pass to a Communications Distribution Port (CDP) and a low pass filter sends electric signals to the Electricity Distribution Port (EDP). The 50 Hz signal flows from the low pass filter, out of the EDP and to the electricity meter. The low pass filter also serves to attenuate extraneous noise generated by electrical appliances at the customer premises. Left unconditioned, the aggregation of this extraneous noise from multiple homes would cause significant distortion in the network.

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The high pass filter facilitates two way data traffic to and from the customer premise. Data signals flow through the CDP to the customers service unit via standard coaxial cable. 1.2.3 Service Unit The service unit is a wall or table mountable multi-purpose data communications box. The unit facilitates data connections via BNC connectors to cable modems and telephone connections via standard line termination jacks. The service unit provides its own line power for ringing and contains a battery backup in case of power outage. Alternative Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) is used for speech sampling. Because Digital Powerline allows for the termination of multiple radio signals at the customer premises, the service unit can facilitate various Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) simultaneously. In a manner similar to ISDN, data (computers) and voice (telephones) devices can coexist without interfering with each other.

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1.3.0 CASE STUDY1.3.1 Powerline Trials: Seymour Park Primary School Digital Powerline technology was first tested in a public setting at the Seymour Park Primary School in Manchester, UK. Twelve PCs were connected to a single Digital Powerline outlet. Dedicated high-speed access to the Internet turned out to be a great success in the eyes of students and teachers. Nortels Digital Powerline web site quotes Seymour Head teacher, Jenny Dunn; "The high speed connection really lets us take advantage of the educational potential of the Internet. With a normal connection the children could lose interest waiting for pages to download. The new system means information arrives virtually instantaneously, thereby maximizing teaching time and keeping children on task. This set is amazingly flexible in educational terms, and not only gives us the additional medium with which to improve standards, but prepares us for the National Grid for Learning."

1.3.2 Powerline Trials: Stanley RoadDept. of EEE6

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comprehensive trial was initiated at the Stanley Road electricity substation, Manchester. The crux of this trial was to test the limits of Powerline technology and make sure that it could meet industry standards even in worst case scenarios. The Stanley Road substation was set up to use two distributors to serve two distinct neighborhoods. Northumberland Close is located 350 meters from the substation and Seymour Close is located 600 meters from the substation. Fifteen users were chosen between the two neighborhoods to participate in the pilot program. They received various data and telephone services as well as remote metering/information services. Unfortunately, the results of the trial are unobtainable. Nortel and Nor.Web claim that the results of this trial and similar trials in the United States are being protected for competitive reasons. The only indication of the trials success is a subjective quote from Nor.Web. The quote states that "results produced over this period have now proved conclusively that Nor.Webs technology provides a commercially viable alternative to established means of telecommunications delivery to customer premises."

1.4.0 Application areas offered by Powerline communicationsDept. of EEE7

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PLC offers end-users a broad spectrum of applications and services including broadband Internet access, voice over IP, multimedia services, telecommunication, home automation and energy managemen(near energy services). Powerline offers the opportunity for the PC to be integrated into the household as never before. As part of the household power grid, PCs could easily be programmed to turn off lights and control security devices. 1.4.1 Powerline telecommunication Powerline telecommunications is a rapidly evolving market that utilises electricity power lines for the high speed transmission of data and voice services. The especially exciting thing about the potential for PLT is that it holds the promise of solving the underlying structural problem confronting the local access market today. PLT can provide the holy-grail of a much needed, highly elusive, alternative source of ubiquitous local loops other than the incumbent telco operator, something we sadly have yet to see happen on a sufficient scale and scope. Indeed, what make PLT so attractive from a public policy point of view are the facts that: The power grid is ubiquitous; it constitutes an existing network infrastructure to billions of private consumers and businesses The power grid offers last-mile conductivity The power grid supports information based services with strong growth potential. 1.4.2 Home Automation

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The Home Plug Powerline Alliance (HPA), a U.S. consortium of 90 members, including such high-tech giants as Cisco, Intel, Motorola, and Hewlett-Packard is working on technology to link appliances such as TVs, computers and cookers via the home electrical system. Appliance makers like Samsung Electronics Co. have been solidifying cooperation with their technology partners to enable them to market Internet-controllable home appliances this year. Samsung plans to set up a Dream LG site on its homepage to advertise its Internet-enabled products to potential customers. 1.4.3 Internet access Power line communications can also be used to interconnect home computers, peripherals or other networked consumer peripherals. Specifications for power line home networking have been developed by a number of different companies within the framework of the HomePlug Powerline Alliance, the Universal Powerline Association and the HD-PLC Alliance. The Intellon, its PowerPacketTM Powerline networking chipset, the first product certified as compliant with the HPAs 1.0 Specification . The chipset allows users to access the Internet and connect computers and other devices at speeds up to 14 mbps by simply plugging into power outlets throughout a home or small office. 1.4.4 Power management (near energy services)

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Near energy services are defined as energy services with in the confines of current business which ads new forms, features and scales. Examples are remote billing, remote metering, demand side e management distribution automation and remote control of supply. Advantages of such system for utilities lie in their potential for cost cutting and improving customer loyalty

1.5.0 Potential Advantages of Digital Powerline TechnologyThis telecommunications model has multiple advantages over others including speed, an established local loop, and dedicated connections. These advantages make Digital Powerline technology an attractive alternative for telecommunications systems. In the Digital Powerline model, small LANs are created; they terminate at each local electricity substation. These LANs will share a T1/E1 connection to the Internet, similar to a corporation leasing a T1 line. Individual users should experience tremendous speed increases over conventional 28.8kbs or 56kps dialup connections, even at peak usage. Another inherent advantage to the Digital Powerline model is the fact that it works well over the existing electric power infrastructure (at least in the UK, see the Limitations section below). Only the substation server equipment and customer conditioning/service units need to be installed in order to establish a Digital Powerline network. Dedicated, multipurpose communication lines make the Digital Powerline model an attractive option for the information age. Wide bandwidth and frequency division multiplexing allow for multiple lines to aDept. of EEE10

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single household. Ideally, an entire family could utilize their own communication devices simultaneously, whether telephone or PC, without interrupting one another. Powerline carry signals for long distances without requiring regeneration. Their near light speed propagation makes them very powerful for fast delivery of video and audio data. There is no topology limitation for power lines. High transmission rate, right now 3 mbps in uploading and downloading. The data transmission rate is expected up to 200 mbps in the future by improving the PLC chip. Permanent on-line connection with the potential for lower charges. No need for complicated wiring and additional installations. Move your computers and appliances where you want. Secure data-encryption. Lower investment costs compared to those envisaged for other broadband data access systems.

1.6.0 Potential Extensions to Digital Powerline TechnologyThere are many possible extensions to the Digital Powerline model. Those mentioned in reviews and technical journals include "the wired home" and remote customer information services. Since Digital Powerline creates a LAN type environment by running IP, people could theoretically control all of the appliances in their home from their PC or a remote device. Each home on the neighborhood LAN would operate as a sub-network of the LAN and each electrical outlet could be treated as a node on that sub-network.Dept. of EEE11

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The Nortel web site predicts, "It could also be feasible to have an Internet address for every plug in the house, through which you could email, for example: [email protected] and study the picture relayed by the video camera to see what shopping you require; or you could remotely turn the lights off and the burglar alarm on using your own password." Remote services such as remote metering have already been tested under this model and many more services are possible. Because the service provider can keep track of electricity and bandwidth usage via the network, customers will also be able to monitor their usage, reliably predict billing and keep an eye on household usage (i.e. the teenagers phone usage).

1.7.0 Current Limitations of Digital Powerline Technology1.7.1 Electro-Magnetic Radiation Issues Powerline solutions, like phone line solutions, are

unintentional radiators. Emissions can potentially cause interference with radio, television, community antenna television, telephone and DSL services. Second generation PLC technologies are using techniques like OFDM, which substantially reduce the potential of interference to radio users, thanks to a decrease in transmitted power spectral density. The OFDM modulation spreads the signal over a very wide bandwidth, thus reducing the amount on power injected at a single frequency. Field trials of PLC technologies carried out during the last 2 years in Europe (Spain, Italy, Germany), North America, South America (Chile, Brazil) and AsiaDept. of EEE12

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(Singapore) have shown that interference with radio users is no longer a problem for PLC. The same technique explains why current PLC technology does not affect other appliances in the home. 1.7.2 Addressing issue As the number of users and devices connected to Power Lines increases by orders of magnitude, it becomes clear that we cannot satisfy the demand using IPv4/NAT, at least not without enormous administrative complexity. A much larger address space is needed to provide end-to-end connectivity in a simple manner and to allow new applications and services to work in a transparent manner. Clearly, the solution of problem is with IPv6, or Next Generation Internet Addresses (IPNG) unlimited address space of IPv6 is needed to provide end-to-end connectivity and allow new applications and services to work in a transparent manner across PLC networks at massive scale (imagine every power socket in Beijing or Mumbai becoming an Internet access point!). 1.7.3 Security The transmission of data over a network that anybody has access to could also pose a data security problem, however. Tapping the signal could allow somebody to eavesdrop on communications. Only data encryption eliminates that problem. 1.7.4 Noise interference

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Power line networking is also vulnerable to interference from devices connected to the power infrastructure, such as microwaves and computers. This can be solved by either using repeaters or dynamic change of frequencies. 1.7.5 Regulatory and standardization issues Powerline's maximum access speed is shared with all users connected to the same local network station. The more people that are simultaneously on the Internet, the lower the speed obtained. Several implementation issues have held back Digital Powerline in North America and the UK. Respectively, the problems are the numbers of users per transformer and the size and shape of light poles. In North America, a transformer serves from 5 to 10 households while in Europe a transformer serves 150 households. Digital Powerline signals cannot pass through a transformer. Therefore, all electrical substation equipment needed for Digital Powerline has to be located after the transformer. Since there are fewer households per transformer in North America, predicted equipment costs are prohibitive. However, this conclusion has been debated. Analysts suggest that 100% subscription rates are possible in the US, and that at such rates Digital Powerline is profitable. Conventional wisdom suggests that there is a way to make Digital Powerline profitable in North America, whether it is through bundling a variety of services or higher fees.

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Soon after the first trials of Digital Powerline in the UK, some unanticipated problems arose. Certain radio frequencies were suddenly deluged with traffic, making it impossible to transmit on those frequencies. BBC, amateur radio, and the UKs emergency broadcasting service were affected. The apparent culprits were standard light poles. Then it became clear that by pure chance British light poles were the perfect size and shape to broadcast Digital Powerline signals. This situation posed problems not just because of the frequencies involved but also because anyone could listen in on the traffic. Nor.Web is addressing the problem by proposing to lease the frequencies involved from their owners and offering amateur radio operators a new frequency. Negotiations on this topic are currently taking place in London. The privacy issue has not been fully addressed at this point, besides suggestions that all sensitive information should be encrypted. While the promise of Powerline Telecommunications is great, it is important for everyone to understand that this technology is in its infancy and there are several hurdles the Powerline industry is working hard to overcome to make PLT a true close substitute to the existing incumbent public switched telephone network (PSTN) in the United States. Specifically, the main weaknesses of PLT products and services are that: (a) They are still at the developmental stage; (b) There is no significant installed customer base to date; (c) And the distances that Powerline technology can cover are limited. Moreover, the industry is working hard to resolve the complex issues of standardization and interoperability.Dept. of EEE15

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1.8.0 The Market for Digital PowerlineTrends in both the electric and telecommunications industry have lead to a climate where Digital Powerline should be a big player. These trends include customer demand for affordable and high speed Internet access, deregulation of electrical utilities, and the repercussions of a variety of telecommunications legislation. Customers want cheaper, faster, and more reliable access to the Internet right now. Not only can Digital Powerline provide that type of service, but it will be available before other broadband access technologies. Therefore Digital Powerline has both a time to market and cost advantage. The utility industry is facing deregulation in North America, Europe, and some parts of Asia. Deregulation means increased competition in the slow growing electricity market with little protection for utilities. An unenviable position indeed. Consequently, many utilities are actively seeking to diversify into other, more profitable, industries. For many utilities telecommunications and Internet services have been a sensible choice. That option can only become more popular as Digital Powerline matures. Digital Powerline offers a deregulated utility several options and advantages. The utility can either lease the rights to implement Digital Powerline on its electrical grid or develop the technology itself. The

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advantages include the low cost of the local loop, differentiating the utility from other utilities, and bundling a variety of services. The most recent telecommunications act has tried to make it easier for all types of telecommunications firms to sell local services and long distance services. However, Regional Bells actually have control over local lines and charge other companies who place calls on their lines. Many of the larger phone companies have sought to get around these charges by building or leasing their own networks to connect to local points. Digital Powerline is an existing network that fits those needs. Expect to see smaller telecommunications companies partnering with electrical utilities to provide alternative local phone service. 1.8.1 Who is testing or has tested the technology : PLC abroad Proof that the PLC concept works in practice was furnished by a series of field trials by Main.net of Israel, Ascom of Switzerland and some other companies in 16 European countries from Portugal to Scandinavia, as well as in Hong Kong, Korea, India, Singapore and the Americas. These trials fulfilled all expectations of reliability, functionality and the practical applications of Powerline communications. The first installations are now already up and running or about to go live. Users in Germany include the electricity companies RWE Energie Essen and EnBW Energie Baden-Wrttemberg, while in Spain the energy and telecoms group Endesa uses PLC technology. Lina.Net of Iceland, a subsidiary of Reykjavik Energy, has recently begun introducingDept. of EEE17

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PLC technology with the declared objective of providing private households with fast Internet access over the power grid rather than the telephone network. In Sweden Sydkraft, one of the leading energy providers in Scandinavia uses PLC for bridging the last mile as well as for networking inside buildings.

PLC in USA Broadband over power lines (BPL), also known as power-line Internet or powerband, is the use of PLC technology to provide broadband Internet access through ordinary power lines. A computer (or any other device) would need only to plug a BPL "modem" into any outlet in an equipped building to have high-speed Internet access. International Broadband Electric Communications or IBEC and other companies currently offer BPL service to several electric cooperatives. BPL may offer benefits over regular cable or DSL connections: the extensive infrastructure already available appears to allow people in remote locations to access the Internet with relatively little equipment investment by the utility. Also, such ubiquitous availability would make it much easier for other electronics, such as televisions or sound systems, to hook up. Cost of running wires such as ethernet in many buildings can be prohibitive; Relying on wireless has a number of predictable problems including security, limited maximum throughput and inability to power devices efficiently. But variations in the physical characteristics of the electricity network and the current lack of IEEE standards mean that provisioning ofDept. of EEE18

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the service is far from being a standard, repeatable process. And, the amount of bandwidth a BPL system can provide compared to cable and wireless is in question. The prospect of BPL could motivate DSL and cable operators to more quickly serve rural communities. [1] PLC modems transmit in medium and high frequency (1.6 to 80 MHz electric carrier). The asymmetric speed in the modem is generally from 256 kbit/s to 2.7 Mbit/s. In the repeater situated in the meter room the speed is up to 45 Mbit/s and can be connected to 256 PLC modems. In the medium voltage stations, the speed from the head ends to the Internet is up to 135 Mbit/s. To connect to the Internet, utilities can use optical fiber backbone or wireless link. Deployment of BPL has illustrated a number of fundamental challenges, the primary one being that power lines are inherently a very noisy environment. Every time a device turns on or off, it introduces a pop or click into the line. Energy-saving devices often introduce noisy harmonics into the line. The system must be designed to deal with these natural signaling disruptions and work around them. For these reasons BPL can be thought of as a halfway between wireless transmission (where likewise there is little control of the medium through which signals propagate) and wired transmission (but not requiring any new cables). Broadband over power lines has developed faster in Europe than in the United States due to a historical difference in power system design philosophies. Power distribution uses step-down transformers to reduce the voltage for use by customers. But BPL signals cannot readily pass through transformers, as their high inductance makes them act as lowpass filters, blocking high-frequency signals. So, repeaters must be attachedDept. of EEE19

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to the transformers. In the U.S., it is common for a small transformer hung from a utility pole to service a single house or a small number of houses. In Europe, it is more common for a somewhat larger transformer to service 10 or 100 houses. For delivering power to customers, this difference in design makes little difference for power distribution. But for delivering BPL over the power grid in a typical U.S. city requires an order of magnitude more repeaters than in a comparable European city. On the other hand, since bandwidth to the transformer is limited, this can increase the speed at which each household can connect, due to fewer people sharing the same line. One possible solution is to use BPL as the backhaul for wireless communications, for instance by hanging Wi-Fi access points or cellphone base stations on utility poles, thus allowing end-users within a certain range to connect with equipment they already have. The second major issue is signal strength and operating frequency. The system is expected to use frequencies of 10 to 30 MHz, which has been used for many decades by amateur radio operators, as well as international shortwave broadcasters and a variety of communications systems (military, aeronautical, etc.). Power lines are unshielded and will act as antennas for the signals they carry, and have the potential to interfere with shortwave radio communications. Modern BPL systems use OFDM modulation, which allows them to mitigate interference with radio services by removing specific frequencies used. A 2001 joint study by the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) and HomePlug Powerline Alliance showed that for modems using this technique "in general that with moderate separation of the antenna from the structure containing the HomePlug signal that interference was barely perceptible at the notched frequencies"

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and interference only happened when the "antenna was physically close to the power lines" (however other frequencies still suffer from interference).

1.9.0 Transmitting Radio programs Sometimes PLC was used for transmitting radio programs over powerlines. When operated in the AM radio band, it is known as a carrier current system. Such devices were in use in Germany, where it was called Drahtfunk, and in Switzerland, where it was called Telefonrundspruch, and used telephone lines. In the Soviet Union, PLC was very common for broadcasting since the 1930s because of its low cost and accessibility. In Norway the radiation of PLC systems from powerlines was sometimes used for radio supply. These facilities were called Linjesender. In all cases the radio programme was fed by special transformers into the lines. To prevent uncontrolled propagation, filters for the carrier frequencies of the PLC systems were installed in substations and at line branches. An example of the programs carried by "wire broadcasting" in Switzerland:

175 kHz Swiss Radio International 208 kHz RSR1 "la premire" (French) 241 kHz "classical music" 274 kHz RSI1 "rete UNO" (Italian) 307 kHz DRS 1 (German) 340 kHz "easy music"

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1.10.0 ConclusionDigital Powerline technology is an exciting alternative to connecting to the Internet via phone and modem. Though this technology is not commercially available yet in India and many countries, it should be available before other broadband technologies due to the relatively low cost of its local loop. Though wireless connections are a favourate choice, However, PLCs high speeds will provide Internet access, video on demand, local phone, and long distance phone services to customers at cheaper cost.

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1.11.0 Reference http://www.powerlineworld.com/powerlineintro.html http://www.powerlinecommunications.net/ www.powerline-plc.com www.powerline.com www.wikipedia.org

O'Neal Jr., J.B. (1986)

"The residential power circuit as a communication medium," IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-32, No. 3, pp. 567-577.

Malek, J.A. & Engstorm, J.R. (1976) "R.F. impedance of United States and European power lines," IEEE Trans. on Elec. Comp., vol. EMC18, pp. 36-38.

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CONTENTS1.0.0 Introduction 1.1.0 History 1.2.0 Overview of Technology 1.2.1 The Server 1.2.2 The HFCPN Conditioning Unit 1.2.3 Service Unit 1.3.0 CASE STUDY 1.3.1 Powerline Trials: Seymour Park Primary School 1.3.2 Powerline Trials: Stanley Road 1.4.0 Application areas offered by Powerline communications 1.4.1 Powerline telecommunication 1.4.2 Home Automation 1.4.3 Internet access 1.4.4 Power management (Near energy services) 1.5.0 Potential Advantages of Digital Powerline Technology 1.6.0 Potential Extensions to Digital Powerline Technology 1.7.0 Current Limitations of Digital Powerline Technology 1.7.1Electro-Magnetic Radiation Issues 1.7.2 Addressing issue 1.7.3 Security 1.7.4 Noise interference 1.7.5 Regulatory and standardization issues 1.8.0 The Market for Digital Powerline 1.8.1 Who is testing or has tested the technology? PLC abroad PLC in USA 1.9.0 Transmitting Radio programs 1.10.0 Conclusion 1.11.0 Reference 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 17 17 18 20 21

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ABSTRACTPower Line Communications (PLC) allows transmission of data over power lines. PLC is potentially the network with the deepest capillarity in the world, since power lines are almost ubiquitous. Powerline communications is a rapidly evolving market that utilizes electricity power lines for the high-speed transmission of data and voice services. PLC works by transmitting high frequency data signals through the same power cable network used for carrying electricity power to household users. Such signal cannot pass through a transformer. This requires devices ("outdoor devices") that combine the voice and data signals with the low-voltage supply current in the local transformer stations to bridge the last mile. In the house, "indoor devices" (adapters) are used in order to filter out the voice and data signals and to feed them to the various applications (e.g. PC/Internet, telephone, etc.). The technology has roots going back to the 1940s. It has been used by power utilities for simple telemetering and control of electrical equipment in their networks. What is new is the integration of activities outside the building with those inside the building at a much higher bandwidth, 2.5 mbps or higher this means voice and data transmission via the mains supply voltage network right through to every power socket in the building, as well as in the reverse direction at high speed.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe materialization of ideas and views of this seminar has seen valuable contribution from many friends and well-wishers. I take this opportunity to thank them all. First of all, I thank Dr. Ravishankar Dixit, Prof and Head, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, B.M.S. College of Engineering for giving me this opportunity to present the seminar. I also thank my teachers who assisted me in this endeavor.

SANTOSH. R

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