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Global Universities and Urban Development

Cities and Contemporary SocietySeries Editors: Richard D. Bingham and Larry C. Ledebur, Cleveland State University Sponsored by the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs Cleveland State UniversityThis new series focuses on key topics and emerging trends in urban policy. Each volume is specially prepared for academic use, as well as for specialists in the eld. SUBURBAN SPRAWL Private Decisions and Public Policy Wim Wiewel and Joseph J. Persky, Editors THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF PLAY Building the Tourist City Dennis R. Judd, Editor THE ADAPTED CITY Institutional Dynamics and Structural Change H. George Frederickson, Gary A. Johnson, and Curtis H. Wood CREDIT TO THE COMMUNITY Community Reinvestment and Fair Lending Policy in the United States Dan Immergluck PARTNERSHIPS FOR SMART GROWTH University-Community Collaboration for Better Public Places Wim Wiewel and Gerrit-Jan Knaap, Editors REVITALIZING THE CITY Strategies to Contain Sprawl and Revive the Core Fritz W. Wagner, Timothy E. Joder, Anthony J. Mumphrey, Jr., Krishna M. Akundi, and Alan F.J. Artibise THE UNIVERSITY AS URBAN DEVELOPER Case Studies and Analysis David C. Perry and Wim Wiewel, Editors PEOPLE AND THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF PLACE Building a Workforce for the 21st Century Shari Garmise CITIES IN THE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMY Darrene L. Hackler CITIES IN A TIME OF TERROR Space, Territory, and Local Resilience H.V. Savitch URBAN AND REGIONAL POLICIES FOR METROPOLITAN LIVABILITY David K. Hamilton and Patricia S. Atkins, Editors GLOBAL UNIVERSITIES AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Case Studies and Analysis Wim Wiewel and David C. Perry, Editors

Global Universities and Urban DevelopmentCase Studies and AnalysisWim Wiewel and David C. Perryeditors

Cambridge, Massachusetts

M.E.SharpeArmonk, New York London, England

Copyright 2008 by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, New York 10504. Published in cooperation with the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Global universities and urban development : case studies and analysis / Wim Wiewel and David C. Perry, editors p. cm. (Cities and contemporary society) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7656-2039-2 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Community and collegeCase studies. 2. Community development, UrbanCase studies. 3. Land use, UrbanCase studies. 4. Real estate developmentCase studies. I. Wiewel, Wim. II. Perry, David C. LC237.G56 2008 378.1030722dc22 Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z 39.48-1984. ~ BM (c) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2007032404

CONTENTS

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ContentsList of Tables and Figures Foreword Rosalind Greenstein Preface Part I Introduction 1. The University, the City, and Land: Context and Introduction David C. Perry and Wim Wiewel Part II The University, the Devolving State, and Development 2. The University of Helsinki as a Developer Anne Haila 3. From Conversion to Cash Cow? The University of Lneburg, Germany Katrin B. Anacker and Uwe Altrock 4. Varsity Real Estate in Scotland: New Visions for Town and Gown? Deborah Peel 5. Toward Downtown: Spatial Growth and University Location in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Yuichi Takeuchi ix xiii xv

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Part III The University as a Zone of Development 6. Mexico City and University City: A Story of Struggle for Autonomy through Land Carlos Morales Schechinger and Sara Garca Jimnez 7. Partnering with Private Corporations to Build on Campus: Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea GwangYa Han and Wann Yu 8. Urban and Real Estate Development of the Central University of Venezuelas Rental Zone Abner J. Colmenares 9. Development of the Jatinangor University Area, Indonesia: Growth Problems and Local Responses Wilmar Salim 10. The University of Oporto and the Process of Urban Change: An Ambiguous Relationship Isabel Breda-Vzquez, Paulo Conceio, and Snia Alves Part IV The University and the Contested City 11. Academic Fortress: The Case of Hebrew University on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem Haim Yacobi 12. Interface Between Academy and Community in Contested Space: The Difcult Dialogue Frank Gafkin

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Part V Lessons Learned 13. The University, the City, and the State: Institutional Entrepreneurship or Instrumentality of the State? Wim Wiewel and David C. Perry About the Editors and Contributors About the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Index

303 321 325 327

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

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List of Tables and FiguresTables 4.1 Higher Education Institutions in Scotland 4.2 Selected Comparative Data for the Cities of Aberdeen and Dundee 5.1 Statistical Comparison of Tokyo Metropolitan Area with Japan and Tokyo 5.2 Summary of the History of Urban and University Changes in Japan 5.3 A Brief History of Hosei University 6.1 Land Acquired by UNAM in Various Periods in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 7.1 Decision-Making Procedure for Campus Development 7.2 Facilities of YERC 7.3 Corporate Donors of the YERC Project 8.1 Development Units in the Plaza Venezuela Rental Zone 8.2 Development Areas in the Rental Zone 9.1 Land Use Plan of Jatinangor Town in 2005, as Planned in 1989 9.2 Land Use of the Jatinangor Area in 1981, 1991, and 2000 9.3 Roles of Actors in the Decision-Making Process 10.1 New Building Licenses and Density of Accommodations (19942002) 11.1 Land Area and Built Area of Hebrew University Campuses in Jerusalem 12.1 Political Deaths in Belfast over Time Figures 2.1 2.2 2.3 4.1 The Main Building of the University of Helsinki The Functionalist Forest House (Metstalo) The City Center Campus in the Middle of the Metropolis UK Varsity Real Estate by Period of Construction 28 29 31 64ix

63 67 86 94 103 124 165 169 171 192 197 209 211 218 245 268 279

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4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 10.1 10.2 10.3

Scotlands Varsity State Sources of Varsity Funding in Scotland (20012002) A Varsity Planning Triangle Japans Population at Age 18, 19602015 Boissonade Tower on the Ichigaya Campus, Tokyo Population of Mexico City Metropolitan Area and UNAM (19352003) Federal Government Subsidy to UNAM and Expenditure per Student (19352003) University City (CU) within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) UNAMs CU Campus Pedregal Area Showing CU Campus, Main Roads, and Neighborhoods Sculpture Space on the University City Campus UNAMs Olympic Stadium Overview of Yonsei Engineering Research Center (YERC), the Yonsei University Campus, and the Conservation Area Growth Trend of New Building Space, Yonsei University, 18852002 Engineering College Buildings on the Southern Edge of Yonsei University Overview of the Scenic Quality Preservation District, Yonsei University Proposed Rental Zone Overview of Caracas University City Campus Villanuevas 1955 Master Plan for the Plaza Venezuela Rental Zone View of the First Tower Development Units in the Plaza Venezuela Rental Zone First Developmental Stage of the ZRPV Shopping Mall Master Plan for the ZRPV, 2000 Orientation MapJatinangor Area in the Vicinity of Bandung, West Java Master Plan of the Jatinangor Higher Education Area Causal Relationship of Issues in Jatinangor University Area Land Uses around Jatinangor University The Spatial Organization of the University of Oporto The University of Oporto in the City Center Number of Students Enrolled in Public and Private Higher Education in Portugal, 19802003

65 77 78 99 105 120 121 122 128 132 144 145 158 160 163 168 183 185 189 190 193 194 195 207 208 210 213 229 231 234

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

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10.4 The Spatial Distribution of the University of Oporto Faculties in the City Center, before 2000 and after 2001 10.5 The Spatial Organization of the Asprela Area 11.1 Neighborhoods of Jerusalem, 19491967 11.2 View of Hebrew Universitys Tower and New Jewish Neighborhoods 11.3 The University Is Set Apart from Its Neighboring Environment 11.4 The Fortress-like Architecture of the Campus Is Evident 11.5 Corridors Link Spread-out Campus Buildings 12.1 Belfast Area Deaths and Other Characteristics

237 243 261 264 267 267 268 279

FOREWORD

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ForewordIn recent years, researchers in the United States interested in urban revitalization have become used to thinking about the role of the university in the city. At the Lincoln Institute we bring our perspective of land policy to this work. Specically, the goal of The City, Land, and The University project is to improve the collective capacity of leaders to achieve the multiple interests of cities, universities, and communities in ways that are mutually agreeable. In the twenty-rst century we have come to expect universities to accomplish a number of heroic feats. At the center of the university mission is knowledge creation. We expect universities to play this important social, cultural, and economic role. In addition, we expect them to train young people to enter a profession or allow the graduate to pursue advanced professional training. We also expect our university graduates to be prepared to be active participants in the social and political life of the nation. Increasingly, we expect universities to play an important, even a leading, role in the regional economy. We do not simply expect that university-trained engineers will, for example, make produ