VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Chapter 11 Training Adaptations.

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  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Chapter 11Training Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Principle of AdaptationTraining Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Principle of AdaptationAthletes train to adapt their bodies to a particular sport/activity.Training should be;Specific to their sport Example?

    Adaptation = a long-term physiological change in response to training loads that allows the body to meet new demands.

    Stress on the body causes adaptations.

    A plateau occurs when the training load is not sufficient to cause stress. Whats it called?

    Chronic Long-term adaptations to exercise. In this chapter, we will focus on chronic changes.

    Acute are immediate responses to exercise. i.e Elevated HR

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Anaerobic and Aerobic AdaptationsTraining Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Anaerobic Energy System AdaptationsAnaerobicTraining the ATP-PC and lactic acid systems cause;Increased levels of anaerobic enzymes and fuels Increase in glycolytic capacityImprovements at the muscular level in both systems

    AerobicImprovements in;Oxygen uptakeTransport and utilisation of oxygenFat breakdown as a fuelFatty acid oxidation and respiratory ATP productionLactate Infection Point Isnt this an anaerobic parameter?Reduced carbohydrate use during sub-maximal exercise *Increased use of blood glucose assisting in glycogen sparing.Increased capillarisation, mitochondria density and oxidative enzymes.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Cardiovascular Training AdaptationsTraining Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Cardiovascular TrainingCardiac Hypertrophy - Heart increases (Left ventricle) in size as a result of training. This increases the stroke volume (SV)Increased capillarisation - (Coronary blood supply) of the heart increases blood flow to the heart. Increased stroke volume - thus reducing HR. Lowered resting heart rate (Increase in SV causes a decrease in HR when Q is constant approx 5 litres)Lower heart rate during sub-maximal workloads Due to increased SV.Improved heart-rate recovery rates Due to increased SVIncreases cardiac output at maximum workload Constant at rest, but Q can reach up to 30L/min in elite athletes.Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate Q = SV x HRExample Q = 5LSV = Q/HRBefore training HR = 71bpm therefore the SV = 0.07L/beatAfter training program HR=50bpm.SV now = 0.1L/beat

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Cardiovascular Training

    Lower blood pressure relieves hypertension by lowering resistance in the vesselsArterio-venous oxygen difference - increases as athlete is able to use oxygen from arteries more effectively (see fig 11.13 & 11.14 p.271)Increased plasma, blood volume and haemoglobin levelsIncreased capillarisation of skeletal muscleDecreased blood cholesterol, triglycerides ad Low Density Lipoproteins (LDP). These substances are associated with coronary heart disease.Increased high density lipoproteins (HDL) Ratio of HDL to LDL increases, which is important for heart health.Increased redistribution of blood Training can lead to a 20% increase in blood flow to working muscles.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Respiratory Training AdaptationsTraining Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Respiratory Training AdaptationsDecreased minute ventilation- Lungs become more efficient as a result of training. Ventilation is therefore reduced at sub-maximal workloads.Increased pulmonary diffusion oxygen is more readily extracted from the alveoliIncreased tidal volume (Amount of air inspired and expired during breathing) Ventilatory musculature Muscles responsible for breathing require less oxygen.Improved lung function due to improved lung volume and alveolar capacity surface area.Aerobic capacity Improves due to an increase in oxygen supply to the working muscles.See table 11.4 p.273Increased VO2 max Due to;Increase in cardiac output, Increase in RBC numbers, Increase in a-VO2 diff Increase in muscle capillarisationImproved oxygen extraction.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Oxygen extraction: a-V02 differencea-V02 difference = Arteriovenous oxygen difference: difference in oxygen consumption when comparing that in the arterioles to the venules, and an indirect measure of how much oxygen muscles are usingAn increase in a-V02 difference results in more blood being pumped to active muscles (especially slow-twitch)Muscle fibres better at extracting and processing oxygen as a result of increased mitochondria numbers, more oxidative enzymes and increased levels of myoglobin. All of this is due to the oxygen demands of the muscles

    12 mL/100mL18 mL/100mL

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Muscular Training AdaptationsTraining Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Muscular Training AdaptationsAthletes need to use specific training methods to cause muscular adaptations for their sport.Aerobic Trains the slow twitch (Type I) fibres.Anaerobic Trains fast twitch (Type II) fibres.Muscle fibre type and percentage that make up the bodyMuscle fibre type can change, eg for elite endurance athletes from 70-90%Genetics a big advantage to start with x amount of fibre percentageYou are born with x amount of fast and slow twitch fibres. BUT you can train and gain more of one type. MYTH with training you can change from fast twitch to slow twitch or vice versa. IMPOSSIBLEHOWEVER fast twitch fibres have been known to take on slow twitch characteristics in response to aerobic training

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Aerobic (Muscular)Increased oxygen utilisation Increased size and number and density of mitochondriaIncreased myoglobin stores.Increased muscular fuel stores ie.Glycogen, fatty acids, triglycerides and oxidative enzymes.Increased capillary density to slow twitch fibres.Increased use of fat at sub-maximal levels.Increased stores and use of intramuscular triglycerides.Increased oxidation of glucose and fats Ability to metabolise and extract energy has improved. The body can therefore use glycogen sparing.Decreased use of lactic acid system Some muscle fibre adaptation.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Anaerobic (Muscular)Muscular Hypertrophy Enlargement of the fast twitch muscle fibresIncreased muscular stores of ATP, PC, creatine and glycogen.Increased ATP-PC splitting and resynthesis of enzymesIncreased glycolytic capacity Enhances lactic acid systems ability to use glycogen. Cardiac hypertrophy Increases contraction forces exerted by the left ventricle in the heart.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Anaerobic (Muscular)Increased contractile proteins in muscles.Increased myosin ATPase Molecule responsible for splitting ATP into ADPIncreased muscle buffering capacity Muscles able to tolerate higher levels of fatiguing productsMuscle hyperplasia Research in animals suggest that new muscle fibres may form under stress.Other Increase in strength of connective tissue, number of motor units, speed on nerve impulses and muscular contraction speed.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • Adaptations are ReversibleTraining Adaptations

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Adaptations are ReversibleAdaptations are reduced and then lost after stopping regular training.See table 11.6 p.281The reversibility principle applies when an athlete becomes inactive.As a result, athletes need to undertake a vigorous pre-season months before the in-season starts.Therefore maintenance in the off-season is required to minimise reversing the adaptations.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4VCAA Questions - 2006

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 4Web Links Chapter 11

    Australian Institute of Sport, strength and conditioning: http://www.ais.org.au/condition/index.asp Exercise Physiology The methods and mechanisms underlying performance: http://home.hia.no/~stephens/exphys.htm Information about metabolic adaptations and cardiovascular physiology: http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Exercise Phys/cardiopulmonary.html Sports science library (Gatorade Sports Science Institute): http://www.gssiweb.com/sportssciencecenter/topic.cfm?id=56 Sport science (site for sports research): http://www.sportsci.org/ PowerPoint presentation about cardiovascular adaptations from aerobic training (Illinois Wesleyan University USA): http://www.iwu.edu/~bkauth/330/330-9.PPT How stuff works How exercise works: http://health.howstuffworks.com/sports-physiology15.htm Article Strength Training Basics: http://www.physsportsmed.com/issues/2003/0803/kraemer.htm

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

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