What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics , and Taxonomy?

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What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics , and Taxonomy?. Taxonomy is the biological science that deals with arranging and naming groups and organisms. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Taxonomy

What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics, and Taxonomy?

Taxonomy is the biological science that deals with arranging and naming groups and organisms. Early system based on morphological similarities and differences. Today mostly based on known phylogenetic relationships and similarities in DNAPhylogeny refers to the development of a group, particularly through evolutionary lines. Cladistics is a study in which groups (species, etc) are arranged on a phylogenetic tree according to the TIME at which they arose from other groups. For example, on a cladistic-type diagram, and earlier-evolving species would form a lower branch on the tree than one that evolved later.

TaxonomyScience of Classification4ClassificationThe process of putting similar things into groups.Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms

5History of Classification:4000 BC AristotleCreates first written classification scheme Two Groups: Animal Group anything that lived on land, in the water, or in the air Plant Group based this on their different stems

6History of Classification:1500s-1700s: Many different systems, most of which were extremely complicated Names were based on common names (confusion) Names also based on long scientific definitions7What is this animal?

8Puma, Cougar, Mountain Lion, etc.

9History of Classification:1700s Carolus Linnaeus Establishes system for classifying and naming organisms Based on the structural similarities of the organisms Binomial Nomenclature 2 Name naming system Created groups called Taxa or Taxon Each Taxon is a category into which related organisms are placed Approximately 2.5 million kinds of organisms identified

10Modern Day Levels of ClassifcationKINGDOMPHYLUMCLASSORDERFAMILYGENUSSPECIESKINGPHILLIP CAMEOVERFOR GOOD SPAGHETTIKIDSPLAYINGCATCHONFREEWAYGETSMASHED11Modern Day Levels of ClassificationManBox Elder TreeBobcatCanadian LynxKingdomAnimaliaPlanteaAnimaliaAnimaliaPhylumChordataAnthophytaChordataChordataClassMammalianDicotyledonaeMammaliaMammliaOrderPrimatesSapindalesCarnivoraCarnivoraFamilyHominidaeAceracaeFelidaeFelidaeGenusHomoAcerLynxLynxSpeciessapiensnugundorufuscamadensis12Modern Taxonomy:Evidence used to classify into taxon groups Embryology Chromosomes / DNA Biochemistry Physiology Evolution Behavior13Binomial NomenclatureA system of scientific naming using two names for every organismUse the genus and the species nameFor Example: Human Scientific Name Genus species Homo sapiens14Felis concolor

15Rules for Binomial Nomenclature: Name is in Greek or Latin First word is the genus Second word is the species Words are italicized or underlined First word capitalized Second word lower case165 Kingdom SystemKingdom MoneraKingdom ProtistaKingdom FungiKingdom PlantaeKingdom Animalia17Kingdom MoneraProkaryotes (no nuclei)Heterotrophic (have to ingest food) and Autotrophic (can make own food)Anaerobic and AerobicAquatic, terrestrial, and in airMostly asexualMostly non-motileExamples: Bacteria, eubacteria, archebacteria

18Kingdom ProtistaEukaryotes (have nuclei)Heterotropic and autotrophicUnicellularMostly aquaticMostly asexualMotile and non-motileExamples: protozoa, slime molds, algae

19Kingdom FungiEukaryotesHeterotrophicMostly terrestrialAsexual and sexualNon-motileExample: Mushrooms, bread molds, yeasts

20Kingdom PlantaeEukaryoticMulticellularAutotrophicMostly terrestrialAsexual and sexualNon-motileExample: mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants

21Kingdom AnimaliaEukaryotesMulticellularHeterotrophicTerrestrial and aquaticSexual (a few asexual)Motile (a few non-motile)Examples: sponges, jellyfish, fish, mammals, arthropods, reptiles, birds

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