viewPlant cells convert the light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main energy-storing molecule in living organisms. The chloroplasts use the chemical energy in the ...

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    13-May-2018

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<p>Parts of a Flower</p> <p>There are two types of flowering plants, perfect and imperfect. Perfect flowering plants contain both male and female reproductive parts. Popular perfect flowers are roses, lilies, and hibiscus. Flowering plants that have male or female reproductive parts, not both, are called imperfect flowers. Popular imperfect flowers are begonias, pumpkins, corn and oak. The male reproductive part of the flower is called the stamen. The female reproductive part of the flower is called the pistil. </p> <p>The female reproductive structure is called the pistil and is made of two parts, the stigma and the style. The stigma is the sticky surface on top of the pistil that traps and collects pollen. The style is the tube that holds up the stigma. At the bottom of the style is the ovary. When fertilized, the ovary becomes the fruit. Female sex cells are stored in the ovary and are called ovules. Ovules turn into seeds when pollen and the ovule meet.</p> <p>The male reproductive structure is called the stamen and is made of two parts, the anther and the filament. The anther is the top part of the stamen that stores the pollen. The filament is the thread-like stalk that holds up the anther. The male sex cell is called pollen and is stored on the anther. Pollen is the powdery substance that is typically yellow or orange and is seen all over cars during the spring time. </p> <p>Petals are the colorful layers that surround the reproductive structures in flowers. They are usually bright and colorful to help attract pollinators, like bees and butterflies to the flower. Sepals are the green petal-like part at the base of the flower which protects the flower bud. </p> <p>Parts of a Plant</p> <p>Plants are living things made of many cells. They are autotrophs which means they can make their own food. They do this by a chemical reaction called photosynthesis. Different kinds of plant structures move water and nutrients from one part of a plant to other parts. Some plants, such as lettuce, have tiny tubes that move water and nutrients inside the plant. Other plants, such as mosses, do not have these tubes. Plants that have the tubes can move water and nutrients farther, faster and easier than plants without the tubes. If a plant needs water, all you have to do is water the roots. </p> <p>Plants have their own way of moving water from the ground to the stems and leaves where its needed. Plants that move water from the roots to the stems and leaves with tube-like structures are called vascular plants. Vascular plants include flowering plants, other seed-producing plants and ferns. Vascular tubes, or veins, carry water and nutrients from the soil to the parts of a plant where they are needed. </p> <p>Each part of a plant has certain jobs or functions. Leaves, stems and roots work together as a system to help the plant perform its life functions. Roots act as straws for the plant and bring in water and nutrients to the plant. The roots also anchor the plant in the ground so the plant does not fall over. Without these the plant could not survive. Plants have different types of roots. Roots can be thick like carrots or have many branches like the roots of trees and grasses. But roots perform the same function for all plants and work with other plant parts to keep the plant alive. The stem acts as a plumbing system for the plant. The stem transports water from the roots to the other parts of the plant. It also transports glucose, which is a sugar (food) from the leaves to the other parts of the plant. The stem also provides support for the plant. Some stems store nutrients and water for the plant. The leaves soak in the sunlight, which is used to make food (glucose) for the plant through a process called photosynthesis. Leaves contain tiny opening called stomata. The stomata are tiny holes in the leaves that allow gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen to move in and out of the leaf. The leaves also allow water to leave the plant through the process of transpiration. Nearly all plant leaves are green because they contain the chemical called chlorophyll. </p> <p>Flowers of plants help the plant to reproduce. The flower contains pollen and tiny eggs, called ovules, which allows plants to reproduce. Eventually the flower can turn into a fruit if its a fruit- producing plant. The fruit provides covering for the seeds. The seeds contain new baby plants inside of them. </p> <p>Flowers help in the process of pollination. Pollination takes place when pollen grains are moved from the stamen onto the sticky part of the pistil of a flower. Once the pollen is on the pistil, a tube begins to grow from each pollen grain. The tubes grown downward through the narrow part of the pistil until they reach the ovary. When male sex cells from the pollen join with female sex cells inside the ovule, which is inside the ovary, fertilization occurs. Fertilization is the joining of a female sex cell and a male sex cell from flowers of the same species. The fertilized eggs develop into embryos inside seeds. Both pollination and fertilization must take place to produce seeds that will grow into new plants. As you can see, plants have complex systems that work together to keep the plant alive and help it reproduce. </p> <p>Adapted and taken from Plant Parts from edhelper.com</p> <p>Photosynthesis, Respiration and Transpiration</p> <p>Plants vs. Animals </p> <p>Plants and animals differ in many ways. Animals cannot make their own food and survive on their own. Animals either have to eat plants or other animals to survive. Plants can make their own food. This is why plants are the beginning of the food chain. All energy comes from the sun either directly or indirectly. Energy comes from the sun directly to plants as they use the sunlight in the process of photosynthesis. Energy comes from the sun indirectly to animals through eating plants, that go their energy from the sun, or other animals. Plants can do photosynthesis and cellular respiration. However, animals and humans cannot do photosynthesis and only do cellular respiration. </p> <p>Photosynthesis </p> <p>So what is the process of Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants produce their food in the presence of sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, and chlorophyll. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction where energy from light, the sun, is changed to chemical energy which plants can use. The converted chemical energy is turned into sugar, which is called glucose. All plants need three main things to grow, light from the sun, water from rain and carbon dioxide, which is from the atmosphere. </p> <p>Where does Photosynthesis take place? Photosynthesis takes place in a tiny piece of the plant called the Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are located in the leaves of the plants and have a chemical called Chlorophyll in them. This is what gives the leaves of the plants their green color. </p> <p>There are six main steps to the process of photosynthesis. First, the sunlight shines onto the leaves of the plant which is where the chloroplast are. Second, the chlorophyll in the leaves traps the sunlight to make sugar, or glucose. Third, the plant takes in carbon dioxide through the stomata in the leaves. The stomata are tiny holes in the leaves that allow gases and water to go into and out of the plant. Fourth, the water is taken in from the ground through the plants root system. Fifth, the water from the roots combines with the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and the sunlight from the sun to make glucose (sugar energy). Lastly the plant then stores the glucose in the stem and flower of the plants and releases oxygen as waste. When these three combine they dont use everything and some of it is turned into waste and given off back into the atmosphere. This waste is called oxygen. </p> <p>What happens during photosynthesis? Plant cells convert the light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main energy-storing molecule in living organisms. The chloroplasts use the chemical energy in the ATP to form glucose. This glucose is then distributed throughout the plant as food. </p> <p>Who carries out this process of photosynthesis? Plants, algae, and many single-celled organisms, like bacteria carry out photosynthesis. All of the energy that sustains life comes from the sun. Photosynthesis is the connection between energy that is released from the sun (solar energy) and the energy available for living organisms (chemical energy). </p> <p>What materials are used during photosynthesis? During photosynthesis carbon dioxide gas, sunlight and water are all materials that are used during photosynthesis. All of these come from the environment. Plants get carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Humans and animals breathe out carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed by the plant through the stomata. The stomata are tiny holes or pores found in the leaves of plants. So, what is the function of the stomata? The stomata help the leaves by absorbing carbon dioxide from the air. The stomata also allow oxygen produced during photosynthesis to escape into the atmosphere. This is important because humans and animals need oxygen to breathe and live. </p> <p>What materials are produced during photosynthesis? During photosynthesis water and carbon dioxide from the environment are combined to make an organic compound, called glucose. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate or a simple sugar. This is food for the plant. Oxygen is also formed. The oxygen that is produced is released into the environment. </p> <p>Photosynthesis occurs in plant cells when light is available. Generally this is during the day time. It occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells when they are exposed to light. Photosynthesis cannot occur when there is no sunlight present. </p> <p>Cellular Respiration </p> <p>Respiration is another chemical reaction that works with photosynthesis. It is the opposite of photosynthesis. Respiration releases energy to organisms and its waste is carbon dioxide. Once the energy that was in sunlight is changed into chemical energy by photosynthesis, an organism has to transform the chemical energy into a form that can be used by the organism. </p> <p>There are five main steps to respiration. The first step is animals eat a plant or another animal and get glucose from that plant or animal they ate. Second, animals breathe in the oxygen that the plant gave out as waste. Third, the glucose (sugar) (carbs) and the oxygen travel to the Mitochondria, which is part of each animal cell. Fourth, the Mitochondria breaks down the oxygen and glucose and releases water vapor and carbon dioxide into the air. Lastly, it releases energy into the cell. Cellular respiration is basically the breakdown of glucose molecules to release energy. This takes place in all living things and is a step by step process. </p> <p>So how are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? The energy stored in glucose during photosynthesis is transferred to the chemical bonds of ATP. All cells run on the energy released from ATP. </p> <p>Transpiration </p> <p>Transpiration is when plant leaves open their cells to take in carbon dioxide and lose water to evaporation. During transpiration the stomata (tiny holes in the leaves of plants0 open and water evaporates. Carbon dioxide enters the plant during this process as well. Transpiration is important because it moves the water throughout the plant. </p> <p>There are four main steps to transpiration. First, the stomata open in the plants leaves to let water vapor out and allow carbon dioxide in. Second, the plant immediately wants to replace the water it lost through the stomata. Third, the transpiration makes the roots suck more water from the ground. Fourth, Transpiration bonds the water molecules together and the xylem sucks the water up through the stem and all the way to the flower (working against gravity). </p> <p>So how does all of this relate? Photosynthesis and respiration use each other to continue their processes. In order to complete photosynthesis, the plant must have carbon dioxide, which they can only get from animal respiration. In order to complete respiration, the animal must have oxygen which it gets from the plant when the plant goes through photosynthesis. In order for transpiration to occur the plant must take in carbon dioxide from respiration. </p>

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