Wim Maartens

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Building blocks for a consistent, safe and quality hatchery diet


Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow out pondscommon sense: children must be fed well to become healthy adults.

The diet of top athletes is worked out to the outmost details


Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow outConsumer chooses the cheapest food

Traders look for cheaper supply from food processors

Food processors want cheaper shrimp/ fish from the farmer

Pressure from farmers to supply cheaper larvae

reaction from hatchery operators to reduce costs

Feed producers respond by offering cheaper diets


Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow outPressure on feed producers to reduce quality in order to maintain marginThe diets have found fast and easy acceptance by vannamei producers as they are not picky when it comes to eatingThese diets have found also entrance in monodon hatcheries


Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow outIn monodon hatcheries in Thailand and the Philippines, survival by using low cost feeding protocols dropped below 50%For vannamei in Thailand it has been noticed that cheaper post larvae kept on a low cost feeding protocol grow slower and have lower survivals in the grow out ponds.Hatcheries are switching back to cost efficient feeding protocolsProfessional Thai farmers demand proof from vannamei hatcheries that post larvae have been fed with quality dietsIn the long run, cost efficiency farming is better than low cost farming


Building blocks for a quality diet?Right ingredients and feed formulationRight feed processing technologyRight operational procedures


Feed formulation: Least Cost FormulationSet nutritional requirements for the formulaAnalyze incoming raw materials on required parameters: e.g. variability of protein content of fish mealsUpdate cost of raw materialsCompute the least cost formula with the available raw materialsfixed formulations lead to inconsistent feedscost efficient and consistent


Feed formulationMust be based on nutritional requirements of the targeted aquatic animal and its life stage

Too much of one nutrientNot enough of anotherHow can it be cost efficient?Still requires more investigationendless amount of species in aquaculture


Feed formulationLook beyond the label

There is more to a formulation than the right protein, lipid, fiber and moisture levels essential lipidsdigestible proteins with the right amino acidsvitamins, minerals


Feed formulation


Feed formulationINVEs standard for larval prawns


Feed formulation: ingredientsIngredients that are safe for the food chainGMO free, free of melanine, low in heavy metals

Ingredients that contain the right nutrients and are digestible by the targeted specieIngredients that are attractive and palatable for prawns/fishUse of fresh marine ingredients opposed to marine meals


Feed formulation: safe for the food chain?Max Cadmium EU standard


Feed processing technologyNeeds to facilitate feeding in farmLong shelflifeProvide all nutritional requirements in one particleEasy to applyNeeds to produce a water stable particle with the right size and buoyancyEvery particle not eaten by the animal is a loss and deteriorates water quality

Needs to protect the quality of the ingredients and feedHeat treatment could damage valuable components


Feed processing technology: size mattersWASTEEvery particle not eaten by the animal is a loss and deteriorates water quality


Feed processing technology: size matters

Specialized tumbling sieves to remove dust form the diets


Feed processing technology:Challenge of using fresh ingredientsFormula contains 70% of fresh ingredientsFresh ingredients contain 90% waterWe need to use 7 kg of fresh ingredients per kg of dry product and remove at least 6 kg of water without damaging the quality of the fresh ingredientsSuitable technology: spraydryingRefractance window drying

Fresh is the Best


Spray drying

Soup with ingredientsHot air at 180CPowdered feed at 80C


Refractance Window Drying


Soup with ingredients


Operational procedures: qualityevery timeQuality needs to be definedQuality needs to be monitoredQuality needs to recordedQuality needs to be improved

Even the best operational system will cover not all riskIn case there is a problem: good operational procedures provide for fast and focused action

Good Manufacturing PracticesDocument and data control Water ControlInternal Quality Audit Pest Control Training Waste DisposalControl of nonconforming productPersonal HygieneProduct RecallComplaint and Reject Control of Monitoring and Measuring DevicesTransportationGlass controlIdentification and TraceabilityChemical HandlingProduction and Operation ControlMaintenance Receive, Storage, Usage and Move ProcedureCleaningQuality Control for Raw Materials Semi and Finished Product

20 procedures to assure that you receive quality, consistent and safe diets every time

Good Manufacturing Practice: Working Procedures

Good Manufacturing Practice: in line controls




Good Manufacturing Practice: lab controlsRM, SMP, FGProximate (moisture, protein, lipid, lipid w/ hydrolysis, ash, fiber)Freshness (POV, p-anisidine, TBA, TVN)Free fatty acids, iodine valuePhosphorusSand / SilicaSalt (NaCl)

WaterChloride, free chlorinepH, total hardness

Good Manufacturing Practices: traceabilityBe ready for Worst Case ScenarioLot number of finished product ALot number of all RMs used to produce ALot number of all finished goods that used that lot as an ingredientLot number of all SMPs that used that lot as an ingredientLot number of all SMPs used to produce ARMs X with lot number Y caused problemCustomer finds problem with finished product AOnly recall from customers that received affected lots

Building blocks for a cost efficient diet?Right feed formulationRight feed processing technologyRight operational procedures



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