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WHAT WAS “MEDIEVAL” ABOUT THE MIDDLE AGES? 1.ECONOMIC: Agriculture had such low productivity that no more than 10% of the population could live in cities

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  • WHAT WAS MEDIEVAL ABOUT THE MIDDLE AGES? 1.ECONOMIC: Agriculture had such low productivity that no more than 10% of the population could live in cities. Most people were peasants or handicraft artisans. 2.DEMOGRAPHIC: Very high birth rates, high mortality rates, and short life expectancy. 3.POLITICAL: Poor communications and transport promoted decentralization. 4.RELIGIOUS: The catholic (universal) church claimed everyone as a member, supported itself through compulsory tithes, and suppressed heresy. 5.Intellectual: Most people were illiterate. Scholars and the clergy spoke Latin and answered most scientific questions by referring to a few ancient authorities.
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  • Pieter Breughel the Elder, The Harvesters (1565): Most peasants lived in villages, surrounded by fields where strips of land were owned privately but worked collectively.
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  • An open-field village in England around 1300: The demesne and glebe are set aside for the lord and priest
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  • The peasant economy allowed for much leisure time: Pieter Breughel the Elder, The Peasant Dance (1568)
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  • AUGSBURG in 1493 (most cities were small and walled)
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  • THE THREE ESTATES OF SOCIETY: Those who pray, those who fight, and those who work In France the Estates General represented these groups: 1 st Estate (clergy)= about 1% of pop. 2 nd Estate (nobility)= about 2%. 3 rd Estate (commoners)=97%.
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  • Peasants relied for protection on professional armored knights, such as these Normans in chain mail at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
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  • Steel armor for man & horse, Nuremberg, 1548
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  • A virtually impregnable castle: Burg Eltz, built around 1200 on a cliff overlooking the Mosel River
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  • Europe in the year 1000; Germany conquered Rome in 962
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  • The Roman Emperor Otto III (reigned 980-1002) receives tribute from all of Europe
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  • But the foundations of royal power were weak: 10 th -century Germany, with the royal domain in dark gray
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  • MEDIEVAL CATHOLICISMS MOST BELOVED SAINT Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) Renounced his inheritance and even his clothes. Began his ministry by rebuilding a ruined church. Founded the itinerant order of the Friars Minor and the cloistered Poor Clares. Received the stigmata of Christ in 1224. Sainted in 1228.
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  • Pope Innocent III endorses the rule of St. Francis, 1209 (painted by Giotto in the Upper Basilica of Assisi, 1290s)
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  • St. Dominic of Castile (1170-1221): Painted around 1500 as judge during the ALBIGENSIAN CRUSADE in southern France.
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  • The Church Militant and Triumphant, 1365-68 (Dominican cloister of Santa Maria Novella, Florence): domini canes=hounds of the Lord
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  • Augustine of Hippo refutes a heretic (13 th -century illuminated manuscript)
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  • The Ptolemaic, geocentric theory of the universe
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  • Angels turning the wheels of the universe (14 th -century manuscript)
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  • A European map of the world, ca. 1464
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  • CATASTROPHES OF THE LATER MIDDLE AGES 1348/49: The Black Death Bubonic plague sweeps through Europe, killing at least 1/3 of the population 1309-1377: Babylonian Captivity of the Church The king of France compels the pope to reside in Avignon 1378-1417: The Great Schism Rival popes in Rome and Avignon excommunicate each other 1339-1453: Hundred Years War Devastating conflict between the kings of France & England
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  • The arrival of bubonic plague from Central Asia
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  • The Triumph of Death (fresco from the Campo Santo, Pisa, ca. 1350)
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  • During the Great Schism, each Pope excommunicated all supporters of his rival
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  • Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Triumph of Death (1562)
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  • Many Europeans yearned for a powerful state to maintain peace and order: Frontispiece for Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)

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