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What will it take to “do” ULD · PDF file What does it take to “do” ULD properly •Do’s –Trained staff –Adequate infrastructure –SOP’s for ULD –Taking responsibility

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    What will it take to “do” ULD properly

  • The very beginning…

    Original Lockheed photo, courtesy of

    Martin Bleasdale/


  • Evolution of Cargo loading

  • Evolution of aircraft

  • Evolution of aircraft holds

  • What do we mean by safety? The placing and securing of air cargo in the aircraft in a defined manner that protects the aircraft and its systems during flight

  • Which requires.. • Understanding “What

    the aircraft expects”

    • Complying with the aircraft Weight and Balance Manual

    • Recognizing that the aircraft has limitations

  • What can possibly go


  • You can’t manage it unless you can measure it

  • Fine Air Flt 101 National Flt 102

    Locks Not Raised Nets Not Secure Incorrect Loading Position Incorrect Weights of Cargo / baggage ULDs badly built Load sheet errors

    Accidents … 2

    Serious Incidents… ~ 1 per week Aircraft Tip Aircraft Tail Scrape Load shifts Significant Loadsheet Error

    Daily Operations… ~ 16 per day*

    Data from IATA STEADES Database

  • So what goes wrong?  A random data sample of 1088 reports

    was broken down into 3 categories of aircraft loading issues:

     Unsecured Loads: The loads were not secured due to OPS handling, procedures not followed, or faulty equipment.

     Load Sheet: Errors in the load sheet for departure due to load sheet preparation procedures not being followed.

     Weight / Balance: Undesired change in weight / balance due to documentation errors.

    Data from IATA STEADES Database

  • What’s moving?

    Data from IATA STEADES Database

  • When are the issues being


     Found: Errors identified and rectified before the aircraft is pushed back.

     Escapes: Errors that are found after pushback, mainly on arrival by unloading staff.

    Data from IATA STEADES Database

  • Why…

    Data from IATA STEADES Database

  • Data from

    the IATA




    ( GDDB)

    Data from IATA GDDB Database

  • ULD ranked #2

    Data from IATA GDDB Database

  • What do the regulators say?

    • Fine Air Accident Investigation Report

    • 21.The loaders who loaded the accident airplane were not aware of the

    potentially catastrophic consequences of misloading the airplane and

    failing to properly secure cargo, and this contributed to the accident.

    • 22.Formal training is necessary to ensure that cargo handling personnel

    receive standardized instruction on safety-critical aspects of the loading


  • FAA actions.. • AC 120-85, detailed

    guidance into cargo operations

    • Applies to US carriers and all carriers landing in the US

    • Cargo Focus team

    • Increasing oversight of cargo operations.

  • • National Air Cargo

    – A repeat of Fine Air

    – Tribal knowledge being used instead of following the WBM

    – A significant number of common practices are not stated in the WBM

  • • Boeing supplemental procedures to Weight and Balance Control and Loading Manual

    • 44 pages long, 5 specific processes, being continuously updated

  • FAA SAFO’s • Subject: Non-compliance with a Manufacturer’s Federal Aviation

    Administration (FAA)-approved Aircraft Weight and Balance Manual (WBM)

    • Purpose: This SAFO serves to warn Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 121 Air Carriers of safety concerns and operational compliance issues regarding Weight and Balance Programs

    • In some isolated cases, air carriers have developed procedures for

    aircraft loading that exceeds the structural design capability of the

    aircraft. Exceeding this capability can lead to catastrophic failure of

    the aircraft.

  • • Subject: Cargo Retention Methods Using Pallets Straps

    • Purpose: This SAFO serves to warn operators that strapping cargo to a pallet to restrain cargo must be done in accordance with configurations explicitly permitted by the design approval holder’s Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)- approved Weight and Balance Manual (WBM) or WBM supplement

  • Are you doing ULD properly ? • Staff formally trained in ULD safety

    and operations?

    • Facilities and equipment?

    • Supervision?

    • Management support?

  • What does it take to “do” ULD

    properly • Do’s

    – Trained staff

    – Adequate


    – SOP’s for ULD

    – Taking responsibility

    • Don'ts

    – It’s only a “box”


    – It doesn't matter how

    we do it as long as we

    get if on the plane on


  • • High staff turnover

    • Inadequate and unsupportive airport infrastructure

    • Airlines responsible for flight safety but lack the ability to exert meaningful control

    • Uneven regulatory environment

    • Focus on cost not on safety

    Pain points…

  • Start here…

  • IATA ULD Regulations • Step by step


    • A complete

    standard for all

    ULD operations

    and handling

  • IATA CHM • Step by step processes

    • Developed by the IATA

    Cargo Handling

    Council, equal

    representation of

    airlines and handlers

  • IATA ULD Safety Campaign • Its not just a


  • ULD Explained by ULD CARE

  • Amended SGHA • ARTICLE 5. STANDARD OF WORK • 5.2 In the case of absence of instructions by the Carrier,

    the Handling Company shall follow its own standard

    practices and procedures provided they comply with the

    applicable IATA industry developed standards including

    but not limited to: ….

    • … ULD Regulations (ULDR), CSC RP 1681

  • Why is all this important.. • Air cargo is growing in both size and

    complexity…safety cannot be neglected

    • Changing demands for air cargo places

    additional demands on ULD operations..

    • Two major accidents have highlighted the

    safety risks associated with air cargo

  • Temperature Controlled


  • FCC and FRC

  • Collapsible Containers

  • What will it take to “do” ULD

    properly? • Establish more procedures?

    • Implement more audits?

    • Treat the damage and near misses as “cost/risk of doing business”?

    • Pay more for greater safety?

    • Use less outsourcing?

  • Safe for flight?

  • Suitable conditions for a piece of aircraft equipment?

  • Does he understand the safety aspect of his job?

  • Thank You