Wake Vortex X-band radar monitoring : Paris-CDG airport 2008

  • View
    217

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Text of Wake Vortex X-band radar monitoring : Paris-CDG airport 2008

  • Wake Vortex X-band radar monitoring :Paris-CDG airport 2008 CampaignResults & PerspectivesThales Air systems, Strategy Technology & Innovation Dept.F. Barbaresco

  • Short Summary of Wake Vortex Radar Campaigns

  • Thales Air Systems Division3

    USA :During 90s different Radar trials have been made in US for wake vortex monitoring in clear Air with positive results for different bands.

    EUROPE :UK, GEC-MARCONI (1992) : detection at Range R = 2.8 Km with an S-band Radar (3 GHz) (DX 04 Radar Campaign)France, CNRS/CRPE (1992): detection at Range R = 0.5 Km with an UHF-band Radar (961 MHz) (PROUST Radar campaign)

    WAKE VORTEX RADAR CAMPAIGNS

    DX04 S-band radarAN/MPS-39

    C-band radar

    Proust UHF Band Radar

    Wake Vortex Reflectivity was flat as a function of frequency

  • Thales Air Systems Division4

    CLEAR AIR RADAR REFLECTIVITY OF WAKE VORTEXTests have revealed radar echoes in clear air.

    Two mechanisms causing refractive index gradients are :Radial Pressure (and therefore density) gradient in a columnar vortex arisingfrom the rotational flow :

    Adiabatic transport of atmospheric fluid within a descending oval surrounding a vortex pair :

    Particulates were not involved (not f4 Rayleigh scattering) .The frequency dependence was not the Kolmogorov f1/3

    The role of Engine Exhaust :RCS doesnt change when the engine run at idle or full powerExhaust diameter yields a partial pressure of vapour and a contribution which is much smaller than that due to temperature.

    =

    +

    +

    =

    K(K) , Tmperature T : the tepourf water vaure (mb) otial press : the par; Pf dry air ure (mb) otial press : the parP

    GHzbelow equencies air for fr of humid tive indexn : refracwith

    TP..

    TP.

    TP.).(n

    va

    vva

    288

    20

    107763864677101 256

    [ ]

    +===

    ++=

    va

    --

    zsat

    PPe, and Pnd Altitudz : Desceer) (in Ws.-s.r) N (in Summes.el : Nat Sea Lev

    ter)ion parametratificatequency (sVisl FrN : Brnt-with

    (z)T...

    (z)P)(T(z)PRHz

    g(z)N.(z)n(z)n

    int0300200140

    1049377622310~

    111

    626

  • Operational Needs for Wake Vortex Monitoring

  • Thales Air Systems Division6

    WAKE VORTEX MONITORING IN CRITICAL AREASWake Vortex should be monitored In critical Areas (where

    % of occurences is high) :Very Close to the Ground (0 to 400 ft)Glide Path Intercept (3000 to 4000 ft)

    These Critical Areas should be monitored in All Weather conditions (Wet & Dry conditions, Fog, Rain,)

    FiguresFromNATS

    VoluntaryReporting

    Critical Area 1 :Very close to the Ground

    Critical Area 2 :Glide Path Intercept

  • Thales Air Systems Division7

    Wake Vortex behaviours very close to the ground have very complex causes that could change abrutly (e.g. Wind Squall or Fall,) : Need for Real Time Monitoring

    Ground Effect :

    Wind Shear :

    Transport :

    vortices

    Secondary vortices

    Wake Vortex Monitoring very close to the Ground

  • THALES X-BAND RADAR TRIALS

  • Thales Air Systems Division9

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THALES X-BAND BOR-A550 RADAR

    Main FiguresFrequency : X Band (9.6 GHz for ORLY Campaign)Minimal Range : 400 mMaximal Range : 40 Km (limited to 2 km for WV)Range Resolution : 40 mMechanical Tilt : +/- 24Beam Width (elevation/azimut): 4/2.7Radial Velocity Range : +/- 26 m/sDoppler Resolution (& High Resolution) : 0.2 m/s

    (0.04m/s)Mechanical Scan Rate : 8/s (sur 45 pour ORLY)Peak transmit power: ClassifiedData Link : RS232 (x2), RS432 (x2), EthernetRecording System : All range cellsexternal link Ethernet 20 Gb/s

    PRF = 3348 HzF=9.6 GHz

    Vamb = .PRF/2Vamb = 52.31 m/s

    (+/-26 m/s)

    =c/F=3.125 cm

  • Thales Air Systems Division10

    Radar Sensor Campaigns funded by THALES2006 : Paris Orly Airport (Runway Monitoring)

    From Mode S site (500 m from runway)Wake Vortex Monitoring during departuresWeather conditions : Winter (clear air, rain)

    2007 : Paris Orly Airport (Glide Path Monitoring)From Thales Limours Testbed TowerWake Vortex Monitoring during arrivals (Glide PathIntercept)Weather Conditions : Autumn (highly turbulent atmosphere)

    2008 : Paris CDG Airport (CSPR Monitoring)From Kbis Tower co-localized with Eurocontrol Lidar (2 m Windtracer)Wake Vortex Monitoring during arrivals/departures on Closely Spaced Parallel runwaysWeather Conditions : Summer (very hot, rain)

    Orly 2006

    Orly 2007

    CDG 2008

  • Thales Air Systems Division11

    X-band Radar Sensor for Safety Case & Operational UseWake Vortex Monitoring in All Weather Conditions (light

    to heavy rain, fog, turbulent atmosphere,)Operational Use to track Wake Vortex (transport, decay, rebound) in extreme weather conditions :

    Wind burst (wind under Cb, turbulent atmosphere, wind shear)No Wind (foggy weather,)

    Use for Safety Case by Data Collection :Risks Assessment according to extreme wind conditions and no longer on mean wind conditionsNeed for Wake Vortex Data in exhaustive cases of airport climatology (good/bad weather)

    Fast Monitoring of very large volume (radar scanning) with high update rate (e.g. : 8/s with mechanical scanning of BOR-A radar)Highly sensitivity of Radar : monitoring of Wake Vortex for medium (high % of A320) aircrafts and not only heavy / super heavy (requested for traffic mix of very light jets )

  • Thales Air Systems Division12

    LIDAR & RADAR WAKE VORTEX DOPPLER SIGNATURE

    AngularRadar resolution

    Doppler radarsignature

    Doppler Lidarsignature

    LIDAR WAKE VORTEX DETECTION

    Post-processingNeeded for Wind

    Inversion detection

  • ORLY Airport Radar Campaign 2006

  • Thales Air Systems Division14

    Radar (& Lidar Wind Profiler) Site at Paris Orly Airport

    WLS7 LidarWind Profiler

    THALESBORA-550

    Radar

  • Thales Air Systems Division15

    Wake Vortex Detection in All weather Conditions

    No Rain

    Minimum Temperature 8

    Maximum Temperature 14 Rain Rate 0 mmWind Speed 22 km/hWind Direction : South

    Rain

    Minimum Temperature 9

    Maximum Temperature 12

    Rain Rate 1.19 mmWind Speed 20 km/h

    Wind Direction South-East

    RCS of Medium Aircraft Wake Vortex : 0.01 m2 S/N 15 dB (Range = 600 m)

    NO RAIN RAIN

  • Thales Air Systems Division16

    WAKE VORTEX PROFILING : RADAR DOPPLER ANALYSIS

    Speed Variance of Rain can measure

    EDR & TKE(air turbulence)

    Time (s)

    0 m/s

    +/-26 m/s

    0 m/s

    Tangential SpeedVersus Radius

    SpiralGeometry

    Cross-Wind Speed

    +===

    VVbbr

    ddraer rb

    1log

    21

  • Thales Air Systems Division17

    WAKE VORTEX PROFILING : WAKE VORTEX AGEPositive

    Time/Dopplerslopes

    ZeroTime/Doppler

    slopes

    NegativeTime/Doppler

    slopesLow speedNegative

    Time/Dopplerslopes

  • Thales Air Systems Division18

    Wake Vortex Detection in Clear Air at 7 Km

    Recording conditions29th November '06

    scanning modescan angle 45scan rate 8/slong transmit pulsedistance up to 7 kmwithout rain

    Win

    d

    7000 m

    45

    Line of sight

  • Thales Air Systems Division19

    Wake Vortex Circulation Computation

    [ ] 323 2. /i )S(Vmomentndk=

    [ ]

    [ ]

    max

    min

    max

    min

    3/2

    3/22

    )(

    )(2

    V

    Vii

    V

    Viii

    dVVS

    dVVSV

    Wake Vortex Doppler Frequencies Extraction(Pre-Processing : CFAR on Doppler axis)

  • Thales Air Systems Division20

    Advanced Processing Chain: 3 PatentsDoppler & Image Processing

    For Wake VortexMonitoring & Profiling

    (Thales Patent 3)Regularized Autoregressive

    Burg Algorithm(Thales Patent 1)

    ..2)1()(1

    ...2)1().(2

    1

    1

    0

    2)1()(21

    21

    1

    1

    1

    )1()1()(*11

    +=

    =

    +=

    =

    ++

    += N

    nk

    n

    k

    nk

    nknn

    N

    nk

    n

    k

    nkn

    nk

    nknn

    n

    akbkfnN

    aakbkfnN

    Doppler Entropy Based onInformation Geometry

    (Thales Patent 2)

    ( )

    )*2()1(

    )2()1()2,1(

    1

    1

    2

    )2,1(

    )2,1()2()1(2

    1

    11ln

    21).(,

    ii

    iii

    n

    i i

    i

    with

    ind

    =

    +

    =

    =

    [ ]

    [ ]

    =

    max

    min

    max

    min

    3/2

    3/22

    )(

    )(2. V

    Vii

    V

    Viii

    dVVS

    dVVSV

    Wake Vortex Circulation

    Radon/Hough

    +==

    =

    =

    VVbaer

    rrVrr

    rrV

    rb

    cc

    1log21

    .)(.2

    )( 0

    Wake Vortex Geometry

    HR Autoregressive Doppler & EntropyImplemented in C language :

    3 times faster than real time byuse of 4 Threads with Quadri-Core PC

    CFAROn

    frequency

  • ORLY Airport / Limours Radar Campaign 2007

  • Thales Air Systems Division22

    Limours (site Thales) : September 2007

  • Thales Air Systems Division23

    Wake Vortex Monitoring In Glide Path Intercept

    Vertical ScanningFrom Limours Tesbed

    Tower (Orly Glide Path Intercept : Altitude 1500 m)

    In Highly Turbulent Atmosphere !!

    Wake VortexRollups Wake Vortex

    Rollups

  • CDG Airport Radar Campaign 2008

  • Thales Air Systems Division25

    Radar Sensor Deployment at CDG Airport

    08L

    08R

    26L

    26R

    27L

    27R

    Horizontal Scanning

    VerticalScanning