When Claims Go Wrong Recognizing & Avoiding Logical Fallacies Kim Miller Davis.

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    24-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • When Claims Go Wrong Recognizing & Avoiding Logical Fallacies Kim Miller Davis
  • Slide 2
  • Academic Essay Writing Process: Step 1: Writer intakes information Step 2: Writer analyzes information to formulate conclusion Step 3: Writer develops plan to communicate conclusion The plan is centered around proving the writers conclusion which is called the Major Claim (aka Thesis). The Thesis is proven through 3 Supporting Claims (aka Arguments).
  • Slide 3
  • First Step of Successful Communication: Developing Logical Claims
  • Slide 4
  • Logical Claims Allow the readers to easy follow the argument as it progresses
  • Slide 5
  • Claims Without Logic Stop the Reader from going anywhere
  • Slide 6
  • The writers conclusion might be valid, but the road to get there is broken
  • Slide 7
  • These errors in reasoning are called Logical Fallacies
  • Slide 8
  • They tend to occur for three major reasons: False or weak premises Irrelevance Ambiguity
  • Slide 9
  • The Most Common Fallacies Ad Hominem Bandwagon Begging the Question or Circular Reasoning Either/Or Reasoning Weak Analogy Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Hasty Generalization & Proof by Example Slippery Slope Dubious or False Authority Non-Sequitur
  • Slide 10
  • Ad Hominem Attacking the character of the arguer rather than the argument http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ncw-acVB368
  • Slide 11
  • Bandwagon Suggesting that a person should agree to something because it is popular http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQPN3UKQM-U
  • Slide 12
  • Begging the Question Using Circular Reasoning to prove a conclusion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CVbku6nxhU
  • Slide 13
  • Either/Or Reasoning Presenting someone with a limited choice, when other choices are possible. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sfNROmn7bc
  • Slide 14
  • Weak Analogy Making an improper comparison between two things that share a common feature
  • Slide 15
  • Post Hoc Reasoning Arguing that one event caused another when they are unrelated http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJ1a0ymGCKA
  • Slide 16
  • Hasty Generalization Using a part to make an inaccurate claim about a whole http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2gvY2wqI7M
  • Slide 17
  • Romney makes a hasty generalization about people who do not pay income tax. In reality, that 47% includes: Elderly and People living on Social Security People making less than $20,000/year Active Duty Military & Retired Military People living solely on pension plans The Wealthy who make their living off of Capital Gains taxes Young People who are working hourly jobs College Students
  • Slide 18
  • Proof by Example Purporting a claim as truth through the use of minimal examples A lot of people on welfare are lazy. There is the one woman who comes into H.E.B. with a cell phone, a BMW, and her nails done; yet she buys her food with food stamps. Illegal immigrants are damaging this country with crimes. Several men who crossed the border in Nogales last week are known rapists.
  • Slide 19
  • Slippery Slope Suggesting that one event will automatically lead to a chain of other events
  • Slide 20
  • False or Dubious Authority Defending a claim with a biased or untrustworthy source
  • Slide 21
  • Non Sequitur Stating a conclusion that doesnt follow from the premises http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErRHJlE4PGI

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