Western civilization i Beginnings – reformation. August 30: Beginnings Beginnings Mesopotamia Egypt

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  • Western civilization i Beginnings reformation
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  • August 30: Beginnings Beginnings Mesopotamia Egypt
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  • Beginnings History of civilization: how to date? Definition of text Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler Definition of culture Definition of civilization
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  • Beginnings History of civilization: how to date? How far back history takes us What is datable Definition of text Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler Definition of culture Definition of civilization
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  • Beginnings History of civilization: how to date? How far back history takes us (and other disciplines) What is datable Definition of text Artifacts that are left behind (natural, artificial) Especially the written word Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler Definition of culture Definition of civilization
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  • Beginnings History of civilization: how to date? How far back history takes us (and other disciplines) What is datable Definition of text Artifacts that are left behind (natural, artificial) Especially the written word Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler Definition of culture All the ways humans adjust to their environment, organize experiences, and hand over traditions Definition of civilization
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  • Beginnings History of civilization: how to date? How far back history takes us (and other disciplines) What is datable Definition of text Artifacts that are left behind (natural, artificial) Especially the written word Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler Definition of culture All the ways humans adjust to their environment, organize experiences, and hand over traditions Definition of civilization Urban culture, with distinct characteristics
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  • Beginnings Various ages: paleolithic, neolithic, bronze, iron (know why they are distinguished and relative dating) The marks of civilization: agriculture leading to cities, metals, and WRITING Civilization exhibits social hierarchy Civilization produces skilled arts and crafts
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  • Mesopotamia
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  • c. 3500-3000bc: dvlpmt of Sumerian cities (esp. Uruk) c. 2800-2370bc: Early Dynastic period of Sumerian city-states* c. 2370-2340bc: Sargon est. Akkadian dynasty & empire (* the setting of Gilgamesh)
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  • Mesopotamia c. 2125-2027bc: 3 rd Dynasty of Ur** c. 2000-1800bc: Amorites in Mesopotamia c. 1792-1750bc: Hammurabi reigns c. 1500bc: Est. of Kassite Dynasty at Babylon (** the earliest oral and written record of Gilgamesh)
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  • Mesopotamia: 4 th to mid-3 rd millennium (3500-2340bc) Uruk and the other Sumerian city-states were redistributive economies Central authority controls resources and redistributes King and / or temple priests Need for land leads to expansion and war; military leaders eventually amass power and become kings Religious tradition confirms right to rule City-states never united, but a common culture Diplomacy and trade Common pantheon But different languages (Sumerian, Akkadian)
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  • Mesopotamia: Sargons Akkadian empire First empire Capital at Akkad / Agade (modern Baghdad?): an exercise in geographical space and center (tribute comes from governed city-states) First standing army Expeditions to far reaches like Anatolia and Iran: why? (economic answer) New military technology: composite bow and chariot Anarchy in 2250bc
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  • Mesopotamia: Ur III and the Rise of Assyria Ur rises up in the space vacated by Akkads fall Bureaucratic administration (therefore has left us documentary evidence) Decentralized military administration Continuing identification with ruler as god and king Fell c. 2000bc with Amorite invation
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  • Mesopotamia: Assyria and Babylon Mercantile economy develops parallel to redistributive economy: trade routes Assur (Assyria) builds on this prosperity 2000- 1780 Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750) dominates in Mesopotamia: kingdom of Babylon Centralized administration Law code Babylon shrinks by 1650 (northern Babylon); Kassites take over rule by 1400
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  • Mesopotamia Important points about civilization per Mesopotamia: Cities Writing (cuneiform): earliest is c. 3200bc Agriculture Ziggurat / religion (polytheistic, pantheon) / public policy and administration (Sumerian lawcodes: 2350bc; Hammurabi 1750bc; patriarchy) Space and center
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  • Egypt
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  • 3100-2700bc Early Dynastic Period (I-II) 2700-2200bc Old Kingdom (III-VI) 2200-2052bc 1 st Intermediate Period (VII-XI) 2052-1650bc Middle Kingdom (XII-XIII)* 1650-1550bc 2 nd Intermediate Period (XIV-XVII) 1550-1075bc New Kingdom (XVIII-XX)** *The time of Jacob (Israel) and Joseph in Egypt **The time of Moses in Egypt
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  • Egypt Nile is the source of Egyptian civilization Annual flooding: civilization and stability Exists between two deserts Defensible and contributes to stability History divided into: Early dynastic, Old kingdom, Middle kingdom, and New kingdom Intermediate periods define times of political disruption Thousands of years of stable civilization
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  • Egypt (beginning) Agriculture and herding well-established by 3500bc By 3000bc, two kingdoms exist, united in what we call the Old Kingdom Upper means elevation (therefore southern reaches of Egypt; Lower also means elevation (therefore northern reaches of Egypt)
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  • Egypt (kings and gods) In Mesopotamia, kings were gods representatives, at best semi-divine Egyptian kings were divine (title: Good God) Basis for divine kingship: Osiris killed by Seth; Osiris son Horus defeats Seth; kings embody Horus Establishes right to rule (Osiris was ruler of Egypt) Establishes maat (stability/justice) Kings task: to maintain maat (in service to the gods)
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  • Egypt (pyramids) Pyramids: Old Kingdom Earliest: 2680bc Giza 2600bc (Khufu=Cheops) 2,000,000 stones x 2.5 tons each 13 acres 480 feet 70,000 workers (out of 1.5 mil population)
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  • Egypt (social structure) King and royal family on top, and a regular order Redistributive Again, writing as handmaid to economy Hieroglyphics Nobility, artists, peasants, slaves
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  • Egypt: end of the Old 2200: drought and famine Civil war 2200-2000 Chaos leads to pessimism Religious development: reward and punishment in afterlife Middle kingdom rebuilds monarchy (Mentuhotep 2) King no longer omnipotent god; rise of nobility Maat restored, but at cost of seeing afterlife as a problem to be solved: scarabs Increase in trade (already existent) with Crete, Levant (Anatolia/Palestine), Mesopotamia Increase in immigration Hyksos (Canaanite) rule by 1650bc
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  • Egypt: beginning of the New Hyksos (1650-1540) introduce bronze Introduces chariot warfare Late bronze-age (1500-1100) Egypt is imperially stable, lots of commerce New Kingdom (about 1550bc) First use of term pharaoh Chariots and composite bow Imperialistically driven Thutmose 1 (1504-1492) conquers Palesine Palaces (Amenhotep 3 and Ramesses 2) Decline by 1150bc
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  • Egypt Important points about civilization per Egypt: Agriculture Writing Religion / public policy and administration Space and center
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  • Summary of Beginnings Main points to remember: Redistributive economies Polytheism Ziggurat Cuneiform Law code Patriarchy Hieroglyph Bronze Pharaoh