Voltaire XXVIII

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    E D I T I O N D E L A P A C I F I C A T I O N

    T H E W O R K S O F







    T H E R T . H O N . J O H N M O R L E Y  

    F O R T Y - T H R E E V O L U M E S








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    2I. this vie" 'hilip %tted out that prodigious

    Leet, "hich "as to have been seconded in its opera-

    tions by another armament from 9landers, and a

    general rising of all the 8atholics in )ngland hese

    preparations proved the ruin of >ary 4tuart, and

    hurried her to the scaMold, instead of delivering her

    from it 'hilip had no" nothing left but to avenge

    her death by sei?ing )ngland for himself# after

    "hich he looEed upon .olland as already reduced,

    and punished for its rebellion

     he gold of 'eru "as lavished for the pur-

    poses of this eFpedition On &une N, 15, the

    Invincible /rmada set sail from the port of isbon,

    "ith one hundred and %fty large ships, manned "ith

    t"enty thousand soldiers, nearly seven thousand

    seamen "ho could be armed for %ght upon occasion,


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    D /ncient and >odern .istory

    and mounted "ith three thousand pieces of cannon

     he duEe of 'arma "as ready "ith transports and

    an army of thirty thousand men, "hich he had raised

    in 9landers, to join 'hilip the instant he landed in

    )ngland It seemed impossible for the )nglish

    ships, "hich "ere no more than small barEs in com-

    parison "ith those of the 4paniards, to stand against

    the force of these Loating citadels, "hose upper

    "orEs "ere above three feet thicE, and impenetrable

    to cannon 7evertheless, this "ell-concerted scheme

    failed in almost every part he )nglish soon

    appeared "ith a Leet of one hundred sail, and, not-

    "ithstanding their inferiority in bulE, numbers, and

    strength, stopped the progress of this formidable

    Leet hey tooE several of the 4panish ships, and

    dispersed the rest by the means of %reships # a storm

    seconded the eMorts of the )nglish he admiralJs

    ship, called the Invincible, "as very near to being lost

    on the coast of Aealand he duEe of 'armaJs army,

    "hich could not put to sea "ithout the assistance of

    the 4panish Leet, remained inactive 'hilipJs navy,

    unable to resist the )nglish and the "inds, "hich

    "ere al"ays contrary to them, retreated by "ay of

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    the 7orth 4ea # some "ere "recEed on the coast of

    Aealand, and others on the OrEney Islands, and the

    coasts of 4cotland # and another part "as cast a"ay

    on the coast of Ireland, "here the country people

    massacred all the soldiers and sailors "ho had

    escaped the fury of the tempest, and the viceroy had

    the inhumanity to hang the rest In short, of the

    'o"er of 'hilip II H

    "hole /rmada, only %fty ships returned to 4pain,

    and of thirty thousand men, "ho had sailed on this

    eFpedition, not more than siF thousand escaped

    from ship"recE, and the s"ord and %re of the enemy

     he duEe of 'arma, "ith his %ne army of thirty

    thousand men, had no better success in subduing the

    7etherlands, than the /rmada had in its attempt on

    )ngland he .ollanders, "ho found a ready

    defence in their canals, sluices, and narro" cause-

    "ays, "ho "ere fond of liberty to a degree of idol-

    atry, and "ere all generals under their princes of

    Orange, "ere in a condition to have resisted a much

    more formidable force

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    'hilip "as the only prince "ho could have con-

    tinued formidable after so great a disaster # but /mer-

    ica and /sia still supplied him "ith riches, "hich

    made all his neighbors tremble# and, after having

    failed in his design on )ngland, he sa" himself upon

    the point of reducing the Eingdom of 9rance to a

    province of 4pain /t the same time that he "^s

    maEing the conuest of 'ortugal, carrying on the

    "ar in 9landers, and engaged in the eFpedition

    against )ngland, he raised that faction in 9rance,

    Eno"n by the name of the .oly eague, "hich

    subverted the throne, and distracted the nation #

    and after"ard, by so"ing dissension in that very

    eague "hich he had protected, he "as thrice

    on the point of being declared sovereign of

    9rance, undeJr the title of protector, "ith an unlim-

    ited po"er of conferring all posts .is daughter,

    /ncient and >odern .istory

    the infanta )ugenia, "as to have been ueen,

    under his direction # and the cro"n of 9rance

    "as to have been transferred in do"ry "ith her to

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    the person she should marry his proposal had

    been actually made by the cabal of siFteen, in the

    year 15$, after the murder of .enry III he duEe

    of >ayenne, "ho "as head of the eague, had no

    other "ay of eluding it, than by saying that, as the

    eague had been formed on account of religion, the

    title of 'rotector of 9rance could belong only to the

    pope 'hilipJs ambassador had carried this nego-

    tiation to a great length, before the holding of the

    )states of 'aris, in 15$N# insomuch that the aboli-

    tion of the 4alic a" "as a long time in deliberation,

    and, at length, the infanta "as proposed as ueen of

    the states of 'aris

    'hilip had insensibly accustomed the 9rench to a

    dependence upon him # for, on one hand, he supplied

    the eague "ith suPcient aid to prevent its falling,

    and, oh the other, he assisted his son-in-la", )man-

    uel, duEe of 4avoy, "ith forces against 9rance .e

    Eept troops in pay for him, and assisted him in get-

    ting himself declared protector by the 'arliament of

    'rovence # so that the 9rench, gro"n familiar "ith

    these proceedings, might acEno"ledge 'hilip as pro-

    tector of the "hole Eingdom

    It is more than probable, that 9rance in the end

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    "ould have been forced to do it 'hilip, in fact,

    already reigned in 'aris by his ambassador, "ho

    lavished pensions upon all "ho "ere in his interest

    'o"er of 'hilip II $

    .e had the 4orbonne, and all the religious orders on

    his side .is scheme "as not to maEe 9rance a

    conuered country, as he had done 'ortugal, but to

    oblige that nation to reuest him to govern it It

    "as "ith this in vie" that he, in 15$C, despatched

    the duEe of 'arma from the farther end of the 7eth-

    erlands to relieve 'aris, "hen pushed by the victo-

    rious arms of .enry III # recalled him again, "hen

    by his judicious marches he had delivered that capi-

    tal, "ithout striEing a blo" # and after"ard, in 15$1,

    "hen .enry I sat do"n before the city of (ouen,

    sent the same general to oblige him to raise the siege

    It "as very surprising, that, "hile 'hilip could thus

    determine the fate of "ar in 9rance, >aurice, prince

    of Orange, and the .ollanders should be suPciently

    po"erful to cross his designs, and send aid to .enry

    I they, "ho, not ten years before, had been

    considered in 4pain only as a parcel of obscure

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    rebels, "ho could not possibly escape the punishment

    intended for them .o"ever, they sent a reinforce-

    ment of three thousand men to the Eing of 9rance #

    but the duEe of 'arma nevertheless delivered the

    city of (ouen, as he had before done that of 'aris

    /fter this 'hilip recalled him again# and thus

    by alternately giving and "ithdra"ing his assistance,

    he al"ays made himself necessary, and spread his

    snares from the frontiers to the very heart of the

    Eingdom, in order to reduce it by degrees "holly

    under his dominion .e had already established his

    po"er through the greatest part of :rittany by force

    io /ncient and >odern .istory

    of arms .is son-in-la", the duEe of 4avoy, had

    done the same in 'rovence, and a part of 6auphiny

     here "as al"ays a road open for the 4panish troops

    from /rras to 'aris, and from 9ontarabia to the

    (iver oire 'hilip himself "as so thoroughly per-

    suaded that 9rance could not escape him, that in his

    conferences "ith the president &eannin, the duEe of

    >ayenneJs envoy, he al"ays used to say ; >y city

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    of 'aris, my city of Orleans, my to"n of (ouen;

     he court of (ome, though it feared him, "as

    nevertheless obliged to assist him, and he had al"ays

    the arms of religion in his favor his cost him only

    the outside sho" of a great ?eal for the 8atholic

    religion, "hich served him liEe"ise for a preteFt

    against 0eneva, "hose destruction he "as at that

    time endeavoring to bring about In the year 15$

    he sent his son-in-la", the duEe of 4avoy, "ith an

    army to reduce 0eneva and the neighboring country

    :ut this rich and po"erful monarch al"ays sa" his

    designs frustrated by poor nations, "hom a love for

    liberty eFalted above themselves he 0enevans,

    assisted only by the t"o cantons of :erne and

    Aurich, and three hundred soldiers sent them by

    .enry I, bade de%ance to all his riches, and the

    arms of his son-in-la" hese same people, in the

    year 1DCG, rescued their city out of the hands of the

    duEe of 4avoy, "ho surprised it by escalade, in a

    time of profound peace, and "as giving it up to plun-

    der hey had even the boldness to punish this

    attempt of a po"erful monarch as a public robbery #

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    'o"er of 'hilip II n

    and hanged thirteen commissioned oPcers, "ho

    failing as conuerors, "ere treated liEe midnight


     hus did 'hilip, "ithout uitting his closet, inces-

    santly carry on a "ar at one and the same time in the

    7etherlands, against >aurice, in almost all the prov-

    inces of 9rance, against .enry I, at 0eneva and

    in 4"it?erland, and against the )nglish and 6utch

    by sea :ut "hat "ere the fruits of these mighty

    projects, "hich for so long Eept )urope in perpetual

    alarms In 15$D .enry I deprived him of all

    9rance in a uarter of an hour, simply by going

    to mass he )nglish, "hom he had himself taught

    to %ght at sea, and "ho "ere no" as good sailors as

    the 4paniards, plundered his possessions in /merica,

    destroyed his galleons, and burned his to"n of

    8adi? In short, after having once more laid "aste

    the Eingdom of 9rance, and taEen the city of /miens

    by surprise "hich "as retaEen again by the valor

    of .enry I he found himself obliged to con-

    clude a peace at ervins, and to acEno"ledge as

    Eing of 9rance, a person "hom he had never called

    any other than 'rince of :erne It is also partic-

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    ularly "orthy of observation that, by this treaty of

    peace he restored 8alais, "hich had been taEen by

    the archduEe /lbert, his governor in the 7ether-

    lands, during the troubles of 9rance# and that no

    mention "as made in the treaty of )li?abethJs pre-

    tended right# "ho got neither this place, nor the

    1G /ncient and >odern .istory

    eight hundred thousand cro"ns "hich she "as

    entitled to by the treaty of 8ateau-8ambresis

    'hilipJs po"er might no" be compared to a

    mighty Lood con%ned "ithin its banEs, after having

    overLo"ed the countries far and near .e still

    remained the %rst potentate in )urope )li?abeth

    and especially .enry I enjoyed a greater share of

    personal glory# but 'hilip retained, to the last

    moment of his reign, that po"erful ascendency

    "hich his great dominions and immense riches had

    given him hough he had eFpended three thou-

    sand millions of our livres on his despotic cruelty

    in the 7etherlands and his ambition in 9rance, it

    had not impoverished him he found an ineFhaust-

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    ible source of riches in /merica and the )ast Indies

    It only happened that he enriched )urope by his

    treasures, "ithout designing it he sums he had

    lavished to carry on his intrigues in )ngland,

    9rance, and Italy, and "hat his numerous armies

    in the 7etherlands had cost him, by increasing the

    riches of the people "hom he "anted to subdue, had

    increased the value of commodities almost every-

    "here, and )urope became "ealthy from the evils

    premeditated against her

    .e had a yearly revenue of nearly three millions

    of gold ducats, "ithout being obliged to levy ne"

    taFes on his subjects his "as more than all the

    monarchs of 8hristendom had together # and in this

    respect he "as possessed of enough to purchase

    many Eingdoms, though not to conuer them he

    'o"er of 'hilip II 1N

    magnanimity of )li?abeth, the valor of .enry I,

    and the courage of the princes of Orange triumphed

    over all his treasures and his intrigues :ut if "e

    eFcept the burning of 8adi?, 4pain "as, during his

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    reign, al"ays peaceable and happy

     he 4paniards had at that time a distinguished

    superiority over all other nations# their language

    "as spoEen at 'aris, ienna, >ilan, and urin #

    their fashions, their manner of thinEing and "rit-

    ing, captivated the minds of the Italians # and from

    the time of 8harles till the beginning of 'hilip

    IIIJs reign, the 4paniards "ere held in greater

    esteem than any other people

    2hen 'hilip made peace "ith 9rance, he gave

    the 7etherlands and 9ranche-8omte as a do"ry

    to his daughter, 8lara )ugenia, "hom he had not

    been able to maEe ueen, but as a %ef revertible to

    the cro"n of 4pain in default of her issue

    On 4ept 1N, 15$, 'hilip died at the age of sev-

    enty-one, in his vast palace of the )scorial, "hich he

    had made a vo" to build, in case his generals should

    "in the battle of 4t @uentin # as if it "ere of any

    conseuence to 0od, "hether the constable de >ont-

    morency or 'hilibert of 4avoy gained the victory,

    or as if the divine blessing could be purchased by

    magni%cent edi%ces

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    'osterity has ranEed this prince in the number of

    the most po"erful Eings of the earth, but not the

    greatest .e "as called the ; 6emon of the 4outh,;

    because, from the- centre of 4pain, "hich is the most

    1K /ncient and >odern .istory

    southerly part of )urope, he had disturbed all the

    other Eingdoms on that continent

    If, after vie"ing him on the greater theatre of the

    "orld, "e come to consider him in the light of a

    private man, "e shall %nd him a rigid and suspicious

    master, a cruel lover and husband, and a merciless


     here "as one remarEable circumstance in his

    domestic life, "hich still eFercises the curiosity of

    the "orld this "as the death of his son, 6on

    8arlos 7o one Eno"s the manner of this princeJs

    death # his body, "hich lies in the royal vault of the

    )scorial, appears to have had the head severed from

    it :ut this is pretended to have been done because

    the leaden case "hich holds the body "as too small

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    It has been asserted, in the life of the c?ar 'eter I,

    that "hen he resolved to condemn his son to death,

    he sent to 4pain for the acts relating to 6on 8arlosJs

    trial# but neither the trial nor sentence of this

    prince have ever appeared 2e are as little

    acuainted "ith his crime as "ith the nature of his

    death 1 It is proved neither by facts nor probability,

    1 If our author had consulted the historians, .errera,

    9erreras, 8abrera, and 6iego de 8olmenare?, he "ould

    have had no reason to say the crime of 6on 8arlos "as

    not Eno"n .e "as a prince of a very passionate and

    perverse disposition, deformed, and ungracious he had

    been detected in carrying on intrigues "ith the malcon-

    tents in the o" 8ountries he "as impatient to espouse

    the archduchess, /nne of /ustria, and the negotiation

    about this match proving tedious, he concluded that his

    father thought him un%t for marriage, and incapable of

    'o"er of 'hilip II 15

    that his father had him condemned by the Inuisi-


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    /ll that "e Eno" concerning it is that, in 15D,

    his father came in person and arrested him in his

    apartment, and that he "rote to the empress, his

    sister, that he had never discovered any capital

    vice nor dishonorable action in the prince, his son,

    but that he had caused him to be con%ned for his

    succession 4timulated by this opinion, he resolved to

    Ly into 0ermany, and borro" considerable sums from

    several noblemen hen he broached the design to 6on

     &ohn of /ustria, and solicited his concurrence but 6on

     &ohn refused to be concerned, and eFhorted him to lay

    aside his intention # yet still persisting in this scheme,

    he "as abandoned by his confessor, his letters "ere inter-

    cepted by the Eing, "ho liEe"ise discovered that the post-

    master had received the princeJs order to provide horses for

    a long journey hese "ere the reasons "hich induced his

    father to secure his person 9or this purpose he entered

    the princeJs apartment at midnight, attended by several

    noblemen and a party of guards 6on 8arlos, seeing him

    come in, shranE under the bed-clothes, a crying ; 2ill

    your majesty Eill me I am not mad, but the treatment

    I have met "ith maEes me desperate; he Eing desired

    he "ould maEe himself easy, declaring that everything

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    "as intended for his good .e then sei?ed all his arms and

    papers, committed him to the charge of siF noblemen

    of the %rst ranE, and immediately communicated to the

    popeJs nuncio and all the foreign ministers, the motives

    "hich had induced him to taEe this eFtraordinary step

    4t )vremond, one of those "riters "ho say he "as

    strangled by his fatherJs order, endeavors to thro" a

    veil of ridicule over a very serious transaction .e aPrms

    that the eFecutioner in going to perform his oPce, said

    ; 6onJt maEe any noise sir, this is all for your good; 2e

    have in a former volume given an account of his death

    1 D /ncient and >odern .istory

    o"n good, and that of the Eingdom .e "rote at

    the same time in uite contrary terms to 'ope 'ius

    , to "hom he says in his letter of &an GC, 15D

    ;he force of a vicious disposition had from his

    tenderest years destroyed in 6on 8arlos all the

    eMects of his paternal instructions;

    /fter these letters, in "hich 'hilip gives an

    account of the imprisonment of his son, "e meet

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    "ith no others in "hich he clears himself of his

    death# and this alone, joined to the rumor "hich

    prevailed throughout all )urope, aMords a strong

    presumption that he "as guilty of the murder of his

    son .is silence in the midst of the public reports

    is another foundation for justifying those "ho assert

    that the cause of this shocEing aMair "as the passion

    "hich 6on 8arlos had conceived for )li?abeth of

    9rance, his mother-in-la", and she for him 7othing

    could appear more probable )li?abeth had been

    brought up in a gay and voluptuous court 'hilip

    II "as perpetually engaged in intrigues "ith the

    fair seF 0allantry "as the very essence of a

    4paniard, and eFamples of in%delity abounded

    every"here It "as natural for 6on 8arlos and

    )li?abeth, "ho "ere about the same age, to have

    entertained a mutual passion for each other he

    sudden death of this princess, "hich follo"ed soon

    after that of 6on 8arlos, con%rmed these suspicions

    /ll )urope believed that 'hilip had sacri%ced his

    "ife and his son to emotions of jealousy# and this

    belief "as strengthened "hen, some time after"ard,

     he )nglish 7ation 1H

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    this same jealous disposition led him to resolve upon

    the death of the famous /ntonio 'ere?, "ho "as

    hJs rival "ith the princess of )boli

     hese crimes "e %nd publicly charged against

    him by the prince of Orange, in the famous mani-

    festo "hich he laid before the tribunal of the public

    It is very surprising that 'hilip did not at least

    employ some of the venal pens of the Eingdom to

    reply to these accusations # and that no one in

    )urope ever oMered to refute "hat the prince of

    Orange had advanced hese do not indeed amount

    to absolute proofs, but they are the strongest pre-

    sumptions against him # and history should not neg-

    lect reporting them as such, as the judgment of

    posterity is the only defence "e have against suc-

    cessful tyranny

    8./')( 8BBBIB

     .) )70I4. =76)( )62/(6 I, >/(+, /76 )IA/-


     .) )nglish had not the same splendor of success

    as the 4paniards, nor such inLuence in other courts,

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    nor did they possess that great po"er "hich ren-

    dered 4pain so dangerous to its neighbors # but they

    acuired a ne" Eind of glory from the ocean, and

    the eFtensive maritime trade they carried on hey

    Ene" their true element, and that alone made them

    more happy than all the foreign possessions and

    conuests of their ancient Eings .ad these Eings

    ol GG


    1 /ncient and >odern .istory

    reigned in 9rance, )ngland "ould have beer, only a

    subjected province his nation, "hich "as formed

    "ith so much diPculty, and "hich had been so fre-

    uently and easily subdued by the 6anish and 4aFon

    pirates, 1 and the duEe of 7ormandy, "ere only the

    rude instruments under )d"ard III and .enry

    of the transient glory of those monarchs # but under

    )li?abeth they became a po"erful, civili?ed, indus-

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    trious, laborious, and enterprising nation he

    improvements made by the 4paniards in navigation

    eFcited their emulation, and they undertooE three

    successive voyages to discover a north"est passage

    to &apan and 8hina 6raEe and 8avendish sailed

    around the globe, attacEing in all places the 4pan-

    iards, "ho had eFtended their conuests and trade

    to both ends of the "orld 4everal private com-

    panies of adventurers, "ho depended entirely on

    their o"n stocE, carried on a very pro%table trade

    upon the coast of 0uinea G he famous 4ir 2alter

    (aleigh, N "ithout receiving the least assistance from

    1 he )nglish people "ere never conuered by the

    4aFons and 6anes # for they themselves are the posterity

    of those very conuerors 2hat are the )nglish people

    but the descendants of 4aFons, 6anes, and 7ormans 2e

    might "ith the same reason say that the 9rench "ere easily

    conuered by the 9ranEs under 8lovis, "ho "ere in fact

    the ancestors of the 9rench people

    G here "as no )nglish company that traded to the

    coast of 0uinea in the reign of @ueen )li?abeth

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    N 4ir 2alter (aleigh established the colony of irginia,

    "hich is uite a distance from 7e" )ngland

     he )nglish 7ation 1$

    the government, founded and improved the colony

    of 7e" )ngland, in the southern part of /merica,

    in the year 155 :y these eFpeditions they soon

    formed the best marine in )urope, as suPciently

    appears from their %tting out a hundred sail to

    oppose the /rmada sent against them by 'hilip II,

    going after"ard to insult him upon his o"n coasts,

    destroying his ships, and burning his city of 8adi? #

    at length, gro"n more formidable, they, in 1DCG,

    defeated the %rst Leet "hich 'hilip III sent to sea,

    and from that time acuired a superiority by sea,

    "hich they have since maintained, eFcept on some

    fe" occasions

    9rom the beginning of )li?abethJs reign they

    applied themselves to manufactures he 9lemish,

    being persecuted by 'hilip II, removed to ondon,

    carrying "ith them an increase of inhabitants,

    industry, and riches his capital, "hich enjoyed

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    the blessings of peace under )li?abeth, cultivated

    the liberal arts, "hich are the badges and conse-

    uences of plenty he names of 4pencer and

    4haEespeare, "ho Lourished in those days, are

    handed do"n to other nations In a "ord, ondon

    "as enlarged, civili?ed, and embellished, and in a

    short time half of the little island of 0reat :ritain

    "as able to counterbalance the "hole po"er of

    4pain he )nglish "ere the second nation in the

    "orld in industry # and in liberty they "ere the %rst

    6uring this reign there "ere public companies estab-

    lished for trading to the evant and the 7orth

    GO /ncient and >odern .istory

    /griculture no" began to be considered in )ngland

    as the chief riches of the state, "hile in 4pain they

    began to neglect this real good for ideal treasures

     he gold and silver trade of the ne" "orld enriched

    the Eing of 4pain but in )ngland the subject "as

    bene%ted by the sale of the natural commodities

    / private merchant of ondon, called 4ir homas

    0resham, "as at that time rich enough to build

    the (oyal )Fchange at his o"n eFpense, and a col-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    lege "hich bears his name 4everal other citi?ens

    founded hospitals and public schools 4uch "ere

    the glorious eMects produced by liberty in that Eing-

    dom that private persons could do "hat Eings at

    present can only do in the most happy administra-


     he royal revenues in )li?abethJs reign seldom

    eFceeded siF hundred thousand pounds sterling, and

    the number of inhabitants in the Eingdom "as not

    more than four millions he single Eingdom o

    4pain contained at least as many more /nd yet

    )li?abeth defended herself "ith success, and had at

    once the glory of assisting .enry I to subdue his

    Eingdom, and the 6utch to establish their republic

    :ut to acuire a clearer Eno"ledge of the life and

    reign of )li?abeth, it "ill be necessary to taEe a

    short retrospect of the reigns of )d"ard I and


    )li?abeth "as born in 15NN, and "hile yet in her

    cradle, "as declared the la"ful heiress to the cro"n

    of )ngland# a short time after"ard, upon her

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


     he )nglish 7ation G1

    mother being removed from the throne to the scaf-

    fold, she "as declared a bastard .er father, "ho

    ended his life in 15KH, died liEe a tyrant, as he had

    lived 2hile on his deathbed, he gave orders for

    eFecutions, and al"ays under the sanction of justice

    .e condemned the duEe of 7orfolE and his son to

    lose their heads, on no other pretence than that

    they had the arms of )ngland marEed on their plate

     he father indeed obtained his pardon, 1 but the

    son "as eFecuted It must be o"ned, that as the

    )nglish are said to set little value upon their lives,

    their governors have treated them according to their

    taste )ven the reign of )d"ard I, son of .enry

    III, and &ane 4eymour, "as not eFempt from

    these bloody tragedies homas 4eymour, high

    admiral of )ngland, and the EingJs o"n uncle, "as

    beheaded for having uarrelled "ith his brother,

    )d"ard 4eymour, duEe of 4omerset, "ho "as pro-

    tector of the Eingdom during the EingJs minority#

    and soon after"ard 4omerset himself suMered the

    same fate he reign of )d"ard I, "hich lasted

    only %ve years, and during "hich the nation "as, or

    appeared to be, of the 'rotestant religion, "as a

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    scene of seditions and troubles 2hen he died he

    left his cro"n to neither >ary nor )li?abeth, but

    to ady &ane 0rey, a descendant of .enry II,

    1 he death-"arrant "as actually signed and sent to

    the lieutenant of the o"er, and the duEe "ould have

    been beheaded neFt morning had not the Eing himself died

    in the interim

    GG /ncient and >odern .istory

    and granddaughter of the "ido" of ouis BII

    and one :randon, a private gentleman, "ho had

    been created duEe of 4uMolE his &ane 0rey "as

    "ife of ord 0uilford, son of the duEe of 7orthum-

    berland, a nobleman of great po"er in )d"ardJs

    time )d"ardJs "ill, by "hich he beueathed the

    throne to ady &ane 0rey, only proved the means

    of bringing her to a scaMold 4he "as proclaimed

    ueen in ondon # but >aryJs interest and her la"-

    ful rights, as being daughter of .enry III and

    8atherine of /ragon, prevailed # and the %rst thing

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    "hich this ueen did after signing her contract of

    marriage "ith 'hilip II "as to condemn to death

    her rival, "ho "as a young lady of seventeen, full of

    beauty and innocence, and "ho had been guilty of

    no crime but that of being named in )d"ardJs "ill

    for his successor It availed her not that she made

    a voluntary resignation of her fatal dignity, "hich

    she held but nine days she "as led to eFecution

    "ith her husband, father, and father-in-la" his

    "as the third ueen of )ngland "ho had mounted

    the scaMold "ithin less than t"enty years he

    'rotestant religion, in "hich she had been edu-

    cated, "as the principal cause of her untimely fate

    In this revolution the arm of the eFecutioner "as

    much more employed than that of the soldiery # and

    all these cruelties "ere committed by act of parlia-

    ment )very nation has had its times of horror and

    bloodshed # but more illustrious lives have been lost

    upon the scaMold in )ngland than in all the test of

    @ueen )li?abeth GN

    )urope combined It has been the character of this

    nation to commit murders by form of la"# and

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    the gates of ondon have been loaded "ith human

    sEulls, liEe the "alls of the temple of >eFico

    @=))7 )IA/:).

    )IA/:). "as con%ned in prison by her sister upon

    her accession to the throne his princess, "ho,

    after she came to be ueen, refused the hand of

    'hilip II, no" "anted to espouse 8ourtney, earl of

    6evonshire# and it appears by letters of hers yet

    remaining that she had a strong inclination for this

    nobleman / match of this Eind "ould not have

    been at all eFtraordinary # "e have seen that ady

     &ane 0rey, though declared heiress to the cro"n,

    had married ord 0uilford >ary, ueen do"ager

    of 9rance, descended from the bed of ouis BII

    to that of 8harles :randon /ll the royal family

    of )ngland sprang from a private gentleman, named

     udor, "ho had married the daughter of .enry ,

    daughter of 8harles I, Eing of 9rance# and in

    9rance, before its Eings had attained their height

    of po"er, the "ido" of ouis the 9at made no dif-

    %culty of espousing >atthe" de >ontmorency

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    )li?abeth, "hile a prisoner, and under a state of

    continual persecution from her sister >ary,

    employed these moments of her disgrace to the

    noblest purposes# she improved her mind, she

    GK /ncient and >odern .istory

    learned the languages and sciences # but of all the

    arts in "hich she eFcelled, the chief "as that of

    dissimulation, by "hich she Eept fair "ith her sister,

    "ith the 8atholics, and "ith the 'rotestants, and

    learned ho" to reign

    7o sooner "as she proclaimed ueen, than she

    found herself strongly solicited in marriage by her

    brother-in-la", 'hilip II .ad she listened to his

    proposals, 9rance and .olland "ould have been in

    danger of being over"helmed # but she detested

    both the religion and person of 'hilip, and resolved

    to indulge the vanity of being beloved, and the hap-

    piness of being independent .aving been impris-

    oned by a 8atholic sister, her %rst thoughts, upon

    mounting the throne, "ere to restore the 'rotestant

    religion in her Eingdom .o"ever, she permitted

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    a 8atholic bishop to perform the ceremony of her

    coronation, that she might not sour the minds of the

    people at %rst I shall here observe, that she "ent

    from 2estminster to the o"er of ondon in an

    open chariot, follo"ed by a hundred others not

    that coaches "ere at that time in use# it "as only

    an occasional piece of state

    Immediately after her coronation she convoEed a

    parliament, "hich settled the religion of )ngland

    such as it no" is, and vested the supremacy, %rst-

    fruits, and tenths, in the sovereign

    )li?abeth then had the title of supreme head of

    the 8hurch of )ngland 4everal "riters, especially

    the Italians, have thought this a ridiculous dignity

    @ueen )li?abeth G5

    in a "oman# but they might have considered that

    this "oman reigned# that she "as in possession of

    the rights anneFed to the cro"n by the la"s of the

    country# that in former times the sovereigns of all

    the Eno"n nations in the "orld had the superintend-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    ence in religious matters # that the (oman emperors

    "ere sovereign pontiMs# that although at present

    there are several countries "here the 4tate is gov-

    erned by the 8hurch, there are others "here the

    8hurch is governed by the 4tate # and lastly, that

    it is not more ridiculous for a ueen of )ngland to

    have the nomination of an archbishop of 8anter-

    bury, the primate of the "hole Eingdom, and to

    prescribe la"s to him, than for an abbess of 9onte-

    vrault to nominate priors and curates, and give them

    her benediction # in a "ord, that every country has

    its customs

     he 8hurch of )ngland retained "hatever "as

    most solemn and august in the (omish ceremonies,

    and most austere in the utheran discipline I shall

    observe, that out of nine thousand four hundred

    bene%ced clergy, "ho "ere at that time in )ngland,

    there "ere but fourteen bishops, %fty canons, and

    eighty curates, "ho lost their livings for remaining

    8atholics, and refusing to subscribe to the reforma-

    tion 2hen "e reLect that the )nglish nation had

    changed its religion four several times since the

    reign of .enry III , "e are surprised that a people

    "ho enjoy so great liberty, should ever have been

    subdued, or that, possessed of so much resolution,

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    GD /ncient and >odern .istory

    they should ever have been so %cEle he )nglish

    in this resemble those 4"iss cantons, "ho "aited

    for their magistrates to determine "hat should be

    their creed /n act of parliament is everything

    "ith the )nglish# they love the la"s, and there is

    no governing them eFcept by la"s made by a parlia-

    ment "hich pronounces, or seems to pronounce, by

    its o"n authority

    7o one "as persecuted for being a (oman 8ath-

    olic # but those "ho "ent about to disturb the peace

    of the Eingdom, through a principle of conscience,

    "ere severely punished he 0uises, "ho at that

    time made a handle of religion to establish their

    o"n po"er in 9rance, made use of the same methods

    to set their niece, >ary 4tuart, ueen of 4cotland,

    on the )nglish throne >asters of the %nances and

    armies of 9rance, they sent money and troops over

    to 4cotland, under pretence of assisting the 8ath-

    olics of that Eingdom against the 'rotestants >ary

    4tuart, "ho "as married to 9rancis II, Eing of

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    9rance, openly tooE upon her the title of ueen of

    )ngland, as being descended from .enry III /ll

    the )nglish, 4cotch, and Irish 8atholics "ere in her

    interest )li?abeth "as not yet so %rmly settled on

    the throne, but that religious cabals might have

    shaEen her authority .o"ever, she dispersed this

    %rst storm# in 15DC, sent an army to the relief of

    the 4cotch 'rotestants, and obliged the ueen regent

    of 4cotland, >aryJs mother, to consent by treaty to

    @ueen )li?abeth GH

    obey la"s of her dictating, and to send the 9rench

    troops home "ithin t"enty days

    9rancis II dying, she obliged >ary 4tuart to

    drop the title of ueen of )ngland :y her intrigues

    she prevailed upon the 'arliament of )dinburgh to

    establish the reformed religion in 4cotland # and by

    this artful management she brought into her interest

    a country from "hich she had everything to fear

    4carcely "as she freed from these inuietudes,

    "hen she received fresh alarms of a more dangerous

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    Eind from 'hilip II his monarch "as her friend,

    so long as >ary 4tuart, as heiress to )li?abeth, had

    a prospect of uniting in her o"n person the cro"ns

    of 9rance, )ngland, and 4cotland # but 9rancis II

    being no" dead, and his "ido" returned helpless

    to 4cotland, 'hilip had only the 'rotestants to

    fear, and therefore became an implacable enemy to


    .e no" privately raised commotions in Ireland,

    "hich )li?abeth as uicEly suppressed .e pro-

    tected the 8atholic eague in 9rance, "hich proved

    so fatal to the royal family, and she assisted the

    opposite party he republic of .olland found itself

    hard pressed by 'hilipJs forces, and )li?abeth saved

    it from ruin 9ormerly the Eings of )ngland "ere

    "ont to drain their country of men to settle them-

    selves on the throne of 9rance# but interests and

    times "ere no" so changed that the ueen of )ng-

    land sent repeated relief to .enry I to assist him

    in conuering his patrimony 2ith this aid .enry

    G /ncient and >odern .istory

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    at length laid siege to 'aris# and had it not been

    for the duEe of 'arma, or the EingJs eFtreme indul-

    gence to the besieged, he "ould have %Fed the 'rot-

    estant religion in the Eingdom his is "hat )li?a-

    beth had greatly at heart It "as natural for her

    to "ish to see her endeavors succeed, and not to lose

    all the fruits of the great eFpense she had been at

    :esides, she had conceived a mortal aversion to the

    8atholic religion ever since she had been eFcom-

    municated by the t"o popes, 'ius and 4iFtus ,

    "ho had declared her un"orthy and incapable to

    govern # and the more 'hilip II declared himself

    the protector of this religion, the more she became

    its implacable enemy

    7o 'rotestant divine could have been more

    aQicted than )li?abeth "hen she heard that .enry

    I had renounced the reformed doctrines .er let-

    ter to that prince is very remarEable ; +ou oMer me

    your friendship, as to your sister I am certain I

    have deserved it, having paid dearly for it # but of

    this I should not repent, had you not changed your

    father I can no longer be your sister by the fatherJs

    side, for I shall al"ays have a greater aMection for

    my o"n father than for him "ho has adopted you;

     his letter serves at once to sho" her heart, her

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    understanding, and her forcible manner of eFpress-

    ing herself in a foreign language

    7ot"ithstanding this hatred to the (oman 8ath-

    olic religion, it is certain that she did not deal cruelly

    "ith the 8atholics of her Eingdom, as >ary had

    @ueen )li?abeth G$

    done during her reign "ith the 'rotestants It is

    true, that the t"o &esuits, 8reighton and 8ampian,

    "ith some others, "ere hanged, at the same time

    that the duEe of /njou, brother of .enry III, "as

    preparing everything in ondon for his marriage

    "ith the ueen, "hich at length proved abortive #

    but these &esuits "ere unanimously convicted of

    conspiracy and sedition, of "hich they "ere ac-

    cused# and sentence "as given against them upon

    the testimony of "itnesses hey might have fallen

    innocent victims, but then the ueen "as liEe"ise

    innocent of their death, as she acted only by the


    4everal persons in 9rance still imagine that )li?a-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    beth put the earl of )sseF to death; merely from a %t

    of jealousy # and found their belief on a tragedy and

    a novel :ut those "ho have read anything, Eno"

    that the ueen "as at that time seventy-eight years

    of age, and that the earl of )sseF, %nding the ueen

    gro"n old, and hoping that her authority "ould

    decline "ith her years, had been guilty of an act

    of open rebellion, for "hich he "as after"ard tried

    by his peers, "ho passed sentence of death upon him

    and his accomplices

     he more eFact administration of justice during

    )li?abethJs reign than under that of any of her

    predecessors proved one of the %rmest supports of

    her government he revenues of the state "ere

    employed only in its defence

    4he had favorites, but she enriched none of them

    NC /ncient and >odern .istory

    at the eFpense of the nation .er people "ere her

    chief favorites # not that she really loved them, for

    "ho can love the people :ut she "as sensible that

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    her glory and safety depended solely upon behaving

    to"ard them as if she did love them

    )li?abeth "ould have enjoyed an unblemished

    fame had she not sullied a reign, in other respects

    so glorious, by the murder of her rival, >ary 4tu-

    art, a murder "hich she ventured to perpetrate "ith

    the sacred s"ord of justice

    8./')( 8BI

    >/(+,, @=))7 O9 48O4

    I is a diPcult matter to come at the "hole truth in

    disputes bet"een private people, and ho" much

    more so in those of cro"ned heads, "here so many

    secret springs are employed, and "here both parties

    eually maEe use of truth and falsehood, as best

    suits their purpose 8ontemporary "riters are in

    these cases generally suspected of partiality, and are

    for the most part rather advocates on one side, than

    the faithful depositaries of history I must then

    con%ne myself to authenticated facts only, amidst

    the perpleFed accounts given of this important and

    fatal event

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    >ary and )li?abeth "ere rivals in all respects

    they "ere rivals in nations, in cro"ns, in religion, in

    understanding, and in beauty >ary "as far less

    po"erful, and not so much mistress of herself as

    >ary, @ueen of 4cots N 1

    )li?abeth, nor had she her unshaEen resolution and

    depth of politics # in a "ord, she "as superior to her

    only in the charms of her person, "hich contributed

    not a little to her subseuent misfortunes >ary,

    @ueen of 4cots, encouraged the 8atholic faction in

    )ngland, and the ueen of )ngland still more po"-

    erfully supported the 'rotestant party in 4cotland

    )li?abeth gained so much the ascendency by her

    intrigues that for a long time she prevented >ary

    from concluding second nuptials "here she had an


    .o"ever, >ary, in spite of the cabals of her

    rival, and of the 4cottish parliament, "hich "as

    "holly made up of 'rotestants, and headed by her

    brother, the earl of >urray, married .enry 4tuart,

    earl of 6arnley, "ho "as her cousin, and a 8atholic

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    liEe herself )li?abeth upon this tampered in private

    "ith >aryJs principal 'rotestant subjects, and

    eFcited them to taEe up arms >ary pursued the

    rebels in person, and obliged them to retreat into

    )ngland hus far everything seemed to favor

    her and confound her rival

    >ary had a soft and tender heart# this "as the

    beginning of all her misfortunes /n Italian musi-

    cian, named 6avid (i??io, had insinuated himself

    too far into her good graces .e played "ell upon

    several instruments, and had a very agreeable bass

    voice / proof that the Italians "ere at that time

    in possession of the empire of music, and eFercised

    their profession "ith a Eind of eFclusive right in all

    NG /ncient and >odern .istory

    courts, is that >aryJs "hole band "as Italian

    /nother proof that foreign courts maEe an indis-

    criminate use of anyone "ho is in credit, is, that

    this (i??io "as a pensioner to the pope .e "as

    greatly instrumental in the ueenJs marriage "ith

    ord 6arnley, and not less so in that disliEe she

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    after"ard tooE to him 6arnley, "ho had only the

    name of Eing, and sa" himself despised by his "ife,

    gre" incensed and jealous# and one evening "hen

    he Ene" the ueen "as in her apartment, he tooE

    "ith him a fe" armed men, and going up a pair of

    private stairs, entered her chamber, "here she "as

    at supper "ith (i??io and one of the ladies of her

    court hey overturned the table, and sle" (i??io

    before the ueenJs eyes, "ho in vain attempted to

    cover his body "ith her o"n >ary "as at that

    time %ve months gone "ith child the sight of the

    naEed and bloody "eapons made so strong an

    impression on her, that it "as communicated to the

    infant in her "omb his "as &ames I, after-

    "ard Eing of )ngland and 4cotland, "ho "as born

    four months after this melancholy aMair, and "ho

    all his lifetime trembled at the sight of a dra"n

    s"ord, in spite of his utmost endeavors to overcome

    this disposition of his organs 4o great is the force

    of nature, and so po"erfully does she act by "ays

    impenetrable to us R

     he ueen soon resumed her authority, "as recon-

    ciled to the earl of >urray, prosecuted the mur-

    derers of (i??io, and entered into a fresh engage-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    >ary, @ueen of 4cots NN

    ment "ith the earl of :oth"ell hese ne" amours

    produced the death of her husband It is said an

    al tempt "as made to poison him, but that the

    strength of his constitution got the better of the

    drugs they had given him# ho"ever, it is certain

    that he "as murdered in )dinburgh, in a lone house,

    from "hich the ueen had previously removed most

    of her valuable eMects /s soon as the murder "as

    committed, the house "as blo"n up "ith gunpo"-

    der, and the body "as deposited near that of 6avid

    (f??io, in the vault belonging to the royal family

     he parliament and the "hole nation openly

    charged :oth"ell "ith this murder# and, in the

    midst of the general cry for justice, >ary contrived

    to have herself carried oM by this assassin, "hose

    hands "ere yet stained "ith her husbandJs blood,

    and "as after"ard publicly married to him 2hat

    "as most eFtraordinary in this horrid adventure

    "as that :oth"ell had at that time a "ife # and, in

    order to bring about a separation, he obliged her to

    accuse him of adultery, and made the archbishop

    of 4t /ndre"Js pronounce sentence of divorce

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    bet"een them, agreeable to the custom of the


    :oth"ell "as possessed of all that insolence

    "hich attends great "icEedness .e assembled the

    principal noblemen of the Eingdom, and made them

    sign a "riting, by "hich it "as declared, in eFpress

    terms, that the ueen could not dispense "ith marry-

    ing him, as he had carried her a"ay, and had lain

    ol GN

    NK /ncient and >odern .istory

    "ith her /ll these facts are authenticated the let-

    ters "hich >ary is said to have "ritten to :oth"ell

    have indeed been disputed, but they carry such

    strong marEs of truth that there is hardly any

    doubting their reality hese complicated villainies

    eMectually roused the 4cots # >ary "as abandoned

    by her army, and obliged to yield herself prisoner to

    the confederates :oth"ell Led into the OrEneys#

    the ueen "as compelled to resign the cro"n to her

    son, but "as allo"ed to appoint a regent during

    his minority 4he named her brother, the earl of

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    >urray this nobleman, ho"ever, reproached her

    in the bitterest manner "ith her past conduct /t

    length she escaped from her con%nement # >urrayJs

    harsh and severe temper had procured her a ne"

    party In 15D she found means to raise siF thou-

    sand men, but she "as soon defeated and obliged

    to taEe shelter on the )nglish borders )li?abeth

    at %rst gave her an honorable reception at 8arlisle,

    but privately intimated to her that, as she "as

    accused by the public voice of the murder of her

    husband, it behooved her to vindicate herself, and

    that she might depend upon her protection, if she

    should be found innocent

    )li?abeth no" made herself arbiter bet"een >ary

    and the 4cottish regency he regent came in per-

    son to .ampton court, and consented to deposit the

    papers containing the proofs against his sister, in the

    hands of commissioners to be appointed by the ueen

    of )ngland he unfortunate >ary, on the other

    >ary, @ueen of 4cots N5

    hand, "ho "as still detained prisoner in 8arlisle,

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    accused the earl of >urray himself as author of that

    murder "hich he had laid to her charge# and eF-

    cepted to the )nglish commissioners, unless the

    ambassadors of 9rance and 4pain "ere joined "ith

    them 7evertheless, )li?abeth still caused this unac-

    countable trial to be carried on, and indulged herself

    in the cruel pleasure of seeing her rival pine a"ay in

    con%nement, "ithout coming to any determination

    concerning her fate 4he "as not >aryJs judge, she

    o"ed her an asylum, but she caused her to be

    removed to e"Eesbury, "here she "as little better

    than a prisoner

     hese disasters of the royal house of 4cotland

    "ere reLected upon the nation, "hich "as rent by

    factions that arose from anarchy he earl of >ur-

    ray "as murdered by one of these factions, "hich

    sheltered itself under the authority of >aryJs name

    /fter this murder, the insurgents entered )ngland,

    and laid "aste the borders "ith %re and s"ord

    In 15HC )li?abeth sent an army to chastise these

    disturbers of the peace, and Eeep 4cotland in a"e

    4he liEe"ise had the regency of that Eingdom given

    to the earl of enoF, brother of the murdered Eing

     hus far she acted according to the rules of justice

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    and true greatness /t the same time a conspiracy

    "as formed in )ngland for delivering >ary from

    her con%nement, and 'ope 'ius very indiscreetly

    caused a bull to be published in ondon, by "hich

    he eFcommunicated )li?abeth, and released her sub-

    ND /ncient and >odern .istory

     jects from their oath of allegiance his step, "hich

    "as intended to deliver >ary, only hastened her

    do"nfall he t"o ueens entered into mutual

    negotiations# the one from her throne, and the

    other from a prison >ary does not seem to have

    behaved "ith that LeFibility "hich the situation of

    her aMairs reuired 4cotland at this time "as

    "eltering in blood# the 8atholics and 'rotestants

    had raised a civil "ar in the Eingdom he 9rench

    ambassador and the archbishop of 4t /ndre"Js

    "ere made prisoners, the latter of "hom "as hanged

    upon the evidence of his o"n confessor, "ho s"ore

    that this prelate had accused himself to him of

    being an accomplice in the murder of the late Eing

    It "as >aryJs greatest misfortune to have a num-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    ber of friends in her disgrace he duEe of 7or-

    folE, "ho "as a 8atholic, "anted to marry her in

    hope of a revolution, and recEoning on >aryJs right

    of succession to )li?abeth 4everal parties "ere

    formed in her favor in ondon, "hich "ere "eaE

    indeed, but "ere capable of being strengthened by

    forces from 4pain, and the intrigues of the court of

    (ome hese machinations, ho"ever, cost the duEe

    of 7orfolE his head, in 15HG .e "as sentenced

    to die by his peers for having solicited aid from

    the pope and the Eing of 4pain, in >aryJs behalf

     he duEe of 7orfolEJs death rivetted this unhappy

    princessJs chains # her long misfortunes had not yet

    discouraged those of her party in ondon, "ho "ere

    >ary, @ueen of 4cots NH

    strongly supported by the princess of 0uise, the

    pope, the &esuits, and the court of 4pain

     he great point in vie" "as to set >ary at liberty,

    and place her on the )nglish throne, and "ith her

    restore the 8atholic religion / conspiracy "as

    formed against )li?abeth 'hilip had already begun

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    to prepare for his invasion he ueen of )ngland

    caused fourteen of the conspirators to be put to

    death, and brought >ary, "ho "as her eual, to a

    public trial, as if she had been her subject 9orty-

    t"o members of parliament and %ve of the judges

    "ere sent to eFamine her in 9otheringay castle # she

    protested against their proceedings, and refused to

    maEe any reply 7ever "as trial so irregularly

    carried on, nor sentence so cruelly passed # she "as

    presented only "ith copies of her letters, and no

    originals hey made use of the depositions of her

    secretaries, "ithout confronting them "ith her # they

    pretended to convict her upon the evidence of three

    conspirators, "ho had been eFecuted, though their

    sentence should have been deferred till they had

    been eFamined in >aryJs presence In a "ord,

    though they had even proceeded "ith all the forms

    "hich justice reuires for the lo"est of the peo-

    ple, had they proved that >ary solicited for aid and

    revenge "herever she had a prospect o succeeding,

    they could not "ith euity have pronounced her

    criminal )li?abeth had no other jurisdiction over

    her than that of the strong over the "eaE and unfor-


  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    N /ncient and >odern .istory

    /t length, after eighteen yearsJ imprisonment, in

    a country "hich she had imprudently chosen for an

    asylum, >ary "as beheaded, on 9eb G, 15H, in

    an apartment of the prison hung "ith blacE )li?a-

    beth "as sensible that she had committed a base act,

    but she added to the odium of it by attempting to

    impose upon the public "ho "ere not, ho"ever,

    to be so deceived "ith an aMectation of sorro"

    for a person "hom she had put to death, by pretend-

    ing that her ministers had eFceeded her orders, and

    by imprisoning the secretary of state, "ho, she said,

    had been too precipitate in eFecuting a "arrant

    signed by herself )urope detested her cruelty and

    dissimulation .er reign "as esteemed, but her

    character "as held in abhorrence :ut "hat renders

    her still more condemnable is her not having been

    forced to this barbarity It may even be said, that

    in >aryJs person she had a security against the

    attempts of her adherents

     hough this action be an indelible stain upon the

    memory of )li?abeth, it is a fanatical "eaEness to

    canoni?e >ary 4tuart as a martyr to religion# she

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    "as only a martyr to adultery, to the murder of her

    husband, and to her o"n imprudence In her

    failings and misfortunes she perfectly resembled

     &oan of 7aples# they "ere both handsome and

    sprightly, both, through the frailty of their seF,

    dra"n to commit an atrocious deed, and both put to

    death by their relatives .istory freuently pre-

    sents us "ith a repetition of the same misfortunes,

    9rance =nder 9rancis II N$

    the same Lagitious deeds, and one crime punished

    by another

    8./')( 8BII

    9(/78), O2/(6 .) )76 O9 .) 4IB))7. 8)7-

     =(+, =76)( 9(/78I4 II

    2.I) all )urope "as alarmed at the eFcessive

    po"er of 4pain, and )ngland made the second %g-

    ure by opposing that monarchy, 9rance had gro"n

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    "eaE, divided into factions, and in danger of being

    dismembered, so that it "as far from having any

    inLuence or credit in )urope he civil "ars of this

    Eingdom had reduced it to a state of dependence on

    all its neighbors hose times of fury, abjectness,

    and misery have furnished more matter for history

    than is contained in all the (oman annals /nd

    "hat "ere the causes of all those misfortunes

    (eligion, ambition, the "ant of good la"s, and a


    .enry II, by his severity against the sectaries,

    and especially by the condemnation of the counsellor

    of parliament, /nne du :ourg, "ho "as eFecuted

    after the EingJs death by order of the 0uises, made

    more 8alvinists in 9rance than there "ere in all

    4"it?erland and 0eneva .ad these people made

    their appearance in a time liEe that of ouis BII,

    "hen the court of 9rance "as at "ar "ith the papal

    see, they might possibly have met "ith some indul-

    gence # but they appeared precisely at the time "hen

    KC /ncient and >odern .istory

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    .enry II stood in need of 'ope 'aul I, to assist

    him in disputing possession of 7aples and 4icily

    "ith 4pain, and "hile these t"o po"ers "ere in

    alliance "ith the urE against the house of /ustria

    It "as therefore thought necessary to sacri%ce them

     he clergy, "ho "ere po"erful at court, and "ere

    in fear of losing their temporalities and authority,

    persecuted them # and policy, interest, and ?eal, con-

    curred in their ruin he state might have tolerated

    them, as )li?abeth tolerated the 8atholics in )ng-

    land, and have preserved a number of good subjects

    by allo"ing them liberty of conscience It "ould

    have been of little concern to the government in

    "hat manner they performed their devotion, pro-

    vided they submitted themselves to the established

    la"s "hereas, by persecuting them, they made

    them rebels

     he untimely fate of .enry II "as the signal

    of thirty years of civil "ars /n infant Eing gov-

    erned by foreigners, and the jealousy of the princes

    of the blood and high oPcers of the cro"n against

    the family of 0uise, on account of their great

    credit in the Eingdom, began the subversion of


  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


     he famous conspiracy of /mboise "as the %rst

    of the Eind "e hear of in this country o form

    leagues, and then breaE them, to pass hastily from

    one eFtreme to another, to be violent in their pas-

    sions and sudden in their repentance, seemed hith-

    erto to have formed the character of the 0auls, "ho,

    9rance =nder 9rancis II K1

    "hen they tooE the name of 9ranEs, and after"ard

    of 9rench, did not change their manners :ut in

    this conspiracy there "as a degree of boldness "hich

    eualled that of 8atiline, "ith an artful manage-

    ment, a depth of contrivance, and a profound secrecy

    liEe that of the 4icilian espers, or the 'a??i of

    9lorence ouis, prince of 8onde, "as the soul that

    secretly animated this plot, but in so artful a man-

    ner, that though all 9rance "as convinced that he

    "as at the head of it, no one could positively convict

    him of being so

    It "as peculiar to this conspiracy, that it "as in

    one sense eFcusable, as being undertaEen to "rest

    the government out of the hands of 9rancis, duEe

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    of 0uise, and his brother, the cardinal of orraine,

    "ho "ere both foreigners, and held the Eing in sub-

     jection, the nation in slavery, and the princes of the

    blood and oPcers of the cro"n at a distance # and in

    another highly criminal, as it attacEed the rights of

    a Eing "ho "as at age, and empo"ered by the la"s

    to choose the depositaries of his authority

    It has never been proved that there "as any

    design of Eilling the 0uises# but as they "ould

    doubtless have made a resistance, their deaths "ere

    inevitable 9ive hundred gentlemen, all "ell sec-

    onded, and a thousand resolute soldiers, headed by

    thirty chosen captains, "ere all to assemble from

    the several provinces of the Eingdom on an

    appointed day at /mboise, "here the court then Eept

    its residence 3ings "ere not in those times sur-

    KG /ncient and >odern .istory

    rounded by so numerous a guard as they are at pres-

    ent he regiment of guards "as not formed till the

    reign of 8harles IB "o hundred archers "ere

    the most that attended 9rancis II, the other Eings

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    of )urope had no more 2hen the constable of

    >ontmorency came to Orleans, "here the 0uises

    had placed a ne" guard about the court upon the

    death of 9rancis II he dismissed the ne"ly raised

    soldiers, and threatened to have them all hanged as

    enemies to the state, "ho planted a barrier bet"een

    the Eing and his people

     he simplicity of the ancient times still continued

    in the palaces of our Eings, but they "ere by this

    means more eFposed to resolute attempts It "as

    an easy matter to sei?e the royal family, the min-

    isters, and even the Eing himself there "as almost

    a certainty of success he secret "as Eept invio-

    lable by all the conspirators for nearly siF months #

    at length it "as discovered by the indiscretion of one

    of the chiefs, named de la (enaudie, "ho divulged it

    in con%dence to a la"yer of 'aris, "ho eFposed the

    "hole plot, "hich, nevertheless, "as carried into

    eFecution In 15DC the conspirators met at the place

    appointed as if nothing had happened # religious

    enthusiasm furnished them "ith a desperate obsti-

    nacy hese gentlemen "ere for the most part

    8alvinists, "ho made a duty of avenging their per-

    secuted brethren ouis, prince of 8onde, had

    openly embraced the ne" doctrine, because the duEe

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    of 0uise and the cardinal of orraine "ere 8ath-

    9rance =nder 9rancis II KN

    olics his attempt "as set on foot to bring about a

    revolution in 8hurch and 4tate

     he 0uises had hardly time to get together a body

    of troops here "ere not %fteen thousand men

    enrolled in all the Eingdom but they soon mustered

    a suPcient number to eFterminate the conspirators,

    "ho, as they arrived in detached parties, "ere easily

    defeated 6e la (enaudie "as Eilled %ghting, and

    many others died liEe him, "ith their arms in their

    hands hose "ho "ere taEen died by the hands of

    eFecutioners, and, for a "hole month nothing "as

    to be seen in 'aris but bloody scaMolds, and gibbets

    loaded "ith dead bodies

     he conspiracy thus discovered, and the authors

    of it punished, only served to increase the po"er

    it "as meant to overthro" 9rancis de 0uise "as

    invested "ith the authority of the ancient mayors

    of the palace, under the title of lieutenant-general

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    of the Eingdom :ut this very authority, and the

    restless ambition of his brother, the cardinal, "ho

    endeavored to introduce the Inuisition into 9rance,

    stirred up all ranEs in the Eingdom against them,

    and proved the sources of fresh troubles

     he 8alvinists, "ho "ere still privately encour-

    aged by the prince of 8onde, tooE up arms in several

    provinces he po"er of the 0uises must certainly

    have been very formidable, seeing that neither

    8onde nor his brother, /nthony, Eing of 7avarre,

    father of .enry I, nor the famous admiral 8ol-

    igny, nor his brother dJ/ndelot, colonel-general of

    KK /ncient and >odern .istory

    the infantry, dared to declare themselves openly

     he prince of 8onde "as the %rst head of a party

    that ever seemed to "age civil "ar "ith fear and

    apprehension# he seemed ready to striEe a blo",

    and "ould after"ard dra" bacE again # and, imag-

    ining that he could al"ays Eeep fair "ith a court

    that he meant to destroy, he "as so imprudent as to

    go to 9ontainebleau in the character of a courtier,

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    "hen he should have been in that of a general at

    the head of his party he 0uises caused him to

    be arrested at Orleans, and arraigned before the

    privy council and commissioners chosen out of the

    parliament, not"ithstanding his privilege as a prince

    of the blood eFempted him from being tried by any

    but the court of peers, and the parliament assembled

    :ut "hat avails privilege against superior strength #

    or "hat indeed "as privilege of "hich there had

    been no precedent but in the violation of it, in the

    case of the criminal process formerly issued against

    the duEe dJ/lengon

     he prince of 8onde then "as condemned to be

    beheaded he famous chancellor de J.DpRtal, a

    noble legislator, at a time "hen good la"s "ere

    most "anted, and an intrepid philosopher, in an age

    of enthusiasm and fury, refused to sign the sen-

    tence his eFample of undaunted courage "as

    follo"ed by the count de 4ancerre, one of the

    privy council 7evertheless the decree "as going

    to be published, and the prince of 8onde "as on

    the point of falling by the hand of the eFecutioner,

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    9rance =nder 8harles IB K5

    "hen suddenly the young Eing, 9rancis II, "ho

    had been ill for a long time, and "as in%rm from

    his cradle, died at the age of seventeen, leaving

    his brother 8harles, "ho "as then only ten, an

    eFhausted Eingdom, rent in pieces by factions

     he death of 9rancis proved the deliverance of

    8onde # he "as presently released from his con-

    %nement, after a feigned reconciliation had been

    eMected bet"een him and the 0uises, "hich "as no

    more than the seal of revenge and hatred, as indeed

    "hat else could it be he estates "ere no" assem-

    bled at Orleans, "ithout "hom nothing could be

    done in such a situation of aMairs hese estates

    conferred the guardianship of the young Eing,

    8harles IB, and the government of the Eingdom on

    8atherine de >edici, but not under the name of

    regent # they did not even give her the title of

    majesty, "hich had but very lately been assumed

    by Eings here are several letters from 4ieur de

    :ourdeilles to .enry III, in "hich he styles that

    prince ; +our highness;

    8./')( 8BII

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    9(/78) 6=(I70 .) >I7O(I+ O9 8./()4 IB /76

     .) ()I07 O9 .)7(+ III

    6=(I70 every royal minority, the ancient constitu-

    tion of a Eingdom al"ays recovers some part of its

    vigor, at least for a time, liEe a family assembled

    together upon the death of the father / general

    KD /ncient and >odern .istory

    assembly of the states "as held at Orleans, and

    after"ard at 'ontoise these estates deserve to

    have their memories preserved, for the perpetual

    separation they made bet"een the s"ord and the

    long robe his distinction "as unEno"n in the

    (oman )mpire, even to the time of 8onstantine^

    their magistrates understood ho" to conduct armies*

    and their generals could decide causes he s"ord

    and the la" "ere, in liEe manner, lodged in the

    same hands in almost all the nations of )urope, till

    to"ard the beginning of the fourteenth century

    ittle by little these t"o professions "ere separated

    in 4pain and 9rance# though not absolutely so in

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    the atter, not"ithstanding the parliaments "ere

    composed only of the gentlemen of the long robe

     he jurisdiction of the bailiMs, "ho "ere s"ords-

    men, still continued the same as it "as in several

    of the provinces of 0ermany, and on the frontiers

    of that empire he estates of Orleans, convinced

    that the s"ordsmen could not con%ne themselves

    to the study of the la", tooE from them the admin-

    istration of justice, and conferred it on the go"ns-

    men, "ho "ere before only their lieutenants, or

    deputies hus they, "ho from their original institu-

    tion had al"ays been judges, ceased to be so any


     he famous chancellor de J.opital had the

    principal share in bringing about this change, "hich

    "as eMected at the time of the nationJs greatest

    "eaEness, and has since contributed to strengthen

    9rance =nder 8harles IB KH

    the hands of the sovereigns, by dividing forever

    t"o professions "hich might, if united, have formed

    a po"erful counterpoise to the authority of the min-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    istry 4ome have thought since, that the nobles

    could not preserve the charge of the la"s intrusted

    to them# but they should reLect that the )nglish

    house of lords, "hich is composed of the only nobles

    properly so called in that Eingdom, is a %Fed body

    of magistracy, "ho maEe the la"s and administer

     justice 2hen "e see these great changes in the

    constitution of a state, and observe other neighbor-

    ing governments "ho have not undergone these

    changes in the same circumstances, "e may evi-

    dently conclude that the manners and genius of

    these people must have been diMerent from those of

    the former

    /t this assembly of the general estates, it

    appeared ho" very faulty the administration had

    been he Eing "as indebted for over forty millions

    of livres# money "as "anted, and there "as none

    to be had # this "as the true cause of the troubles

    of 9rance .ad 8ath^ine de >edici had "here-

    "ithal to purchase good servants, and pay an army,

    the diMerent factions "hich distracted the state

    might have been easily Eept under by the royal

    authority he ueen-mother found herself placed

    bet"een the 8atholics and the 'rotestants, the

    8ondes and the 0uises 8onstable de >ontmorency

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    "as at the head of a separate faction 6ivision

    reigned in the court, the city, and the provinces

    K /ncient and >odern .istory

    8atherine could only negotiate, instead of reigning

    .er maFim of dividing all parties, that she might

    be sole mistress, increased the troubles and misfor-

    tunes of the state 4he began by appointing a con-

    ference to be held bet"een the 8atholics and the

    'rotestants at 'oissy, "hich "as subjecting the old

    religion to arbitration, and giving a great degree of

    credit to the 8alvinist party, by setting them up

    as disputants against those "ho thought themselves

    rather entitled to be their judges

    /t this time, "hen heodore :e?a and other

    'rotestant divines came to 'oissy, in order to main-

    tain their doctrines in a public manner before the

    ueen and a court "ho as publicly sang >arotJs

    psalms, 8ardinal 9errara arrived in 9rance as legate

    from 'ope 'aul I, but being a grandson of

    /leFander I, by the motherJs side, he "as more

    despised on account of his birth, than respected for

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    his place and merit # insomuch, that his cross-bearer

    "as insulted even by the lacEeys of the court 'rints

    of his grandfather "ere %Fed up in the public places

    through "hich he "as to pass, "ith an account of

    the "icEed and scandalous actions of his life he

    legate brought "ith him one aine?, general of the

    order of &esuits, "ho did not understand a "ord

    of 9rench, and disputed at the conference in Italian,

    "hich tongue 8atherine de >edici had made famil-

    iar to the court, and it began to have a considerable

    inLuence on the 9rench language itself his &esuit

    had the boldness to tell the ueen at the conference,

    9rance =nder 8harles IB K$

    that she had no right to call this assembly, and that

    in so doing she had usurped the popeJs authority

    7evertheless, he disputed in this assembly "hich

    he found fault "ith, and said, in speaEing of the

    eucharist, that 0od "as in place of the bread and

    "ine, liEe a Eing "ho maEes himself his o"n ambas-

    sador his childish comparison eFcited a smile

    of contempt, as his insolent behavior to the ueen

    did the general indignation riLing things some-

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    times occasion great mischiefs # and in the situation

    of minds at that time, everything helped the cause

    of the ne" religion

     he conseuence of this conference, and of the

    intrigues that follo"ed it, "as the issuing of an

    edict, in &anuary, 15DG, permitting the 'rotestants

    to have preaching places "ithout the city, and this

    edict of paci%cation proved the source of the civil

    "ars he duEe of 0uise, though removed from

    his post of lieutenant-general of the Eingdom, still

    "anted to be its master he "as already connected

    "ith 'hilip II, and "as looEed upon by the people

    as the protector of the 8atholic religion he

    grandees in those times never travelled "ithout a

    numerous retinue# and not as they do no", in a

    post-chaise "ith t"o or three footmen only# they

    "ere al"ays attended by a hundred horsemen this

    "as all their magni%cence, for three or four of them

    lay in one bed# and "hen they "ere in "aiting at

    court, they had only a sorry apartment to live in,

    "ithout any other furniture than a fe" chests he

    ol GK

  • 8/20/2019 Voltaire XXVIII


    5C /ncient and >odern .istory

    duEe of 0uise, as he "as going through assy, a

    to"n on the borders of 8hampagne, came upon some

    8alvinists, "ho, in conseuence of the privilege

    granted them by the edict, "ere singing psalms after

    their manner, in a barn .is servants fell upon

    and insulted these poor people, Eilled about siFty of

    them, and "ounded and dispersed the rest =pon

    this there "as a general rising of the 'rotestants in

    almost every part of the Eingdom, and the nation

    became divided bet"een the prince of 8onde and

    the duEe of 0uise 8atherine de >edici Luctuated

    bet"een both # nothing "as seen on all sides but

    Eilling and plundering he ueen "as then at

    'aris "ith the Eing, her son, "here, %nding herself

    deprived of all authority, she "rote to the prince

    of 8onde to come to her deliverance his fatal

    letter "as an order for continuing the civil "ar,

    "hich "as prosecuted "ith the greatest inhumanity

    )very to"n "as a forti%ed post, and every street a

    %eld of battle

    On one side "ere the duEe of 0uise and his

    brother, united by convenience "ith the faction of

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    8onstable de >ontmorency, "ho "as master of the

    EingJs person on the other, the prince of 8onde,

     joined by the 8oligny party /nthony, Eing of

    7avarre, the %rst prince of the blood, a "eaE and

    irresolute man, "ho Ene" not of "hat religion or

    party he "as# jealous of his brother 8onde, and

    obliged to serve against his "ill the duEe of 0uise,

    "hom he detested, "as dragged to the siege of

    9rance =nder 8harles IB 51

    (ouen, together "ith the ueen-mother, 8atherine de

    >edici # he "as Eilled at this siege, and deserves a

    place in history on no other account than that of

    being father of the great .enry I

     he "ar, "hich continued "ithout interruption

    till the peace of ervins, "as carried on after much

    the same manner as in the times of anarchy, at the

    decline of the second race, and the beginning of

    the third here "ere fe" regular troops on either

    side, eFcepting some companies of men at arms,

    belonging to the principal chiefs 'lunder "as their

    only pay# and all that the 'rotestant faction could

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    scrape together they employed in bringing over

    0erman troops to complete the destruction of the

    Eingdom he Eing of 4pain on his side sent some

    fe" soldiers to the 8atholics, in order to feed a

    Lame "hich he hoped to turn to his o"n advantage,

    and thirteen 4panish companies marched to the

    relief of >ontlu in 4aintonge hese "ere, "ith-

    out contradiction, the most fatal times that the

    9rench monarchy had ever eFperienced

     he %rst pitched battle bet"een the 8atholics and

    the (eformed "as fought near 6reuF in 15DG,

    "herein not only 9renchman engaged against

    9renchman, but the royal infantry "as chieLy com-

    posed of 4"iss, as the 'rotestant army "as of 0er-

    mans his battle "as remarEable by both gen-

    erals being made prisoners# >ontmorency, "ho

    commanded the EingJs army in uality of con-

    and the prince of 8onde, "j^p "as at the hearS

    5G /ncient and >odern .istory

    of the reformed army he duEe of 0uise, "ho "as

    second in command to the constable, gained the bat-

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    and "atched an opportunity to stab the duEe of

    0uise in the bacE .e had the impudence to charge

    /dmiral de 8oligny and heodore de :e?a "ith hav-

    9rance =nder 8harles IB 5N

    ing at least connived at his design # but he varied so

    much in his depositions that he destroyed his o"n

    imposture 8oligny even oMered to go to 'aris to

    be confronted "ith this miscreant, and reuested the

    ueen to suspend the eFecution till the truth could

    be cleared up It must be acEno"ledged that the

    admiral, though the leader of a faction, had never

    been guilty of the least action that could "arrant

    a suspicion of such blacE treachery

    It "as not suPcient that the 4paniards, 0ermans,

    and 4"iss "ere called in to help the 9rench destroy

    each other# the )nglish "ere also sent for to join

    in the general ruin hree thousand of them had

    been introduced by the .uguenots into .avre-de-

    0race, a seaport to"n built by 9rancis I, but 8on-

    stable de >ontmorency, "ho had been eFchanged for

    the prince of 8onde, after great diPculty drove

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    them out again hese troubles "ere no" suc-

    ceeded by a momentary peace# 8onde "as recon-

    ciled to the court, but his brother, the admiral, still

    continued at the head of a po"erful party in the


    In the meantime 8harles IB, having attained the

    age of thirteen years and one day, held his court of

     justice, not in the 'arliament of 'aris, but in that

    of (ouen# and it is remarEable that his mother,

    "hen she resigned her commission of regent,

    Eneeled to him

     here "as a scene on this occasion "hich is

    entirely "ithout eFample Odet de 8hatillon, car-

    5K /ncient and >odern .istory

    dinal bishop of :eauvais, had, liEe his brother,

    changed to the reformed religion, and had taEen a

    "ife he pope strucE him out of the list of car-

    dinals, and he himself eFpressed a contempt for the

    title# but, in order to brave the pope, he assisted

    at the ceremony in his cardinalJs habit# his "ife

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    "as allo"ed to be seated in presence of the Eing and

    ueen, as the "ife of a peer of the realm # and "as

    sometimes called ;the countess of :eauvais,; and

    sometimes ; the cardinalJs lady;

    9rance "as full of absurdities eually great he

    confusion of the civil "ars had destroyed all Eind

    of government and decency he church livings

    "ere almost all in the possession of laymen# an

    abbey or a bishopric "as given as a marriage por-

    tion "ith a daughter but these irregularities, no"

    gro"n customary, "ere all forgotten in the bosom

    of peace, the greatest of all blessings he .ugue-

    nots, "ho "ere allo"ed the eFercise of their religion,

    though they "ere still upon their guard, remained

    uiet # and the prince of 8onde joined in the diver

    sions of the court :ut this calm "as of short dura-

    tion# the .uguenot party insisted on too many

    sureties, and the government granted them too fe"

     he prince of 8onde "anted a share in the admin-

    istration # the cardinal of orraine, chief of a po"-

    erful and numerous house, aimed at holding the

    %rst post in the state# 8onstable de >ontmorency,

    "ho "as an enemy to this family, retained his

    po"er, and shared in the authority of the court#

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    9rance =nder 8harles IB 55

    the 8oligny and other .uguenot chiefs prepared

    to oppose the house of orraine )veryone strove

    to have a share in dismembering the state# the

    8atholic clergy on one side, and the 'rotestant min-

    isters on the other, set up the cry of religion 0od

    "as their pretence# a thirst for rule, their 0od#

    and the people, intoFicated "ith fanaticism, "ere at

    once the instruments and the victims of the ambi-

    tion of all these opposite factions

     he prince of 8onde, "ho had attempted to res-

    cue young 9rancis II from the hands of the 0uises

    at /mboise, no" endeavored to get 8harles IB

    into his o"n po"er, and taEe the city of >eauF from

    8onstable de >ontmorency his ouis of 8onde

    made eFactly the same "ar, "ith the same strata-

    gems and on the same pretences religion

    eFcepted "hich his namesaEe, ouis the 0reat,

    prince of 8onde, did after"ard during the disputes

    of the eague On 7ov 1C, 15DH, the prince and

    the admiral fought the battle of 4t 6enis against

    the constable, "ho "as mortally "ounded, in the

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    eightieth year of his age .e "as a man eually

    intrepid at court and in the %eld, possessed of great

    virtues and great faults, unfortunate as a genera