VERBS ACTION OR LINKING AUXILIARY (= HELPER) 4 PRINCIPAL FORMS SIMPLE TENSES PERFECT TENSES PROGRESSIVE TENSES PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES

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  • Slide 1
  • VERBS ACTION OR LINKING AUXILIARY (= HELPER) 4 PRINCIPAL FORMS SIMPLE TENSES PERFECT TENSES PROGRESSIVE TENSES PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
  • Slide 2
  • THERE ARE 2 MAIN CATEGORIES INTO WHICH VERBS MAY BE DIVIDED: ACTION AND LINKING. Action verbs express action: either mental or physical. The subject of the sentence performs the action described by the verb in such situations. Linking verbs are used to link the subject to the predicate word (either the p.n. or the p.a.).
  • Slide 3
  • ACTIONLINKING Forms of BE am, is, are, was, were, will be, been, being VERBS Verbs Expressing Condition look, smell, feel, sound, taste, grow, appear, become, seem, remain
  • Slide 4
  • AUXILIARY VERBS These are also called helping verbs when they are part of a verb phrase. Some auxiliary verbs can also be used as the main verb in certain situations. Common Auxiliary Verbs: be (am, is, are, was, were, will be, been, being) have (have, has, had, will have) do (do, does, did) can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must
  • Slide 5
  • THE 4 PRINCIPAL FORMS OF A VERB Every verb has 4 principal forms: the present tense the present participle the past tense the past participle Participles ALWAYS need a helper. They may never function alone as a verb phrase. These 4 parts are used to make all of a verbs tenses and forms. He looks at the sky every night. (present tense) He is looking for answers to his questions. (A helper and a present participle were used to form a verb phrase in a particular tense.)
  • Slide 6
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle freeze(s)freezingfrozefrozen fall(s)fallingfellfallen ride(s)ridingroderidden come(s)comingcamecome
  • Slide 7
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle burst(s)burstingburst cost(s)costingcost cut(s)cuttingcut hit(s)hittinghit hurt(s)hurtinghurt
  • Slide 8
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle let(s)lettinglet put(s)puttingput set(s)settingset shut(s)shuttingshut bring(s)bringingbrought
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  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle catch(es)catchingcaught get(s)gettinggotgotten lay(s)layinglaid lead(s)leadingled lend(s)lendinglent
  • Slide 10
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle lose(s)losinglost make(s)makingmade say(s)sayingsaid sit(s)sittingsat seek(s)seekingsought
  • Slide 11
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle teach(es)teachingtaught begin(s)beginningbeganbegun drink(s)drinkingdrankdrunk ring(s)ringingrangrung shrink(s)shrinkingshrankshrunk
  • Slide 12
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle sink(s)sinkingsanksunk spring(s)springingsprangsprung swim(s)swimmingswamswum beat(s)beatingbeatbeaten break(s)breakingbrokebroken
  • Slide 13
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle choose(s)choosingchosechosen lie(s)lyinglaylain speak(s)speakingspokespoken steal(s)stealingstolestolen tear(s)tearingtoretorn wear(s)wearingworeworn
  • Slide 14
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle blow(s)blowingblewblown do(es)doingdiddone draw(s)drawingdrewdrawn eat(s)eatingateeaten give(s)givinggavegiven go(es)goingwentgone
  • Slide 15
  • Verbs to Memorize Present TensePresent Participle Past TensePast Participle grow(s)growinggrewgrown know(s)knowingknewknown rise(s)risingroserisen run(s)runningranrun see(s)seeingsawseen take(s)takingtooktaken throw(s)throwingthrewthrown write(s)writingwrotewritten
  • Slide 16
  • TENSES Tense indicates when an action occurred. We will learn several different tenses: simple, perfect, progressive, and perfect progressive. SIMPLE TENSES : past, present, future. You know these already since they are the most commonly used tenses. Conjugate a verb to see its form(s) in any of the simple tenses.
  • Slide 17
  • HELPERS FOR TENSES BEHAVE PRESENT AM IS ARE HAVE HAS PAST WAS WERE HAD FUTUREWILL BEWILL HAVE
  • Slide 18
  • PERFECT TENSES past perfect = past tense of have + past participle of main verb present perfect = present tense of have + past participle of main verb future perfect = future tense of have + past participle of main verb
  • Slide 19
  • HELPERPARTICIPLE past perfecthadpast participle present perfecthave or haspast participle future perfectwill havepast participle PERFECT TENSES
  • Slide 20
  • writeHELPERPARTICIPLE past perfecthadwritten present perfecthave has written future perfectwill havewritten PERFECT TENSES
  • Slide 21
  • PROGRESSIVE TENSES past progressive = past tense of be + present participle of main verb present progressive = present tense of be + present participle of main verb future progressive = future tense of be + present participle of main verb
  • Slide 22
  • HELPERPARTICIPLE past progressivewas, werepresent participle present progressiveam, is, arepresent participle future progressivewill bepresent participle PROGRESSIVE TENSES
  • Slide 23
  • playHELPERPARTICIPLE past progressivewas were playing present progressiveam is are playing future progressivewill beplaying PROGRESSIVE TENSES
  • Slide 24
  • PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES past perfect progressive = past tense of have + been + present participle of main verb present perfect progressive = present tense of have + been + present participle of main verb future perfect progressive = future tense of have + been + present participle of main verb
  • Slide 25
  • HELPEREXTRA HELPER PARTICIPLE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE HADBEEN PRESENT PARTICIPLE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE HAVE, HASBEEN PRESENT PARTICIPLE FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE WILL HAVEBEEN PRESENT PARTICIPLE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
  • Slide 26
  • RUNHELPEREXTRA HELPER PARTICIPLE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE HADBEEN RUNNING PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE HAVE HAS BEEN RUNNING FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE WILL HAVEBEEN RUNNING PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
  • Slide 27
  • SIMPLE TENSES OF FREEZE SIMPLE PRESENT: FREEZE(S) Why are there two forms? SIMPLE PAST: FROZE SIMPLE FUTURE: WILL FREEZE
  • Slide 28
  • PERFECT TENSES OF FREEZE PAST PERFECT: had frozen PRESENT PERFECT: have/has frozen FUTURE PERFECT: will have frozen
  • Slide 29
  • PROGRESSIVE TENSES OF FREEZE PAST PROGRESSIVE: was/were freezing PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: am/is/are freezing FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: will be freezing
  • Slide 30
  • PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES OF FREEZE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: had been freezing PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: have/has been freezing FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: will have been freezing