- 1. Ways of the World
2. Ch 17
One of the figureheads of Spanish American independence
Tried to unite the Spanish colonies in the Americas in under one banner to resist Spanish control using nativism as a tool to unite all the various ethnic groups in the colonies
Was ultimately disappointed as unification faltered under conflict between countries.
3. Ch 17
English Quakers were amongst the first to participate in the abolitionist movement.
Based on enlightenment and Christian ideals about human equality and morality.
After being the main source of labor in the western world for a few-hundred years, it was the cause of multiple uprisings and wars.
4. Ch 17
Started out as a few minor protests and demonstrations but evolved into a major movement in the early 19th century and by the end of the century had become a major political movement and had major participation from the upper and middle-class women in most of the western world.
5. Ch 18
The Mexican Revolution
Early in the 20th century, middle-class reformers along with workers and peasants joined together to overthrow a long dictatorship under Profirio Diaz, which resulted in a 10 year revolution that cost 1 million lives.
The Mexican revolution was one of the few revolutions where women were very directly involved in actual fighting along with medical aid.
6. Ch 18
The British Aristocracy:
This class suffered very little during the industrial revolution in Britain.
Have held places in parliament for a very long time
Own more than half of the agricultural land in Britain which they lease to tenant farmers.
Eventually declined as a class because of the rising merchant classes.
7. Ch 18
Protest in the Working class
There was much social protesting by the working classes during the industrial revolution in Britain especially.
Due to poor wages and working conditions there were constant protests and riots instigated by working class laborers that werepropagating socialist literature and ideals
These protests were often met with violence and did little for the working class at first but eventually built a foundation for reform
8. Ch 19
Leadership was Turk and Muslim and very similar to its population in ethnicity and ideals
Began in the late 18th century
Heavy influenced by the western world including: manufacturing, judicial systems, railroads, postal services, telegraphs, armaments, etc.
9. Ch 19
Racial Groups and Modernization:
Many westerners considered themselves superior genetically to those of African, Asian, and Native American Origin
These racist viewpoints often fueled the rise of modernization and the spread of western ideals to other cultures as many westerners saw it as a duty of sorts to help educate and civilize the lesser races
10. Ch 19
Originally ruled by feudal warlords with a Samurai noble class
During a brief period of reform and restoration the samurai were disbanded and Japan entered an era of modernization and trade with the western world.
While retaining much of its traditional heritage, Japan embraced western culture and flourished under its innovations until WWII
11. Ch 20
The Educated Elite:
European presence in the Afro-Asian world created much conflict but more often than not the educated elites in the societies affected by the European presence would flock to western culture. This would involve adopting dress, traditions, food, pop culture, ect.
This was beneficial for many of the missionaries and colonists wishing to enter a country but ultimately created a disconnect between the lower and upper classes as well as a general mistrust.
12. Ch 20
During the spread of colonialism there were droves of Christian missionaries traveling to Asia and Africa.
Depending on the place, this spread of religion was either met with acceptance or violence but much of the time it took advantage of the local populace.
Other religions, like Hinduism, also spread to Europe and were often accepted within small communities and followings.
13. Ch 20
Between the late 18th and early 20th century many European nations (France, Britain, Spain, and the Portuguese were the main players) started a new wave of colonization in Asia and Africa.
Unlike previous colonization that was born from a need for land, this series of colonization efforts was born mostly from economic interest in an areas natural resources
Often ended badly for the natives
14. Ch 21
The first world war started in 1914 with the assassination of an Austrian Archduke by a member of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand
tensions that had been building already because of nationalism and territorial disputes in the Balkan area fueled the fires that lead to the outbreak of war.
The triple alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy was pitted against Russia, France, and Britain's triple entente. The triple Entente eventually prevailed but the war left millions dead and entire generations of people disillusioned
15. Ch 21
The Great Depression:
The economic fallout from the great war rendered Germany and, to a lesser extent, its allies almost completely destitute
This may not seem like a problem for the U.S. but because of globalization and the world economy, the United States economy followed suit and collapsed leading to over a decade of poverty and extreme economic instability within the U.S.
The echoes of the depression would be felt for years to come and many families and businesses never recovered from the period
16. Ch 21
World war 2 was perhaps the most influential event in the 20th century
Started by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party in Germany with the annexation of Austria by Germany. After Hitler refused to stop conquering territory, Britain, France and Russia intervened.
It was not until the Bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese that the U.S. joined the war
The Allies fought against the Axis powers until 1945 when Germany was invaded and the many of the Jewish concentration camps set up by the Nazis were found
The nuclear bomb was born from this war and demonstrated on the Japanese, changing the face of warfare forever.
17. Ch 22
The face of Russian communism
Was the charismatic leader of the Bolshevik Socialist party that took power from the Tsars and started a 3 year civil war in which the Bolsheviks won power and renamed their country the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics also known as the Soviet Union
The Soviets would be the defining party of Russia for much of the 20th century with Lenin as their icon
18. Ch 22
Leader of the Peoples Republic of China and the figurehead of their communist party
Took power in 1949 from the nationalist party that was in power at the time and fought off many aggressors and opponents including the Japanese in order to secure his countrys sovereignty.
China has seen tremendous growth and prosperity under his leadership and is now a superpower in the world.
19. Ch 22
While China has seen great successes under Mao and Jintao and the PRC, it has also seen much bloodshed and reformation
There are actually two ruling bodies of china today, the PRC and ROC (Republic of China). As one can imagine, there was much conflict over territory and rights between the two bodies.
China has become a superpower under vastly communist rule with production and manufacturing reaching an all time high.
It took nearly 3 million deaths to get to that point during the revolution and many more have perished throughout the years.
20. Ch 23
In 1994 south Africa had its very first democratic nonracial election after years of apartheid domination by whites.
Nelson Mandela was elected as the countrys first black president and is now a symbol of triumph over racism and apartheid rule.
Was kept as a political prisoner for many years and was eventually released to become the head of the African national congress
21. Ch 23
The leader of the INC and pioneer of nonviolent protest and social reform
Sought to unify and gain independence for India from the British as well as improve the quality of life for the lowest castes of Indian culture.
Sought to help Muslims and Hindus alike which gave him overwhelming support.
Was eventually successful in gaining Indian independence in 1947 but the split of Pakistan and India led to an overwhelming tide of violence.
Gandhi was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu extremist.
22. Ch 23
Westernization of Turkey:
Present day Turkey used to be a very strict and traditional Muslim society under the Ottoman Empire, where women were required to wear veils and polygamy was an everyday practice.
After WWI Turkey emerged from the ruins of the Ottoman empire. Leading it was a general by the name of Ataturk. Ataturk reformed many of the religious practices and kept most of the religious figures firmly under state control
By the 1930s Ataturk had injected western culture to the point where women were no longer required to wear veils and had the right to vote and everyone was wearing western-style clothing.
23. Ch 24
An Argentinean-born revolutionary who conducted guerilla warfare adopted from the Cuban revolution in places like Africa and Latin America
His lifestyle as well as his battles and even his death were a