Text of US Army RDECOM/AMRDECUS Army RDECOM/AMRDEC
Microsoft PowerPoint - Paul Ashley MORPH 2008 March Ver_7.ppt [Compatibility Mode]Paul Ashley March 19, 2008March 19, 2008 UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Outline Current status of the evaluation of packaged modulators from Lumera Corporation. Current status of the investigation of the effect of thin buffer layers on poling. Plans for transition opportunity modulator demo for military/space applications. UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Thermal Stability of LPD80 Thermal stability of the modulators were evaluated by monitoring the Vπ at the storage temperature of 800C. (Data provided by Lumera Corpration) Two-parameter KWW model and Jonscher model were used in predicting the usable lifetime of the devices over 5 10 year periodusable lifetime of the devices over 5-10 year period. The distribution width of relaxation times (0 < β < 1) Jonscher Model KWW Model The average relaxation time constant • R. Kohlrausch, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 12, 393 (1847) • G. Williams and D. C. Watts, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80 (1970) Jonscher model was preferred because of the its consistency with causality UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Thermal Stability of LPD80 Ignored Average of 5 data sets Normalized (Vπ = 1.0 V at t=0) 1.5 Error bars represent the standard deviation Coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.96) 1.1 1.3 ( ) 0.9 1.4 1.6 10 b t l ti th Time (Hrs) 1.2 V_V π10 years by extrapolating the fitted curve. In 5 yrs, Vπ = 1.56 ± 0.01 V In 10 yrs, Vπ = 1.65 ± 0.02 V With KWW model, 5 & 10 year predictions were 1 60 V d 1 70 V ti l 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (Years) 1.01.60 V and 1.70 V respectively. The differences in the predicted values of the models become significant at t >> τ (~ 70 yrs). UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Thermal Cycling Linear ramp : 300C 800C 300C Ramp rate : ~ 0 6 0C/minRamp rate : 0.6 C/min Vπ, Modulation Depth, and Total Insertion Loss were monitored in real time. UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED 300C 300C 2 hrs 30 C 30 C 3 hrs Depth (dB) 0 15 0 1 Modulation depth varied during the thermal cycle. Mechanical instability in the input fiber connector is suspected. 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (min) 7510 5 Time (min) 10 11.0 60 75 10.0 10.5 C ) 45 Time (min) 0.035 AJ 416 AJ 309 AJ 404 LPD 80 AJ-CKL1 Photobleached time : 8 – 16 hrs Δ 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.000 0.005 Preparation of Test Samples for the Measurement of E-O Coefficients Fabrication of buffer layers on ITO coated glass substrates : Northwestern Univ. Core (AJ-CKL1 in APC) provided by Univ. of Washington Fabrication of polymer layer and gold electrodes :Fabrication of polymer layer and gold electrodes : AMRDEC, Redstone Arsenal Poling and removal of gold : by AMRDEC, Redstone Arsenal E-O measurements : Laboratory for Physical ScienceE O measurements : Laboratory for Physical Science Sample Buffer Poling Parameters using AJ-CKL1 E-O Polymer Polarity: negative on top electrode Voltage: 70V/μm (based on thickness of core material only) Voltage is turned on at the temperature of 25ºCVoltage is turned on at the temperature of 25 C Temperature: ramp at 10ºC/min from 25ºC to 135ºC Dwell time at 135ºC: 30 sec Cool down from 135ºC to 25ºC within about 5-6 min. Voltage is turned off at the temperature of 25ºC UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Polymer thickness = 2.3 μm α γ Double Current Peak in single layer poling Typically indicates a low temperature dipole alignment peak (α) followed yp y p p g p ( ) by a higher temperature conduction peak (γ) These peaks are generally coincident in materials previously evaluated α γ Double Current Peak in buffer layer poling Plot shows a much smaller peak for the 50 nm TiO2 buffer layerp 2 y No discernable peaks in thicker TiO2 or either of the SiO2 samples Indicates boundary charge layer is damping the signal • Need to investigate boundary charge effect on dipole relaxation UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Poling Process for AJ-CKL1/APC With SiO2 Buffer Layer Buffer : 50 nm SiO2 Polymer : AJ-CKL1 in APC Buffer : 280 nm SiO2 Polymer : AJ-CKL1 in APC Polymer : AJ CKL1 in APC Polymer thicknes = 2.4 μm Poling Voltage = 167V y Polymer thicknes = 2.4 μm Poling Voltage = 167V UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Poling Process for AJ-CKL1/APC With TiO2 Buffer Layer Buffer : 50 nm TiO2 Polymer : AJ-CKL1 in APC Buffer : 250 nm TiO2 Polymer : AJ-CKL1 in APC Polymer : AJ CKL1 in APC Polymer thicknes = 2.4 μm Poling voltage = 167V y Polymer thicknes = 2.4 μm Poling voltage = 167V UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED r33 (pm/V) at 1310nm S l Thi k ( ) #1 #2 #3 #4 AVGSample Thickness (nm) #1 #2 #3 #4 AVG NB1 No Buffer-1 0 N/A 74.0 N/A 67.0 70.5 NB2 No Buffer-1 0 55.0 55.0 55.0 N/A 55.0 SI280H SiO2 280 40 0 42 2 46 6 40 0 42.2SI280H SiO2 280 40.0 42.2 46.6 40.0 42.2 SI50H SiO2 50 39.3 44.0 34.6 38.1 39.0 TI250H TiO2 250 N/A 85.0 N/A 82.0 83.5 TI50H TiO2 50 84.0 78.9 82.1 N/A 81.7 60 0 /V ) 0.0 10.0 20.0 NB1 NB2 SI280H SI50H TI250H TI50H Measured by Laboratory for Physical Science UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Sample Buffer Thickness (nm) Fabrication of buffer layers on ITO/Au coated glass substrates : by Northwestern Univ. Core (AJ-CKL1 in APC) provided by Univ. of Washington ITO/Polymer 0 Au/Polymer 0 ITO/SiO2 50 Fabrication of polymer layer and gold electrodes : by AMRDEC, Redstone Arsenal Conductivity measurements : by NAVAIR, China Lake ITO/SiO2 280 ITO/TiO2 50 ITO/TiO2 250 ITO/In2O3 50 ITO/In2O3 250 Au/SiO2 50 Au/SiO2 280 Au/TiO2 50 Au/TiO2 250 Resistivity measurements by China Lake Film Sample T avg V I avg R calc Thickness Resistivity *p g g y (oC) (volts) (amps) (ohms) (cm) (ohm cm) TiO2 030408 25.7 26.85 1.10E-03 2.44E+04 3.84E-05 7.64E+07 132 2 26 85 1 11E-03 2 43E+04 3 84E-05 7 60E+07132.2 26.85 1.11E 03 2.43E 04 3.84E 05 7.60E 07 SiO2 030508 25.7 18.9 2.21E-07 8.56E+07 2.71E-05 3.80E+11 135.3 18.9 7.88E-07 2.40E+07 2.71E-05 1.06E+10 Polymer 25.8 160.4 3.09E-07 5.19E+08 2.29E-04 2.72E+11 AJCKL1 03 136.6 160.4 6.32E-04 2.54E+05 2.29E-04 1.33E+07 •Resistivity = (R calc) x (Electrode Area) / (Film Thickness) •electrode diameter = 0.4 cm; electrode area = 0.12 cm2 UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Effects of Blocking Layers in Nonlinear Optical Polymer PolingNonlinear Optical Polymer Poling Michael Watson/NASA MSFC Ramarao Inguva/EWERamarao Inguva/EWE Dielectric Constant and Conductivity y Effects on Core Voltage during Poling Modeling of Experimental Results Polymer/Polymer Interface Metal/Polymer Interfacey Dielectric Constant and Conductivity Effects on Core Voltage during Poling Polymer stacks are capacitive voltage division circuits during poling Charging between layers taking on the order of 1000 hours to settle before stack relaxes to a resistive voltage divider Dielectric Constant drives the division of voltage between the layers Conductivity differences drive the polarity of charge build up at theConductivity differences drive the polarity of charge build up at the polymer/polymer interfaces This charge layer enhances or degrades the core voltage σBuffer > σcore : Enhancing σBuffer< σcore : Degrading Dielectric Constant and Conductivity Effects on Core Voltage during Poling Each polymer layer can be modeled as an RC circuit The interface between each layer can also be modeled as an RC circuit to account for boundary charge effects The combined RC values drive the circuit response during poling and modulation Capacitance => Dielectric Constant Resistance => Conductivity σB>σc σB<σc εB>εc εB<εc by boundary charge field by boundary charge field Modeling of Experimental Results Northwestern University TiO2 films are much more conductive than those produced by sputtering at AMRDEC σBNWU >> σBAMRDEC Northwestern University SiO films are less than or equalNorthwestern University SiO2 films are less than or equal conductivity compared to those produced by sputtering at AMRDEC σBNWU ≤ σBAMRDEC AMRDEC σSiO2_AMRDEC > σTiO2_AMRDEC AMRDEC Sputtered Film Results (10/2007) λ = 1.55 μm r13 (pm/V) Sample location 1 r13 (pm/V) Sample location 2 r13 (pm/V) Sample location 3 NOA 3 3 3 σNOA ≤ σcoreNOA core 50 nm SiO2 not poled 14 13 σSiO2 ≤ σcore 500 nm SiO2 18 not poled 15 σSiO2 ≤ σcore 50 nm TiO2 0.5 0.4 0.4 σTiO2 << σcore h l l ( / ) 2 TiO2 core 500 nm TiO2 5 not poled not poled σTiO2 << σcore Single 10 11 not poled Northwestern Film Results (3/2008) No buffer 12 39 Notes Poling efficiency increases with buffer layer thickness Conductivities are still estimates and need to be accurately measured (within an order of magnitude) UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Core VoltageCore Voltage TiO2 buffer -103.7 V Single Layer -105 VSingle Layer -105 V SiO2 buffer -118.5 V UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Core VoltageCore Voltage TiO2 buffer -169.4 V Single Layer -168 VSingle Layer -168 V SiO2 buffer -165.7 V UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Reviewed article “Energy Level Alignment and Interfacial Electronic Structures at Organic/Metal and Organic/Organic Interfaces”Structures at Organic/Metal and Organic/Organic Interfaces , Advanced Materials, 1999. Work Function mismatch (interface energy shift) forms the basis of the Maxwell Wagner Effectg The level mismatches are reflected in the dielectric constant differences Dielectric provides a measure of the charge storage capacity which is related to the molecular energy levelsgy Polymer/Polymer layers are currently in the model as defined by the charge density equations (Gauss Law) Electrode (Metal)/Polymer interface boundary charge density is being ( ) y y g y g incorporated Investigating representation of this charge layer UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED Dielectric Constant main driver on core voltage during poling C d ti it t ib t t h t d d ti f th liConductivity contributes to enhancement or degradation of the poling voltage across the core Buffer layer fabrication processes affect the buffer layer conductivity and can dramatically affect the poling efficiencyand can dramatically affect the poling efficiency Conductivity measurements of buffer layers need to be completed Twin poling peaks indicate low temperature dipole alignmentp g p p p g Need to investigate relaxation Need to investigate affect of buffer layer on stability Modeling updateModeling update Atomic Basis of Maxwell Wagner Effect Polymer/Polymer Interface already incorporated Metal/Polymer Interface under investigationMetal/Polymer Interface under investigation UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED An integrated photonic electronic digital receiver Application : RF sensing for war fightersApplication : RF sensing for war fighters Approaches : Employing a photonics front end to provide flexibility in decentralizing RF sensors on a mobile platform Using linearized modulators with high dynamic range to increase sensor Program Manager : Charles Cerny, AFRL/RYRE Prime Contractor : Lockheed Martin, Drawbacks in current technology : Current system requirements are only up to 18 GHz. However, program goals could not be met by available components Lockheed Martin, Newtown and Moorestown by available components Linearization schemes involving electro- absorption modulators (EAM) result in performance trade-offs. Solution : Modulators with high performance electro-optic polymers can improve the bandwidth and also compensate for the performance trade-offs. p TBD : Improvement in system performance with MORPH modulator. WAR Photonics Architecture NASA Applications NASA E l ti T h l D l t PNASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) - Lunar Surface Systems - Orbital Communications/ Surface Positioning Systems Rovers and surface infrastructure Orbital Communications/ Surface Positioning Systems Program Element Manager : Diane Hope, Langley Research Center GPS corollary for moon and mars exploration support Communication relay satellites Space hardened navigation grade gyroscopes require low power consumption (< 15 W) and 0.01 deg/hr maximum drift. High bandwidth (100 GHz ) modulators operating in space environments are required for communication. High performance polymer modulators are potential candidatesHigh performance polymer modulators are potential candidates.