Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I. Agenda for Tutorial. Read three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source. Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism. Take a quiz to verify your understanding. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Using Sources in your Work:A Tutorial on Avoiding PlagiarismEnglish I

  • Agenda for TutorialRead three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source.

    Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism.

    Take a quiz to verify your understanding.

    Pledge that you will not plagiarize.

  • Lets look at some hypothetical situations.

    For each, identify if the student used his or her sources acceptably.

  • Jacks SituationJack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about.Jack logs onto the Internet just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found.Is this plagiarism?YesNo

  • You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • You saidJack did plagiarize.You are right. Jacks actions constitute plagiarism.Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper.Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source.

  • You are wrong. Jacks actions constitute plagiarism.Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper.Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong. Jacks actions constitute plagiarism.He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper.You saidJack did not plagiarize.

  • Jills SituationDuring history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castros rise to power. Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedias article on Fidel Castro. Without using quotation marks, Jill cuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment. Is this plagiarism?YesNo

  • You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • You saidJill did plagiarize.You are right. Jills actions constitute plagiarism.By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism.She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.

  • You are wrong. Jills actions constitute plagiarism.By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism.She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.You saidJill did not plagiarize.

  • Gretels SituationGretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school. When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on genetics, Gretel is confused and frustrated. During lunch, Gretel borrows her friends paper and copies the answers onto her own paper.Is this plagiarism?YesNo

  • You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • You saidGretel did plagiarize.You are right. Gretels actions constitute plagiarism.Even if Gretels friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism.Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.

  • You are wrong. Gretels actions constitute plagiarism.Even if Gretels friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism.Gretel tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person. You saidGretel did not plagiarize.

  • Think youve got it?

    Read the following(and remember, there will be a short quiz on this material!)

  • Direct Quotation

    ParaphraseIncludes summarizing and referencing the works of others within your paper or project

    There are two acceptable ways to use sources:

  • Direct QuotationWhat it is:The exact words of an author used word for word in your paper or project.

    When to use it:The exact phrasing of the source suits your needs.You want to use the sources exact wordseven just a particular apt or unusual phrase.

    How to use it:Copy the exact words of the source, putting those words inside quotation marks.Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number.At the end of your paper, include a bibliographic entry on a page that lists your references.There are two acceptable ways to use sources:

  • ParaphraseWhat it is:Using your own words to restate the sources idea. This could be a summary of the sources point, a brief mention of the sources findings, or a longer restatement of the sources idea.

    Use paraphrase when:The exact phrasing of the source is too technical, too wordy, etc. You want to present the sources idea in a more compact, focused way

    How to use it:Before the paraphrase, introduce the source. This will show where the paraphrase begins.Use your own words to restate the meaning of the source. This means you change words, structure, and syntax. You do not merely substitute synonyms for the sources original phrasing.Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number or source.Include a bibliographic entry on a reference page atthe end of your paper or project.

    There are two acceptable ways to use sources:

  • Testing your understandingCan you tell the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase?

    Click on the correct answer for each of the following samples.

  • Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #1In his book on Googles business strategy, John Battelle states, Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the cultures nervous system (2). This is an example ofDIRECT QUOTATIONThis is an example ofPARAPHRASE

  • You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • ParaphraseSorry, no. You are incorrect.

    The student did not paraphrase--she used a direct quotation. The quotation marks give it away:

    In his book on Googles business strategy, John Battelle states: Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the cultures nervous system (2).

  • Direct QuotationEasy, right? If you see quotation marks, it is a direct quotation.

    Any time you use the exact words of a source, you must surround them in quotation marks and indicate the source.

  • Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase Model #2Battelles argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153). This is an example ofDIRECT QUOTATIONThis is an example ofPARAPHRASE

  • You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • ParaphraseGood job! Sample #2 was a paraphrase.

    Anytime a student rewrites a sources idea into his or her own words, the user must give the source credit. This is paraphrasing.

  • Direct QuotationNo. Read it again:Battelles argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153).That example is a paraphrase.

    You should know because the student did not include quotation marks; she rephrased the original into her own written style; and she cited the source.

  • Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase Model #3As he explains the importance of choosing the best searchable keywords to allow others to find a website, Battelle presents a comparison to the Greek story of The Odyssey, Is [being known to a wide audience] not what every person longs forwhat Odysseus chose over Kalypsos nameless immortalityto die, but to be known forever? (284). This is an example ofDIRECT QUOTATIONThis is an example ofPARAPHRASE

  • You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • ParaphraseYou are incorrect. The example was a direct quotation. Look at it again:In explaining the importance of searchable functions, Battelle reveals his insight into the heart of mankind, Is that not what every person longs forwhat Odysseus chose over Kalypsos nameless immortalityto die, but to be known forever? (284). The student included quotation marks, indicating that he used the exact words of the original source. Therefore, it is a direct quotation.

  • Direct QuotationCorrect! The use of the exact words of the source makes it a direct quotation.The student shows readers that it is a direct quotation by using quotation marks.Additionally, he provides information to help the reader identify the source.

  • So, you know the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase

    Now what?

  • Definition of PlagiarismPlagiarism is:To steal the words or ideas of another personTo pass off the words or ideas of another person as ones own

    Further:It does not matter whether the theft of words or ideas is intentional or accidental.Either way, it is plagiarism.

  • Why should you bother?

    Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.Cheating is unethical behavior.It is only fair to give credit to the sourceotherwise, you are stealing the sources ideas.The consequences are severeplagiarism is not worth the risk.

  • You probably have two questions:

    (1) What do I need to cite?

    (2) How do I cite?

    Read on for the answers

  • What do I need to cite?This chart will help you decide what must be cited.It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook.

  • Sothe rule is:

    If you created it,you do not need to cite the source.

    If you did not create the content, you must cite the source.

  • The one exception to that rule is for common knowledge.

    You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:

    (1) an educated person should know the information,

    OR

    (2) it is a provable fact that could be found in a general encyclopedia.

  • So, you dont need to cite a fact,

    but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.

    And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge.

  • So, you dont need to cite a fact, for example: Ayn Rand wrote Anthem.OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.

    but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75). OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).

    And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.

  • Take one more look at this chart!

    If the idea and the words are yours, you do not need to cite.

  • So, lets check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you dont

    Answer the following questions and choose the correct answer.

  • Test Case #1

    Jack isnt sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below. He found the fact online. Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.

    What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of the answers below.Cite the source.This means he will:Either:Surround with quotation marks, orPut the quotation into his own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization

    Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

    Give the page number, and

    List the source in a bibliographyDo not cite thesource.This means that the information is a commonly reported fact. It is generally known and available from many sources.

    Jack should verify the information in at least two sources, then

    Jack will write the well-knowninformation in his own words.

  • You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • You are incorrect.In this case, citation is not necessary.Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge.Because Abraham Lincolns status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.

  • You are correct!Jack does not need to cite this information.Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge.Because Abraham Lincolns status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.

  • Test Case #2

    In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source explaining that Affirmative Action evens the field of play by wreaking equity on all players.

    In her paper, Jill uses the phrase wreaking equity but she puts all the other parts of the source into her own words.

    What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below.Cite the source.

    This means she will:Either:Surround with quotation marks, orPut the quotation into her own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization

    Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

    Give the page number, and

    List the source in a bibliographyNot cite the source.

    This means that the information is generally known and available from multiple sources.

    Jill should verify the information in at least two sources, then

    Jill will write the well-knowninformation in his own words.

    (3)Jill should make a bibliographic citationfor use on her Works Consulted page.

  • You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.

    Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slide

  • You are correct!Jill must cite this information.Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source.Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase wreaking equity, she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.

  • You are incorrect.In this case, citation is necessary.Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source.Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase wreaking equity, she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.

  • Test Case #3

    Gretel found a very helpful article in an online database. She very carefully made sure that she rewrote the content of the article using her own personal style; she changed the authors syntax and organization so that it fit seamlessly into her paper. What should Gretel do?Cite the source.

    This means she will:Either:Surround with quotation marks, orPut the quotation into his own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization

    Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

    Give the page number, and

    List...

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