Ve Nhung Dong Gop Cua Phap Su Huyen Trang Cho Mang a Ty Dam - Dao Nguyen

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    V Nhng ng Gp Ca Php S Huyn TrangCho Mng A T m Ca Lun Tng

    o Nguyn---o0o---

    Ngunhttp://www.quangduc.com

    Chuyn sang ebook 30-8-2009Ngi thc hin : Nam Thin [email protected] Audio Ti Website http://www.phatphaponline.org

    Mc LcLi M uI- Tn lunII- Tn phm, s lng cc phm v b cc ca lun

    III- V mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu1- Phm th 12- Phm th 23- Phm th 34- Phm th 45- Phm th 56- Phm th 67- Phm th 78- Phm th 89- Phm th 9

    IV- i chiu mt vi on chnh

    ---o0o---

    Li M uThi i s Chn (Paramrtha) vo Trung Quc, ln n nh Trn (557-588) phng Nam l thi k Trung Quc cn chia hai, min Bc cn ctc, mng A t m cha c dch nhiu, nhng t ng, thut ng lin hcn ang giai on d dm, hnh thnh. Thi i ca Php s HuynTrang, nh ng (618-906) thng nht t nc, x hi c nhng

    pht trin tt, bn thn Php s Huyn Trang sang tn n cu hc,tham kho, ghi chp v.v... li dch sau gn 1 th k do nhng t ng,thut ng lin h n A t m ni ring, n Lun tng ni chung, qua vicchuyn dch ca Php s Huyn Trang sng r hn, chun xc hn.

    http://www.quangduc.com/http://www.phatphaponline.org/kinh/Audio/Dai%20Tang%20Kinh/Nam%20Tong/http://www.quangduc.com/http://www.phatphaponline.org/kinh/Audio/Dai%20Tang%20Kinh/Nam%20Tong/
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    A t m cn gi l A t t ma (Phn: Abhidharma), l tng Lun trong 3tng Kinh, Lut, Lun, nhng y ni A t m l ch cho mng lun rt

    phong ph ca phi Thuyt Nht thit hu b (Hu b).

    Cng nh tng Kinh, tng Lut v nhng phn khc ni tng Lun, mng At m c a vo Trung Quc v Hn dch rt sm. i s An ThCao (th k th II TL) vi dch phm: Kinh A T m Ng php hnh (itng kinh i Chnh tn tu: TK/CTT, tp 28, No1557, 1 quyn) dch vokhong gia th k th II TL, i hu Hn (25-220) c xem l tc phmthuc A t m c Hn dch sm nht. Tip theo, cc tc phm thucmng A t m ln lt c Hn dch gm:

    - Lun A t m cam l v: tc gi l Tn gi C Sa (Diu m), Hn dch(mt tn ngi dch) vo khong 220-265 TL i Tam Quc. (TK/CTT,

    T28, No1553, 2 quyn).

    - Lun T b sa: Tc gi l Tn gi Thi Bn Ni, Hn dch l i s TngGi Bt Trng, dch vo i Ph Tn (351-384). (TK/CTT, T28,

    No1547, 14 quyn).

    - Lun Tn B Tu Mt B tt s tp: Tc gi l Tn gi Tn B Tu Mt (ThHu), Hn dch l i s Tng Gi Bt Trng, dch vo i Ph Tn.(TK/CTT, T28, No1549, 10 quyn).

    - Lun A t m bt kin : Tc gi l Tn gi Ca Chin Din T, Hn dchl i s Tng Gi B v Trc Pht Nim, dch vo i Ph Tn(TK/CTT, T26, No1543, 30 quyn).

    - Lun A t m tm: Tc gi l Tn gi Php Thng, Hn dch l i sTng Gi B v Hu Vin (334-416), dch vo i ng Tn (317-419).(TK/CTT, T28, No1550, 4 quyn).

    - Lun X Li Pht A t m: Hn dch l i s m Ma Da X v m

    Ma Qut a, dch vo i Hu Tn (384-417). (TK/CTT, T28, No1548,30 quyn).

    - Lun A t m T b sa: Do 500 v A la hn ch gii, qung din, Hndch l i s Ph Bt Ma v o Thi, dch vo i Bc Lng (397-439). (TK/CTT, T28, No1546, 60 quyn).

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    - Lun Chng s phn A t m: Tc gi l Tn gi Th Hu, Hn dch li s Cu Na Bt (394-468) v B Da X, dch vo i Lu Tng(420-478). (TK/CTT, T26, No1541, 12 quyn).

    - Lun Tp A t m tm: Tc gi l Tn gi Php Cu, Hn dch l i sTng Gi Bt Ma, dch vo i Lu Tng. (TK/CTT, T28, No1552, 11quyn).

    - Lun Kinh A t m tm: Tc gi l Tn gi Php Thng, i s u BaPhin a ch gii, Hn dch l i s Na Lin Da X, dch vo i CaoT (550-576). (TK/CTT, T28, No1551, 6 quyn).

    - Thch lun A t t ma Cu x: Tc gi l Tn gi Th Thn, Hn dch li s Chn (419-564), dch vo i Trn (557-588). (TK/CTT, T29,

    No1559, 22 quyn).

    i th, tnh hnh Hn dch mng A t m trc Php s Huyn Trang lnh th. Chng ti xin nu ra 4 im:

    - Th nht: B lun A t t ma Cu x: Tc gi l Tn gi Th Thn(Vasubandhu) rt ni ting, c xem l phn cng yu ca lun A t tma i t b sa, l s tp i thnh ca gio l B phi Pht gio, tuy c i s Chn (499-569) Hn dch (Thch lun A t t ma Cu x,22 quyn), nhng nhn chung, bn dch ny cha t (s ni r hn phnsau). Nh vy, trn tinh thn cu hc, cn dch li b lun trn l iu rthp l.

    - Th hai: B lun A t t ma i t b sa, thuc loi s (bn Hn dchca Php s Huyn Trang gm 200 quyn), l thnh qu ni bt ca ln kttp kinh in th 4 (theo Pht gio Bc truyn) t chc ti nc Ca Thp DiLa, di s bo tr ca vua Ca N Sc Ca. Tc phm ny d c i sPh Bt Ma v o Thi dch (lun A t m T b sa, 60 quyn), tuynhin bn dch ny vn gm 100 quyn, do binh la chin tranh, nn b tht

    tn, bn hin cn ch c 60 quyn, ch mi ch gii, qung din 3 un trong8 un. Do , vic tm nguyn bn ting Phn dch li y b lun s k trn cng l iu rt hp l.

    - Th ba: B lun A t t ma i t b sa chnh l ch gii, qung din blun gc l lun A t t ma pht tr, tc gi l Tn gi Ca a Din Ni T(Ca Chin Din T). Lun A t t ma pht tr c hai i s Tng Gi

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    B v Trc Pht Nim Hn dch (lun A t m bt kin 30 quyn),nhng nu dch y b lun ch gii, qung din kia (lun A t t mai t b sa) th cng c th dch li b lun gc ny.

    - Th t: lun A t t ma pht tr ca Tn gi Ca a Din Ni T l mttrong 7 b lun cn bn ca Hu b, 6 b lun kia l tc (chn), b lun caTn gi Ca a Din Ni T l thn (thn mnh). Hn dch b lun thn,tc cng nn dch ht 6 b lun tc kia, cng l iu ht sc hp l. (Php sHuyn Trang dch 5 b trong 6 b lun lc tc y. Lun Thi thit, do is Php H (963-1058) dch vo i Triu Tng (960-1276) l bn tm lcca lun A t t ma thi thit tc - mt trong lc tc lun - Php s HuynTrang cha dch (TK/CTT, T26, No1538, 7 quyn).

    Nu ra 4 im nh vy, chng ta thy thm v nhng n lc v thnh tu

    ca Php s Huyn Trang trong s nghip cu php v dch thut. Ngoivic Hn dch cc b kinh, lun s nh kinh i Bt Nh Ba La Mt a:(TK/CT, 3 tp 5, 6, 7, No220, 600 quyn), lun Du gi s a(TK/CTT, tp 30, No1579, 100 quyn), v mng A t m, Php sHuyn Trang Hn dch:

    + Lun A t t ma tp d mn tc: Tc gi l Tn gi X Li T.(TK/CTT, T26, No1536, 20 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma php un tc: Tc gi l Tn gi i Mc Kin Lin.(TK/CTT, No1537, 12 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma thc thn tc: Tc gi l Tn gi B Thit Ma.(TK/CTT, T26, No1539, 16 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma gii thn tc: Tc gi Tn gi Th Hu. (TK/CTT,T26, No1540, 3 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma phm loi tc: Tc gi l Tn gi Th Hu.

    (TK/CTT, T26, No1542, 18 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma pht tr: Tc gi l Tn gi Ca a Din Ni T.(TK/CTT, T26, No1544, 20 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma i t b sa: Do 500 v A la hn ch gii, qung din.(TK/CTT, ton tp 27, No1545, 200 quyn).

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    + Lun Nhp A t t ma: Tc gi l Tn gi Tc Kin La. (TK/CTT,T28, No1554, 2 quyn).

    + Lun Ng s t b sa: Tc gi l Tn gi Php Cu. (TK/CTT, T28,No1555, 2 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma Cu x: Tc gi l Tn gi Th Thn (Vasubandhu).(TK/CTT, T29, No1558, 30 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma Cu x - Bn Tng: Tc gi l Tn gi Th Thn.(TK/CTT, T29, No1560, 1 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma thun chnh l: Tc gi l Tn gi Chng Hin.

    (TK/CTT, T29, No1562, 80 quyn).

    + Lun A t t ma tng hin tng: Tc gi l Tn gi Chng Hin.(TK/CTT, T29, No1563, 40 quyn).

    (Tng cng l: 13 lun, 444 quyn, trn 2.500 trang Hn tng).

    V s lng l nh th. Mng A t m gm 2/3 tp 26, v 3 tp 27, 28, 29ni TK/CTT, phn dch ca Php s Huyn Trang chim gn 3 tp.V phng php dch thut, chng ta bit n quan im Ng chng bt

    phin cng danh t Tn dch, c cc nh nghin cu dng ch cho hdch thut t php s Huyn Trang(2). Ni chung, Php s Huyn Trang lun theo st v dch y i vi nguyn bn, s dng hoc theo cch

    phin m, hoc l dch ngha, dch mi hu ht cc nhn danh, a danhv mt s t ng, thut ng tiu biu ni kinh, lun. Nu tng Kinh, nhhng ca h Tn dch khng bng h Cu dch (tiu biu l Php s CuMa La Thp) th ni tng Lun, nh hng y l rt ln, nht l khi tngDuy Thc c xc lp v pht huy Trung Quc. Sau y chng ti xini chiu v mt s im tiu biu gia 2 bn Hn dch lun A t t ma

    Cu x ca Php s Huyn Trang v i s Chn , qua gip chng tathy r phn no cng sc cng nhng thnh tu v dch thut ca Php sHuyn Trang.

    - i chiu lun A t t ma Cu x (No1558, 30 quyn, Php s HuynTrang Hn dch) v Thch lun A t t ma Cu x (No1559, 22 quyn, is Chn (Paramrtha) Hn dch: Chng ti ln lt i chiu: tn lun,

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    tn phm, s lng cc phm v b cc ca lun, mt s t ng thut ngtiu biu, mt vi on chnh.

    I- Tn lun

    Chng ti dng t ng dch ch cho bn Hn dch ca Php s HuynTrang (602-664), v t Trn dch ch cho bn dch ca i s Chn (499-569).

    - ng dch: Lun A t t ma Cu x (Abhidharma Kosa-sstra).(TK/CTT, T29, No1558, 30 quyn, tr.1-1596) thi im dch l nm 651TL.

    - Trn dch: Thch lun A t t ma Cu x: (TK/CTT, T29, No1559, 22quyn, tr.161-310C) thi im dch l nm 563 TL.

    S d Trn dch thm ch Thch v dch gi c bn lun A t t maCu x ca Tn gi Th Thn (Vasubandhu) theo chiu hng l mt Thchlun: Xem phn k tng l chnh, v ton b phn vn xui sau k ch l giithch, qung din t k. Ni hu ht cc on k, i s Chn tch rathnh tng k nh (2 cu, c khi ch l 1 ch, 2-3 ch) gii thch. Ton bdch phm c din t theo hng y, v sau mi phn k nh, ngidch u dng t Gii thch (Thch vit). c Thch lun A t t ma Cux, ngi c c cm tng bn lun ca Tn gi Th Thn hu nh lnhm gii thch mt lun gc vit bng k. Trong khi ni bn Hn dch caPhp s Huyn Trang, phn k gi vai tr l m u, tm lc nhng imchnh cho phm y, hoc cho on lun , nn tip theo k, ngi dch dng t lun nu (lun vit) v phn vn xui gii thch, qung din, ichiu, bin lun, nhiu khi rt di v cc vn lin h. Chng ti khng cv cng khng trnh so snh vi nguyn bn ting Phn, nhngthin ngh li dch nh Php s Huyn Trang l hp l hn, d c hn.

    ---o0o---

    II- Tn phm, s lng cc phm v b cc ca lun

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    ng dch gm 30 quyn, Trn dch gm 22 quyn, nhng v s trang thchnh lch khng bao nhiu (158 trang 1/2 [ng dch] v 150 trang [Trndch]), mi bn u c 9 phm, tn ca cc phm l i ng, tiu d.

    1- B cc ca ng dch:

    - Phm th 1: Phn bit Gii, gm 2 phn (quyn 1-2)

    - Phm th 2: Phn bit Cn, gm 5 phn (quyn 3-7)

    - Phm th 3: Phn bit Th, gm 5 phn (quyn 8-12)

    - Phm th 4: Phn bit Nghip, gm 6 phn (quyn 13-18)

    - Phm th 5: Phn bit Ty min, gm 3 phn (quyn 19-21)

    - Phm th 6: Phn bit Hin Thnh, gm 4 phn (quyn 22-25)

    - Phm th 7: Phn bit Tr, gm 2 phn (quyn 26, 27)

    - Phm th 8: Phn bit nh, gm 2 phn (quyn 28 v 1/2 quyn 29)

    - Phm th 9: Ph chp Ng, gm 2 phn (1/2 quyn 29 v quyn 30)

    2- B cc ca Trn dch:

    - Phm th 1: Phn bit Gii, gm 2 phn (quyn 1 v non na quyn 2)

    - Phm th 2: Phn bit Cn, gm 4 phn (hn 1/2 quyn 2 - quyn 5)

    - Phm th 3: Phn bit Th gian, gm 4 phn (quyn 6-9)

    - Phm th 4: Phn bit Nghip, gm 4 phn (quyn 10-13)

    - Phm th 5: Phn bit Hoc, gm 2 phn (quyn 14, 15)

    - Phm th 6: Phn bit Thnh o qu nhn, gm 3 phn (quyn 16-18)

    - Phm th 7: Phn bit Hu, gm 2 phn (quyn 19, 20)

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    - Phm th 8: Phn bit Tam Ma Bt , gm 1 phn (quyn 21)

    - Phm th 9: Ph Thuyt Ng, gm 1 phn (quyn 22)

    Nh vy, v tn mt s phm c khc nhau gia 2 bn l do cch dng tca ngi dch.

    ---o0o---

    III- V mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biuXin c nhc li: Thi im dch ca Trn dch l 563 TL, thi im dchca ng dch l 651 TL. Thi i s Chn (Paramrtha) vo TrungQuc, ln n nh Trn (557-588) phng Nam l thi k Trung Quc cnchia hai, min Bc cn ct c, mng A t m cha c dch nhiu, nhng

    t ng, thut ng lin h cn ang giai on d dm, hnh thnh. Thi ica Php s Huyn Trang, nh ng (618-906) thng nht t nc, xhi c nhng pht trin tt, bn thn Php s Huyn Trang sang tnn cu hc, tham kho, ghi chp v.v... do nhng t ng, thut nglin h n A t m ni ring, n Lun tng ni chung, qua vic chuyndch ca Php s Huyn Trang sng r hn, chun xc hn, cng l iuhp l. Chng ti da theo phm i chiu, tm tt ni dung ca phm,nu nhng t ng, thut ng tiu biu ni ng dch trc, tip y minu cc t ng, thut ng cng loi ni Trn dch. Cng vic i chiu cachng ti y, tuy ch gii hn vo lun Cu x, nhng cng c th gipchng ta thy c phn no tin trnh s dng cc thut ng trong mng At m ni ring, trong Lun tng (Hn tng) ni chung(3).

    ---o0o---

    1- Phm th 1

    - ng dch: Phn bit Gii: (No1558, tr.1-13B)

    Ni dung ca phm ny gm 2 phn: Phn m u: Nu k nh l, tn thnPht, gii thch tn lun. Phn tip theo: Ln lt thuyt minh v cc php -yu t thnh lp ca Gii, 5 un, 12 x, 18 gii, 22 cn.

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

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    A t t ma thng ngha, A t t ma th tc, Nm un v lu, Hu v lu,Hu hu lu, t tng, php tng (Phn gii thch tn lun).

    Php hu lu, v lu, v vi, trch dit, phi trch dit, php hu vi.

    Nm un, th un, hu trnh, kin x, tam hu, nm cn, nm cnh, ttng, cng tng, v tng, hu biu (sc, nghip), i chng, 12 x, 18gii, tm, t, ng lu, d thc sinh, 22 cn.

    - Trn dch: Phn bit Gii (No1559, tr.161-173A)

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    A t t ma chn tht, A t t ma gi danh, Nm m v lu, Tr v lu,

    Hu hu lu, t th tng, php chn tht trong tt c php (Phn gii thchtn lun).

    Php hu lu, v lu, v vi, trch dit, phi trch dit, php hu vi, nm m,th m, hu u trnh, kin x, tam hu, nm cn, nm trn, v gio, hugio (sc, nghip), t tng, cng tng, 4 i, 12 nhp, 18 gii, gic, qun,ng lu, qu bo sinh, 22 cn.

    ---o0o---

    2- Phm th 2

    - ng dch: Phn bit Cn (No1558, tr.13B-40C)

    Ni dung ca phm ny ln lt thuyt minh v 22 cn (tnh cht ring bit,ngha loi sai khc) cc tm s, 6 nhn, 5 qu, 4 duyn.

    * Mt s t ng thut ng tiu biu:

    Tng thng, liu t cnh, 3 ci dc, sc, v sc, o v gin, o gii thot,o th gian, o xut th, 4 qu Sa mn (D lu, Nht lai, Bt hon, A lahn) vi t - cc vi t. 5 loi Tm s php: 10 php i a (th, tng, t,xc, dc, hu, nim, tc , thng gii, tam ma a). 10 php i thin a (tn,

    bt phng dt, khinh an, x, tm, qu, 2 cn thin: V tham, v sn, bt hi,cn). 6 php i phin no a (si, phng dt, gii i, bt tn, hn trm, troc). 2 php i bt thin a (v tm, v qu). 10 php tiu phin no a

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    (phn, ph, xan, tt, no, hi, hn, sim, cung, kiu). 4 tm s bt nh (tc, thy min, tm, t). Tm bt tng ng hnh (c, phi c, ng phn,hai nh v tng nh dit tn mng, tng cc php hu vi: sinh tr d ditdanh thn, c thn, vn thn). 6 nhn: Nhn nng tc, Nhn cu hu, Nhnng loi, Nhn tng ng, Nhn bin hnh, Nhn d thc. 5 qu: Qu dthc, Qu tng thng, Qu ng lu, Qu s dng, Qu ly h. 4 duyn:

    Nhn duyn, ng v gin duyn, S duyn duyn, Tng thng duyn. 12tm ni 3 ci (ci Dc 4, ci sc, v sc: 3+3. V lu: 2). Ngoi 5 qu nutrn, cn c 4 qu: Qu an lp, Qu gia hnh, Qu ha hp, Qu tu tp.

    - Trn dch: Phn bit cn (No1559, tr.173A-198A):

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    Tng thng, c t trn, 3 ci dc, sc, v sc, o th , o gii thot,o th gian, o xut th. 4 qu Sa mn (Tu hon, T hm, A na hm,A la hn) Ln h. 5 loi tm php: i a, thin i a, hoc i a, c ia, tiu phn hoc a. 10 php i a: th, tc , tng, dc, xc, hu,nim, t duy, tng tiu, nh. 10 php thin i a: tn, bt phng dt, an,x, tu (xu h), tm - qu (h thn), 2 cn thin v tham, v sn, phi bcno, tinh tn. 6 php hoc i a: si, phng dt, gii i, v tn, v an, tro.2 php c i a: v tu (khng xu h), v tm. 10 php tiu phn hoc a:him, hn, sim, tt , ngn, ph, xan ln, cung, ty, bc no. 4 tm php

    bt nh: tn, min, gic, qun. Tm bt tng ng hnh: (ch c, phi chc, ng phn, 2 nh v tng x, th mng, cc tng hu vi, sinh lo trv thng danh t, c t, t t). 6 nhn: nhn ty to, nhn cu hu, nhnng loi, nhn tng ng, nhn bin hnh, nhn qu bo. 5 qu: qu qu

    bo, qu tng thng, qu ng lu, qu cng lc, qu ly dit (qu tng ly).Ngoi 5 qu trn, cn c 4 qu: qu y ch, qu gia hnh, qu tch tp, qu tutp. 4 duyn: nhn duyn, th duyn, duyn duyn, tng thng duyn.12 tm ni 3 ci...

    ---o0o---

    3- Phm th 3

    - ng dch: Phn bit Th (No 1558, tr.40C-67A)

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    Phm ny ln lt thuyt minh v Hu tnh th gian, kh th gian, 12 duynkhi, hnh tng ca lun hi (Nghip cm duyn khi lun), s an lp khth gian.

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Ci Dc gm 20 tr x: a ngc (8 a ngc ln), Bng sanh, Ng qu,ci ngi gm 4 i chu (Nam Thim B, ng Thng Thn, Ty NguHa, Bc Cu L). 6 tng Tri thuc dc gii (T i vng chng, Tamthp tam, D ma, s a, Lc bin ha, Tha ha t ti).

    - Ci Sc gm 17:

    Tnh l th 1: Tri Phm chng, Phm ph, i phm. Tnh l th 2: Thiu

    quang, V lng quang, Cc quang tnh. Tnh l th 3: Thiu tnh, Vlng tnh, Bin tnh. Tnh l th 4: V vn, Phc sanh, Qung qu, V

    phin, V nhit, Thin hin, Thin kin, Sc cu cnh.

    - Ci V sc gm 4: Khng v bin x, Thc v bin x, V s hu x, Phitng phi phi tng x.

    4 th thc tr: Thc ty sc tr, Thc ty th tr, Thc ty tng tr, Thcty hnh tr.

    7 th hu: Hu ca 5 no (th), Nghip hu, Trung hu.

    5 th un l th ca hu, gm: Trung hu, Sanh hu, Bn hu v T hu.

    12 chi duyn khi: V minh, Hnh (giai on trc) thc, Danh sc, Lc x,Xc, Th, i, Th, Hu (giai on gia) Sanh, Lo t (giai on sau).

    4 th thc (n): on, xc, t, thc. on thc c 2: Th, t.

    An lp kh th gian: Phong lun, Thy lun, Kim lun. 9 ni ln nh T ml (diu cao)...

    Ao ln V Nhit no, ni pht xut ca 4 sng ln: Cng gi, Tn , a,Phc s.

    Tiu thin gii, Trung thin gii, i thin gii.

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    4 kip: Hoi, thnh, trung, i.

    3 tai ha nh: ao binh, tt dch (bnh tt), c cn (i kht)

    3 tai ha ln: la, nc, gi.

    - Trn dch: Phn bit Th gian (No1559, tr.198A-225A)

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - 20 tr x ca ci Dc: a ngc (8 i a ngc), qu, sc sanh, ci ngivi 4 chu ln: Dim ph, Pht b T ha (ng Thng Thn), A b la c ni (Ty Ngu Ha), Ut a la cu lu (Bc Thng Sinh). 6 tng tri thuc

    ci Dc: T i vng, Tam thp tam, Xng lc, Thin tri tc, Ha lc,Tha ha t ti.

    - 17 tr x ca ci Sc: nh th 1: Tri Phm chng, Phm Tin hnh, iphm). nh th 2: Tiu quang, V lng quang, Bin quang. nh th 3:Tiu tnh, V lng tnh, Bin tnh. nh th 4: V vn phc sanh, Qungqu, V i cu, V nhit, Thin hin, Thin kin, V h.

    - Ci V sc gm 4: Khng v bin nhp, Thc v bin nhp, V hu vbin nhp, Phi tng phi phi tng nhp.

    4 th thc tr: i sc thc tr, i th thc tr, i tng thc tr, i hnhthc tr.

    7 thc hu: a ngc hu, Sc sanh hu, Qu thn hu, Nhn hu, Thinhu, Nghip hu, Trung hu.

    Nm th m l th ca hu, gm: Trung hu (trung m), Sanh hu, Tiuhu, T hu.

    12 php duyn sanh: Nh ng dch (ch khc: Lc nhp thay v Lc x).

    4 th thc (n): on thc, Xc thc, Tc thc, Thc thc.

    An lp kh th gii: Phong lun, Thy lun, Kim a lun. 9 ni ln nh TuDi Lu...

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    Ao ln A na b t a, ni xut pht ca 4 sng ln: Hng gi, Tn u, Ta, Bc su.

    Tiu thin th gii, Nh thin trung th gii, Tam thin i thin th gii.

    4 kip: Bit kip, Hoi kip, Thnh kip, i kip.

    3 tai ha nh: ao trng, Tt dch, C ng (i kht).

    3 tai ha ln: La, nc, gi.

    ---o0o---

    4- Phm th 4

    - ng dch: Phn bit Nghip (No 1558, tr.67B-98B): Ni dung caphm ny thuyt minh v nguyn nhn ca lun hi, v chng loi

    nghip.

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Hai th nghip: T nghip, T d nghip.

    - Ba th nghip: Thn nghip, Ng nghip, nghip.

    - Biu, V biu: Thn biu, Thn v biu, Ng biu, Ng v biu.

    - 3 loi sc: Hu kin - hu i, V kin hu i, V kin v i (V biusc), Sc v lu, Php v lu.

    Biu nghip, V biu nghip.

    V biu gm 3: Lut nghi, Bt lut nghi, Phi lut nghi phi bt lut nghi.

    Lut nghi c 3: Lut nghi Bit gii thot, Lut nghi Tnh l sanh v Lutnghi o sanh (Gii v lu).

    Tng ca Lut nghi Bit gii thot c 8: Lut nghi B s, B s ni, Chnhhc cn sch, Cn sch n, Cn s, Cn s n, Cn tr.

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    Nghip bt thin, Nghip thng thin.

    Hnh c, Gii c, Nghip, Nghip o.

    4 loi B s: Danh tng, T xng, Kht ci, Ph hoc.

    4 loi Sa mn: Thng o, Th o, Mng o, o.

    Nghip c 3 loi: Thin, c, v k. Phc, phi phc, bt ng.

    Nghip c 3 loi: Thun lc th, Thun kh th, Thun bt kh bt lc th.Thun th c 5 loi: T tnh, tng ng, i tng duyn, d thc, hin tin.

    3 loi nghip Thun lc th... u c tnh cht nh, bt nh. Tnh cht nhgm 3: Thun hin php lc th, Thun th sanh th, Thun hu th th.

    Nghip c 4 loi: Nghip en d thc en, Nghip trng d thc trng,Nghip en trng - d thc en trng, Nghip khng en khng trng, khngc d thc nhng c th hy dit cc nghip khc.

    Nghip o tham, Nghip o sn, Nghip o t kin.

    Nghip hu lu. Nghip v lu. Nghip ng tc, Nghip bt ng tc, Nghipphi ng tc phi bt ng tc, Tc nh l, Tc phi l.

    3 trng chng: Nghip chng, Phin no chng, D thc chng.

    5 nghip v gin: n in, c in, Ph yt ma tng, Ph php lun tng,Tu tp vin mn 6 Ba la mt a: B th, gii, nhn, tinh tn, nh, hu.

    Tr nh kim cang d.

    C 2 loi nghip: Nghip to tc, Nghip tng trng.

    Thun 3 phn thin: Thun phn phc, Phn gii thot, Phn quyt trch.

    - Trn dch: Phn bit Nghip (N01559, tr.225A-252B).

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

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    - Hai th nghip: Nghip c (Tm nghip), Nghip c to.

    - Ba th nghip: Thn, Khu, .

    - Hu gio, V gio, Thn hu gio, Thn v gio, Khu hu gio, Khu vgio.

    - Ba loi sc: Hu hin hu ngi. V hin hu ngi. V hin v ngi. (Vgio sc) Sc v lu, Php v lu.

    - Hu gio nghip, V gio nghip.

    - V gio gm 3: H, Bt h, Phi h phi bt h.

    - H c 3: H Ba la mc xoa, H nh, H v lu (Gii v lu).

    - Mc xoa gii (H Ba la mc xoa) c 8: Gii T kheo, T kheo ni, Thcxoa ma na, Sa di, Sa di ni, u b tc, u b di, u ba b sa (cn tr).

    - Nghip c, Nghip thin hnh. Hnh c, Gii c, Nghip, Nghip o.

    - 4 loi T kheo: Danh, T xng, Kht gi, Ph phin no.

    - 4 loi Sa mn: o sanh, Thuyt o, o hot, hoi o.

    - 3 loi Nghip: Thin, c, V k. Phc c, Phi phc c, Bt ng.

    - 3 loi Nghip: Hu lc th, Hu kh th, Hu bt lc bt kh th.

    - Thun th c 5: T tnh, Tng ng, Cnh gii, Qu bo, Hin tin. 3 loinghip Hu lc th... u c tnh cht nh, bt nh.

    - Nghip nh c 3: Hin php ng th, Sanh ng th, Hu ng th.

    - Nghip c 4 loi: Nghip en, qu bo en. Nghip trng, qu bo trng.Nghip en trng, qu bo en trng. Nghip khng en khng trng, qubo khng en khng trng, c th hy dit cc nghip khc.

    - Nghip o tham dc. Nghip o sn nhu. Nghip o t kin.

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    - Nghip hu lu. Nghip v lu. Nghip phi l tc. Nghip nh l tc.Nghip phi l-phi phi l tc. T chnh t sanh, bt chnh t sanh.

    - 3 trng chng: Nghip chng, Phin no chng, Qu bo chng.

    - 5 nghip v gin: n in, Cng c in, Ph tng ha hp, Ph lun, Ytma ph.

    - Tu tp vin mn 6 Ba la mt a: Th, Gii, Nhn, Tinh tn, nh, Hu.

    - Tr ni v Tam ma Kim Cang.

    - C 2 loi nghip: Nghip s tc, Nghip s trng.

    - Thun 3 phn thin: Phn Phc c, phn Gii thot, phn Quyt trch.

    ---o0o---

    5- Phm th 5

    - ng dch: Phn bit Ty min (N01558, trang 98B-113B). Phm nyln lt thuyt minh v chng loi Ty min: 6 loi, 7 loi, 10 loi, 98loi, 108 loi, qu trnh i tr, on tr. Bin minh v 3 i l thc c

    theo quan im ca Hu b.

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Gc ca cc Hu. 6 loi Ty min: Tham, Sn, Mn, V minh, Kin, Nghi.Nu phn Tham lm 2: (Dc tham, Hu tham) th thnh 7. Nu phn Kinlm 5: Hu thn kin, Bin chp kin, T kin, Kin th, Gii cm th ththnh 10 ty min.

    - Do B, Gii khng ng nn thnh 98 Ty min (ci Dc 36, ci Sc 31,ci V sc 31). Kin t on (Kin o on). Tu s on (Tu o on).

    - Ng, Ng s, on, Thng.

    - 4 th in o: V thng chp l thng. Kh chp l vui. Bt tnh chpl tnh. V ng chp l ng.

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    Kit c 9 th: Ty thun kit, Vi nghch kit, Mn kit, V minh kit, Kinkit, Th kit, Nghi kit, Tt kit, Xan ln kit.

    Nm th kit h phn: Thn kin, Gii chp th, Nghi, Tham dc, Sn nhu.Nm th kit thng phn: 2 Dc (Sc, Phi sc). Tro khi, Mn, V minh.

    Phc c 3: Phc dc, Phc sn, Phc v minh.

    Tiu phn hoc. o khi (Trin) c 8: V tu, V tm, Tt, Ln, Tro khi,B nhc (Hn trm), u hi, Min. Nu thm Phn, Ph th thnh 10.

    6 th Tiu hoc gi l Hoc cu: Cung, Sim, Ty, Bt x, Kit qu, Bcno. Nm ci: Tham dc, Sn nhu, Thy-Nhc, Tro, Hi-Nghi. i tr c

    4 th: Dit, Tr, Vin ly, Ym .

    Vnh on (Bin tri) c 2: Tr vnh on (Tr v lu), Dit vnh on (ccdit) c 9 th vnh on: 6 th l Qu nhn, 3 th l Qu tr.

    ---o0o---

    6- Phm th 6

    - ng dch: Phn bit Hin Thnh (N01558, trang 113C-134B). Nidung ca phm ny ln lt nu by v cc qu v Tam hin, 4 Thin

    cn, 4 Hng 4 Qu, 16 Hin qun v 4 ...

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Kin o, Tu o. Php Hu lu, V lu.

    - Tnh 3 kh: Tnh Kh kh, Tnh Hnh kh, Tnh Hoi kh.

    - Cc Hnh v thng, Hu vi, Bin hoi, nn cc Th u kh.

    - 3 Hu: Hu do Vn to thnh. Hu do T to thnh. Hu do Tu to thnh.

    - Qun Bt tnh, Tr Tc nim (Qun S tc).

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    - Tu 16 Hnh tng ni 4 : Kh (V thng, Kh, Khng, V ng).Tp (Nhn, Tp, Sanh, Duyn). Dit (Dit, Tnh, Diu, Ly). o (o, Nh, Hnh, Xut).

    - 4 Thin cn th thng gi l Thun phn quyt trch (Non, nh, Nhn,Php th nht). Hin qun Thnh . Nhp Chnh tnh quyt nh (Chnhtnh ly sanh).

    - V Kin o c 2: Ty tn hnh, Ty php hnh.

    - 4 Hng, 4 Qu: D lu (hng, qu), Nht lai (hng, qu), Bt hon(hng, qu), A la hn (hng, qu).

    - 3 Hc: Gii tng thng, Tm tng thng, Hu tng thng.

    - Chnh kin v hc: Tnh Sa mn l o v lu.

    - C 6 loi A la hn: Thi php, T php, H php, An tr php, Kham tphp, Bt ng php.

    - Thi chuyn c 3: c thi chuyn, Cha c thi chuyn, Th dngthi chuyn.

    - Hai Pht (c gic, i gic). 7 Thnh gi: Ty tn hnh, Ty php hnh,Tn gii, Kin ch, Thn chng, Hu gii thot, Cu gii thot.

    - 4 o (con ng ca Nit bn): Gia hnh, V gin, Gii thot, Thng tn.

    - 4 th Thng hnh (l trnh): Kh tr, Kh tc, Lc tr, Lc tc.

    - 37 Gic phm: 4 Nim tr, 4 Chnh on, 4 Thn tc, 5 Cn, 5 Lc, 7 Gicchi, 8 Thnh o chi.

    - 3 B : B Thanh vn, B c gic, B V thng.

    - Th Gii thot c 2: Hu vi, V vi. Gii thot Hu vi l Thng gii V hc.Gii thot V vi l cc th hoc u dt. Gii thot Hu vi li c 2: Tm giithot, Hu gii thot.

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    - Trn dch: Phn bit Thnh o qu nhn (Phn bit v ngi t c oqu Thnh. N01559, trang 266A-285C).

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Kin o, Tu o. Php Hu lu, V lu.

    - Loi Kh c 3: Loi Kh kh, Loi Hnh kh, Loi Hoi kh.

    - Cc hnh v thng, bin d nn cc th l kh.

    - 3 Hu: Vn hu, T hu, Tu hu.

    - Qun Bt tnh, Tc nim (Nim Anabana).

    - Duyn ni 4 lm cnh c 16 Hnh tng: Kh (V thng, Kh,Khng, V ng). Tp (Nhn, Tp, Sanh Duyn). Dit (Dit, Tnh,Diu, Ly). o (o, Nh, Hnh, Xut).

    - 4 Thin cn: Non, nh, Nhn, Php th nht l 4 cng nng ca phnQuyt trch. Qun th lp v 4 . Nhp Chnh nh t.

    - V kin o c 2: Tn ty hnh, Php ty hnh.

    - 4 Hng 4 Qu: Tu hon (hng qu), T hm (hng qu), A nahm (hng qu), A la hn (hng qu).

    - 3 Hc: Gii hc, Tm hc, Hu hc.

    - Chnh kin v hc: Nh sa mn l o v cu.

    - A la hn c 6 tnh: Thi a php, T hi php, Th h php, Tr bt ngphp, ng thng t php, Bt hoi php.

    - Thi a c 3: c ri thi a. Cha c, thi a. Th dng thia.

    - Hai Pht (c gic, i Chnh gic). 7 Thnh gi: Tn ty hnh, Php tyhnh, Tn lc, Kin ch, Thn chng, Hu gii thot, Hai phn gii thot.

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    - 4 o: Gia hnh, V gin, Gii thot, Tng tin.

    - 4 th Hnh: Hnh kh tr tr, Hnh kh tc tr, Hnh lc tr tr, Hnh lc tctr.

    - 37 php Gic tr: 4 Nim x, 4 Chnh cn, 4 Nh tc, 5 Cn, 5 Lc, 7Gic phn, 8 Thnh o phn.

    - 3 th B : B Thanh vn, B c gic, B V thng chnhbin.

    - Gii thot c 2 th: Hu vi, V vi. Gii thot V vi l cc hoc dit ht.Gii thot Hu vi l Tm v hc thanh tnh. Gii thot Hu vi li c 2: Tmgii thot, Hu gii thot.

    ---o0o---

    7- Phm th 7

    - ng dch: Phn bit tr (N01558, trang 134B-145A)

    Ni dung phm ny ln lt thuyt minh v 10 Tr nh Tr th tc,Php tr, Loi tr v.v..., cng nu by v 18 php Bt cng ca Pht.

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Hu c 2 loi: Hu lu, V lu.

    - Tr c 10 loi, thu tm tt c tr: Th tc tr, Php tr, Loi tr, Kh tr, Tptr, Dit tr, o tr, Tha tm tr, Tn tr, V sanh tr.

    - nh Kim Cang d.

    - Do 7 duyn nn lp lm 10 Tr: do T tnh (nn lp Th tc tr); do i tr(nn lp Php tr, Loi tr); do Hnh tng (nn lp Kh tr, Tp tr); doCnh ca hnh tng (nn lp Dit tr, o tr); do Gia hnh (nn lp Thatm tr); do S hon thnh (nn lp Tn tr); do Nhn trn (nn lp Vsanh tr).

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    - 10 Tr vi 3 Tnh: Th tc tr c c 3 tnh: Thin, Bt thin, V k. 9 Trcn li ch l tnhThin.

    - 18 php Bt cng ca Pht: 10 Lc, 4 V y, 3 Nim tr, i bi.

    - 10 Lc l: Lc tr x phi x. Lc tr nghip d thc. Lc tr tnh l giithot ng tr ng ch. Lc tr cn thng h. Lc tr chng chng thnggii. Lc tr chng chng gii. Lc tr bin th hnh. Lc tr tc tr tynim. Lc tr t sanh. Lc tr lu tn.

    - 4 V y: V y Chnh ng gic, V y Lu vnh tn, V y thuytchng php, V y thuyt xut o.

    - Do 8 th nhn nn Tm i bi khc vi Tm bi: T tnh, Hnh tng, i

    tng duyn, Ch da l a, Ch da l thn, Chng c, Cu t, Thngxt.

    - 3 th Vin c ca Nh Lai: Nhn vin c, Qu vin c, n vin c.

    - Cc cng c khc ca Nh Lai, chung vi hng Thnh gi v phmphu:V trnh, Nguyn tr, 4 V ngi gii, Thn thng, Tnh l, nh v sc,ng tr, ng ch, 4 Tm v lng, 8 Gii thot, 8 Thng x, 10 Bin x.

    - Trn dch: Phn bit Hu (N01559, trang 285C-296A)

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Tr c 2: Hu lu, V lu.

    - Tr c 10 loi thu tm tt c tr: Tc tr, Php tr, Loi tr, Kh tr, Tp tr,Dit tr, o tr, Tha tm tr, Tn tr, V sanh tr.

    - Tam ma kim cang th.

    - Do 7 th nhn duyn nn an lp tr thnh 10: do T tnh (nn an lp Thtc tr); do i tr (nn an lp Php tr, Loi tr); do Tng ca i tngduyn (nn an lp Kh tr, Tp tr); do Tng ca i tng duyn v Thca cnh gii (nn an lp Dit tr, o tr); do Gia hnh (nn an lp Tha tmtr); do Vic lm xong (nn an lp Tn tr); do Nhn duyn vin mn (nnan lp V sanh tr).

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    - Tm nht cnh tnh.

    - Da vo tng g lp thnh 4 loi tnh l: Tnh l 1 gm t, h, lc,cng gm c tm. Tnh l 2 loi tr t, ch cn h lc. Tnh l 3 ch cn lc.Tnh l 4 khng cn chi no (x).

    - 4 nh V sc: X khng v bin, X thc v bin, X v s hu, X phitng, phi phi tng.

    - ng ch cn bn c 8: bn Tnh l v 4 nh V sc.

    - Li c 3 loi ng tr: ng tr khng, ng tr v nguyn, ng tr vtng.

    - Khi cc ng tr ny thuc loi V lu th chng c gi l 3 mn Giithot: Mn Gii thot khng, Mn Gii thot v tng, Mn Gii thot vnguyn.

    - Li c 3 lp ng tr: ng tr khng khng, ng tr v nguyn-vnguyn, ng tr v tng-v tng.

    - nh Kim cang d.

    - 4 Thc V lng: t, bi, h, x.

    - Gii thot c 8 th...

    - Thng x c 8 loi...

    - Bin x c 10 th...

    - Trn dch: Phn bit Tam ma bt (N01559, trang 296B-304A)

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - 4 nh: nh th 1, nh th 2, nh th 3, nh th 4.

    - Duy tm nht cnh.

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    - nh th 1 c Gic qun (tm t) h lc. nh th 2 ch c h, lc. nhth 3 ch c lc. nh th 4 ch c x.

    - 4 nh V sc: Khng bin nhp, Thc bin nhp, V s hu bin nhp,Phi tng phi phi tng bin nhp.

    - 8 a l 4 nh sc v 4 nh v sc.

    - Li c 3 loi nh: nh thng, nh v tng, nh v nguyn.

    - 3 loi nh ny nu l v lu th gi l 3 mn Gii thot: Mn Gii thotkhng, Mn Gii thot v tng, Mn Gii thot v nguyn.

    - Li c 3 nh ring: nh khng khng, nh v tng-v tng, nh v

    nguyn-v nguyn.

    - Tam ma Kim cang th.

    - 4 nh V lng: t, bi, h, x.

    - Gii thot c 8 th...

    - Ch nhp (Thng x) c 8 loi...

    - Bin nhp (Bin x) c 10 th...

    ---o0o---

    9- Phm th 9

    - ng dch: Ph chp ng (N01558, trang 152B-159B): Ni dung caphm ny tc gi da trn o l v ng ph quan im phi tc

    phi ly Un-Ng ca c t b cng kin chp Ng ca Thng lun.

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Ng chp, S chp ng.

    - Hin lng, T lng.

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    - B c gi la cc un.

    - 12 x. Khng c tnh ca Ng, Ng s.

    - c kin th (Ni chn c kin).

    - Lm ch un (Tp hp cc un).

    - Nm th un...

    - Trn dch: Ph thuyt ng (N01559, trang 304A-310C)

    * Mt s t ng - thut ng tiu biu:

    - Ng kin, Ng chp.

    - Chng lng, T lng.

    - Ng, cc m.

    - 12 Nhp, Khng ng, Khng ng s.

    - Kin x (Ni chn kin chp).

    - Nm th m...

    V phn i chiu mt s t ng, thut ng tiu biu ni 2 bn Hn dch ktrn, chng ti xin nu mt vi ghi nhn:

    - Th 1: Thng qua vic i chiu mt s t ng, thut ng tiu biu ni 9phm ca lun A t t ma Cu x, chng ta phn no thy c tnh chtphong ph ca b lun ni ting y: bao qut, thu tm nhiu lnh vc vnhn thc, qun chiu, hnh tr, tu chng ca hnh gi hc Pht.

    - Th 2: C mt s t ng v thut ng tiu biu ni A t m c Trndch - k c nhng bn dch trc - t n s chun xc, nh hnh. Nhngcng cn kh nhiu cc t ng, thut ng tiu biu do i s Chn dch -gm c cc dch gi thi trc - cn ang l nhng d dm, th nghim, vy l phn ng gp ht sc ng k ca Php s Huyn Trang t tis chun xc. Ly th d v cc loi Nhn, Duyn, Qu:

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    + 4 Duyn theo cch dch ca i s Tng Gi Bt Trng trong lun T bsa: Duyn Nhn, Duyn Th , Duyn S duyn, Duyn Tng thng(TK/CTT, T.28, N01547, trang 472B).

    + 4 Duyn theo cch dch ca i s Tng Gi B v Hu Vin tronglun A t m tm: Duyn Nhn, Duyn Th , Duyn Duyn, DuynTng thng (TK/CTT, T.28, N01550, trang 812A).

    - 4 Duyn theo cch dch ca Php s Huyn Trang (ng dch, t nnh hnh): Duyn Duyn, Duyn ng v gin, Duyn S duyn, DuynTng thng.

    c) Qu:

    - 5 Qu theo cch dch ca i s Chn (Trn dch): Qu qu bo, Qung lu, Qu cng lc, Qu tng thng, Qu ly dit.

    - 5 Qu theo cch dch ca i s Ph Bt Ma v o Thi trong lun At m t b sa: Qu bo, Qu y, Qu cng dng, Qu oai th, Qu giithot.

    - 5 Qu theo cch dch ca Php s Huyn Trang (ng dch) xem nh lchun: Qu d thc, Qu ng lu, Qu s dng, Qu tng thng, Qu ly h.

    ---o0o---

    IV- i chiu mt vi on chnh

    Nh ni trc, bn Hn dch Thch lun A t t ma cu x ca i sChn , nhn chung l cha t. i s Chn (499-569) cng vi Phps Cu Ma La Thp (344-413), Huyn Trang (602-664) v Ngha Tnh (635-713) c xem l T i dch kim gia ca Pht gio Trung Hoa. Tuynhin, y, vi bn Hn dch lun Cu x ny, trong tinh thn cu hc,

    phi ni l cha t. Tnh cht cha t y, c th xt thy qua 2 kha cnhch quan v khch quan.

    1- Kha cnh ch quan: Ni hu ht cc on k u quyn, u on lun,dch gi tch ra thnh tng k nh (2 cu, c khi ch l 1 ch, 2-3 ch) gii thch. V ton b dch phm c din t theo hng y, khin mt

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    bng ca s din t ni lun mt cn i, v ch l s ni tip ca nhngng gy, cc tng b t qung...

    2- Kha cnh khch quan: vo thi i Trn dch, k c cc thi i trc,mt s t ng, thut ng tiu biu ca A t sm c Hn dch v s dngcha chun, khin cho s din t b hn ch, nhiu khi tr thnh ti ngha.

    Ly th d v t Hu biu, V biu ni phm Phm bit gii (Sc v biu,Nghip v biu) v phm Phn bit nghip (Thn v biu, Ng v biu)...,ni Trn dch dch l Hu gio, V gio (Sc hu gio, Sc v gio, Thnv gio, Nghip v gio). T Hu gio, V gio cha chun, cha din tc ni dung ca s vic, vn . Ni mt s dch phm thuc A t mdch trc Trn dch, chng ta cng gp t Hu gio, V gio nh:

    + Lun X Li Pht A t m: do i s m Ma Da X v m Ma Quta, dch vo i Hu Tn (384-417) (TK/CTT, T.28, N01548, trang526B-526C).

    + Lun T b sa: do i s Tng Gi Bt Trng dch vo i Ph Tn (351-384) (TK/CTT, T.28, N01547, trang 462A...).

    + Lun A t m tm: do i s Tng Gi B v Hu Vin dch vo ing Tn (317-419) (TK/CTT, T.28, N01550, trang 809C).

    Phi n Php s Huyn Trang, chng ta mi c t Hu biu, V biu.Chng ti xin i chiu 2 on:

    a) on m u ni v cc php ni phm Phn bit gii:

    - ng dch: Nhng php no gi l c la chn, nhn y mi truynli li Pht thuyt ging v i php? Tng vit:

    "Php hu lu, v lu

    Hu vi tr o

    Ni kia lu ty tng

    Nn ni l hu lu.

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    V lu tc o

    Cng ba th v vi

    L h khng hai dit

    Trong y, khng v ngi

    Trch dit l la buc

    Theo buc, s u khc

    Rt ro ngn s sanh

    Ring c phi trch dit.

    Lun nu: Ni tt c php, lc c 2 loi l Hu lu, V lu. Php Hu lul th no? L ht thy php Hu vi, tr o . V sao? V cc lu i vicc php Hu vi u ty tng; i vi o , cc lu tuy c sanh nhngkhng ty tng, nn o khng phi l Hu lu. ngha ca khng tytng s c ni r trong phm Phn bit v ty min.

    bin gii v Hu lu, vy V lu l g? l o Thnh v 3 V vi.Nhng g l 3 V vi? L H khng v 2 Dit. Hai dit l Trch dit, Phitrch dit. Ba th V vi nh H khng cng o Thnh c gi l phpV lu. V sao? V cc lu khng th ty tng trong cc php ny"(TK/CTT, T.28, N01558, trang 1B-1C).

    - Trn dch: Nhng php no l c la chn khin ngi khc lachn ni php kia, c Pht Th Tn thuyt ging A t t ma? K vit:Php Hu lu, V lu (Hu lu, V lu). Gii thch: Lc ni v tt c

    php, ngha l Hu lu, V lu. Trong y, Hu lu l g? K vit: Hu vitr Thnh o: Hu lu. Gii thch: Tr o Thnh , cc php Hu vi

    cn li ni l Hu lu. V sao? K vit: Trong y, lu do ty tng niMin. Gii thch: Nu c ngha nh y. Cc lu duyn ni 2 dit,o, lm cnh khi, trong khng ty tng. V th, dit o khng thlp l Hu lu. V ngha khng ty tng, trong phm Phn bit hoc sau sni rng.

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    Ni v php Hu lu xong. Vy php V lu l g? K vit: Php V lu:Thnh o. Cng 3 th V vi. Gii thch: Nhng g l 3 V vi? K vit: Hkhng v 2 Dit. Gii thch: Hai dit l g? L Trch dit v Phi trch dit.Ba th V vi nh H khng v.v cng vi Thnh o ni l php V lu. Vsao? V trong y, cc lu khng th ty tng... (TK/CTT, T.28, N01559,trang 162A-B).

    b) on m u ni phm Phn bit Hin Thnh:

    - ng dch: Nh th l ni v s on tr phin no ni qu v ththng, c mang tn l Bin tri. Nhng s on tr tt do o lc nn tc. Vy ch do o lc y v tng nh th no? Tng vit:

    ni on phin no

    Do kin , tu o

    Kin o ch v lu

    Tu o chung hai th.

    Lun nu: Trc ni rng vic on tr cc phin no do to Kin (Kin o) cng Tu o. Kin o v Tu o ch l V lu hay cng l Hulu? Kin o nn bit ch l V lu. Tu o th chung c hai: Hu lu v Vlu... (TK/CTT, T.28, N01558, trang 113C).

    - Trn dch: Ngha ny ni, ngha l nh dit tr phin no c mangtn l Tr on tr vnh vin. Li na, ngha ny, k vit:

    Phin no dit trDo kin, tu bn .

    Gii thch: Cc phin no c 2 loi: Mt loi do Kin dit tr. Mt loi do

    Tu o dit tr. Ngha ny ni phn trc ni rng. S dit tr kia cngnh vy. Hai o Kin, Tu nay s ni. Hai o ny l Hu lu hay l Vlu? K vit: Tu o c 2 th. Kin o ch V lu. Gii thch: V sao Tuo c 2 th? Do da ni th gian v xut th gian tu, cn Kin o honton l xut th gian... (TK/CTT, T.28, N01559, trang 166A).

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