Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12. NOTE: To move through this tutorial, use the mouse to click on the arrow at the bottom right of your screen. Agenda for This Tutorial. Pretest your knowledge of plagiarism by looking at some sample situations. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Plagiarism Tutorial

So, now you can identify what must have a citation

Now you need to know how to use and cite a source!So, to reviewPlagiarism is a serious offense. Not only does it carry heavy penalties, but your integrity is damaged when you plagiarize.

Plagiarism is easily avoidablejust cite the sources when you use the words or ideas of another person.

If you have any questions, see your teacher or school librarian!You said that the example showed Plagiarism

You are incorrect!Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example.

Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is fair use.There is no acceptable excuse for plagiarism.

Plagiarism is cheating(and it will be treated as such if it is found in your work).Look at these real life examplesReal Life Plagiarism ScandalsDoris Kearns Goodwin, a Pulitzer Prize winning historian, was forced to step down from the Pulitzer board after she was found to have accidentally used anothers words in one of her books.

DisgracedHostetter, Janet. 6 Apr 2006. Associated Press Images. 5 Aug 2008. Kirpatrick, David D. Author Goodwin Resigns from Pulitzer Board. New York Times. (1 June 2002.) 5 Aug. 2008. .Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsAfter being accused of rampant plagiarism in her work, tenured professor Madonna G. Constantine was fired from her position at Columbia University.

FiredBondafeff, Dian. 10 Oct. 2007. Associated Press Images. 5 Aug 2008. . Santora, Marc. Columbia Professor in Noose Case Is Fired on Plagiarism Charges. New York Times. (24 June 2008.) 5 Aug. 2008. .Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsAs a reporter for the New York Times, Jayson Blair plagiarized or fabricated in more than 40 stories between 2002 and 2005. He was fired from his job. The top two editors of the newspaper resigned as a result of the scandal.

Forced togive up careerCorrecting the Record. New York Times. 11 May 2003. The New York Times. 5 Aug 2008. Image: Szymaszek, Jennifer. 12 May 2004. Associated Press Images. 5 Aug 2008. Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsBlair Hornstein was the valedictorian of her high school class and had earned admission to Harvard University. After articles Hornstein wrote for a local newspaper were discovered to have been plagiarized, Harvard University rescinded their acceptance.

AdmissionRevokedHarvardCapuzzo, Jill P. MOORESTOWN JOURNAL; Seeing Crimson. New York Times. (20 July 2003.) 5 Aug. 2008. .Blair Hornstein. The Gothamist. 14 July 2003. 5 Aug. 2008. .So, as you can see,plagiarism is a serious offense.

This presentation is part of your class work so that you know what plagiarism is and how you can avoid it.You know thisdont you?Sure you do. Teachers have been talking (and talking, and talking) about plagiarismand how you should avoid it.

Lets see what you know about plagiarism. In each of the following examples, determine whether the student committed plagiarism or not. Jacks SituationJack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about.Jack logs onto the Internet just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found.Is this plagiarism?YesNoYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideRobert A. Harris, author of The Plagiarism Handbook, states thatThe following actions are clearly examples of plagiarism:Downloading and submitting a free paper from a website.Buying and submitting a paper purchased from a paper mill.Copying verbatim another writers workeither in print or onlinewithout using quotation marks.Harris continues his description by explaining thatThe actions below are also plagiarism, although many students dont realize it:Inadequate paraphrasing, such as merely substituting synonyms while keeping syntax and other aspects the same

Rearranging another writers words or sentences

Using anothers ideas, facts, or artistic products without attribution

Using unique phrases from another writer

Copying the organizational or syntactical structure of another writer, even if you change the words used.Wait, theres moreAccording to HarrisThese are also plagiarism:Cutting and pasting to create a paper from several sources without citing those sources.

Quoting less than all the words copied.

Changing some words but copying whole phrases.

Paraphrasing without attribution

Summarizing without attribution

Faking a citation

OK, I get itthere are lots of ways to plagiarize.

And, yes, I know that it is wrong.

But, if I am not caught, I wont be penalized.

So, what is the benefit of citing my sources?Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.

Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.Cheating is unethical behavior.

Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.Cheating is unethical behavior.It is only fair to give credit to the sourceotherwise, you are stealing the sources ideas.

Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.Cheating is unethical behavior.It is only fair to give credit to the sourceotherwise, you are stealing the sources ideas.The consequences are severeplagiarism is not worth the risk.

OK, finethere are reasons to not plagiarize.

But, Im busy. Very busy. And school doesnt matter. And the assignment is stupid.And my teacher wont catch me. And other kids are doing it.And I need a good grade.And it is due tomorrow!

So, what am I supposed to do?Well, first of all, you should not fall for those excuses!They are excuses for cheating. (By the way, your teachers and principals wont believe that they are reasonable justification for cheating, either!)

And it isnt hard to avoid plagiarism!Just cite the source of any ideas or words you take from anyone else.Then, provide a bibliography or Works Cited page to show where the borrowed material originated.So:

(1) What do I need to cite?

(2) How do I cite?

Read on for the answersWhat do I need to cite?This chart will help you decide what must be cited.It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook. Did youthink of it?No.Yes.Is itcommonknowledge?

No.Yes.Cite it.Do not cite it.Sothe rule is:

If you created it or thought of it,you do not need to cite the source.

If you did not create the content, you must cite the source.Did youthink of it?No.Yes.Is itcommonknowledge?

No.Yes.Cite it.Do not cite it.The one exception to that rule is for common knowledge.

You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:

(1) an educated person should know the information,

OR,

(2) it is a fact that could be found in an encyclopedia.Did youthink of it?No.Yes.Is itcommonknowledge?

No.Yes.Cite it.Do not cite it.So, you dont need to cite a fact,

but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.

And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation. So, you dont need to cite a fact, for example: Rand wrote Anthem.OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.

but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75). OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).

And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation. So, lets check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you dont

Answer the following questions and choose the correct answer.

Test Case #1

Jack isnt sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below. He found the fact online. Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.

What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of the answers below.Cite the source.This means he will:Either:Surround with quotation marks, orPut the quotation into his own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization

Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

Give the page number, and

List the source in a bibliographyDo not cite thesource.This means that the information is a commonly reported fact. It is generally known and available from many sources.

Jack should verify the information in at least two sources, then

Jack will write the well-knowninformation in his own words.

You must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideHow to Cite a SourceIts easy. Just provide your audience with the source of any ideas or words that are not your own.

First, carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea.

Then, provide a bibliography to show where the borrowed material originated.

In fact, listing your sources shows your audience that you are an informed, well-researched writer!How to Cite Direct QuotationsProvide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rands Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, PA, 2008.

Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea.Use a lead-in to introduce the sourceUse quotation marks to surround the words of the sourceProvide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks.

EXAMPLE:According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 finds peace through his search for the height of his own potential (24). How to Cite ParaphrasesProvide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rands Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, PA, 2008.

Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources material.Use a lead-in to introduce the sourcePut the sources original words into your own words:It isnt just about using synonyms to replace words.You must change the syntax, sentence structure, & organization of the original. If you find yourself just changing a word here or there, ask yourself if a direct quotation would work. If it would work, then use a direct quotation.)Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks.

EXAMPLE:According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 separates himself from the society by striving to improve the world around him (24). It can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesIt can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesBracket the borrowedIt can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesFence the bordersBracket the borrowedIt can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesEnclose the borrowedFence the bordersBracket the borrowedIt can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesFrame theusageEnclose the borrowedFence the bordersBracket the borrowedIt can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesFrame theusageEnclose the borrowedFence the bordersCircumscribe the usageBracket the borrowedBut, they all mean the same thingProvide a clear indication of any words or ideas that are not your own.It can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundariesFrame theusageEnclose the borrowedFence the bordersCircumscribe the usageBracket the borrowedCan you identify plagiarism when you see it?Try the following four examples. On each you will see the source material and the students usage of that material.

Use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to choose if the example shows acceptable use or plagiarism.Acceptable Use or Plagiarism?Example 1Original source text:Students Text:Students Bibliography:Voters in Pennsylvania believed that the Republican nominee, Barbara Hafer, opposed abortion rights, but the Democratic governor, Robert Casey, favored a right to abortion. But the reverse was true, even though Democrats are more likely to be pro-choice. In general doesnt apply to this specific.No references given.In 1990, voters in Pennsylvania were disposed to believe that the Republican nominee, Barbara Hafer, opposed abortion rights, and that the incumbent Democratic governor, Robert Casey, favored a right to abortion: the reverse was true. In general, Democrats are more likely to be pro-choice and Republicans pro-life, but not in this case. A good rule is in general doesnt necessarily apply to this specific.

Brooks Jackson and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Unspun: Finding Facts in a World of Disinformation. (73)Acceptable UsePlagiarismCHOOSE ONE:You must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.

Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.Click here to return to previous slideAcceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 2Original source: Students Text:Students Bibliography:Psychologists investigated how fans interpreted a violent game between Princeton and Dartmouth and found that, although a Dartmouth player was the seriously injured only after a Princeton player was, the majority of Dartmouth fans believed Princeton started the roughness. Brooks Jackson and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Unspun: Finding Facts in a World of Disinformation. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2007.In 1...

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