World Geography 3202 Secondary and Tertiary Activities.

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<ul><li><p>World Geography 3202Secondary and Tertiary Activities</p></li><li><p>Unit 5Gives us insight into selected secondary activities in which humans engage as they transform raw materials, provided by primary activities, to more finished forms. Manufacturing utilizes capital and labour inputs to move materials through a series of processes until a higher-value added product is obtained. Services involve the manufacturing of intangible goods or services for human use. You will examine the importance of the secondary and tertiary sectors and factors that help to account for their location </p></li><li><p>Three Sectors of the Economy</p><p>Primary economic activity involves the collection of raw materials from the earth. Farming, fishing, mining, forestry are the classic parts of the primary economy. The farmer takes plants from the land, the forester takes trees from the forest, the fisher takes fish from the ocean and the miner takes ore from the ground. All involve collecting natural resources. </p></li><li><p>Three Sectors of the EconomySecondary economic activity involves processing or manufacturing raw materials into products for people to buy. It is often referred to as the manufacturing or processing sector. The cows are butchered in to roasts, T-bone steaks and ground beef and packaged for sale at the grocery store; the trees are milled into lumber or pulped into paper; the fish are gutted, filleted, and frozen for market; while the ore is refined into steel ribbons or copper wire or gold ingots. You can see that there would be a multitude of examples for secondary processing but all the activities start with a raw material and convert it to a product for sale. This is sometimes referred to as Value adding. The tree would be much less expensive to buy than the lumber. The lumber has value added. Ship building, as depicted above, is an example of the manufacturing sector. </p></li><li><p>Three Sectors of the EconomyTertiary economic activity does not involve raw materials rather it involves providing service to people. Hence it is often referred to as the service industry. Nurses, doctors, lawyers, teachers, waitresses, hairdressers, sales people all provide services for other people. Tourism is an important part of the tertiary sector and golf has become a thrust for investment in Newfoundland &amp; Labrador. </p></li><li><p>The Language of Manufacturing</p><p>Inputs: materials &amp; factors that go into making a product. Example; raw material, power, buildings, land, labor, decisions, capital, machinery Manufacturing processes: those processes that change a raw material to a usable form. Three types: Conditioning: minimal change to a resource. Example; logs into lumber; fish into fillets Analytical: resource converted to a number of different products. Example; cow into leather, milk &amp; cheese Synthetic: several resources are combined to make one resource. Example; light bulb has glass, tungsten, Nitrogen &amp; aluminum. Outputs: finished product from a manufacturing process. For example the output from the fish plant is fish sticks or frozen fish fillets. </p></li><li><p>Labour Intensive vs. Capital Intensive Industry can be classified in many different ways: We shall look at two ways of classifying industry. Manufacturing businesses can be classified based on the process. All manufacturing businesses can be classified as either requiring large quantities of labour or of machinery to do the processing. </p></li><li><p>Labour Intensive vs. Capital IntensiveMachinery now does much of the work formerly done by humans. Some manufacturing businesses might be more difficult to classify because they require large quantities of both capital labour. Labor intensive: requires a lot of person hours to produce the product. Ex. Jewelry making Capital intensive: requires a lot of expensive equipment to make the product. Ex. Automotive industry </p></li><li><p>Heavy vs. Light Industry Manufacturing businesses can be classified based on the output.All manufacturing businesses can be classified as either producing large, expensive items for other business to use in manufacturing or transportation or as producing small items for consumers to purchase directly.</p></li><li><p>Heavy vs. Light IndustrySome manufacturing businesses might be more difficult to classify because they produce items that might be used by business or by private people.Heavy industry: produces big expensive products for for other industry. Ex. Ship yard, tractor production Light Industry: produces products for consumers. Ex. Pop industry. </p></li><li><p>factors that influence the location of an industry Site/Physical Cost Factors Three major factors of site (physical location) Proximity to raw material. Heavier &amp; bulkier the raw material the closer the industry will be located to reduce transportation costs. resource oriented industry industries that are located close to the resource because it is to heavy/bulky to transport; communities frequently spring up around resource industries. Labrador City, Churchill Falls, Grand Falls-Windsor and Bonavista are good examples. Can you think of other examples? Land: price, level, good drainages, dense well-settled soil Energy: not as important a factor today due to our ability to transport power long distances. </p></li><li><p>Human-based Cost Factors Market Oriented Industry Industries that are located close to the market because the product is expensive to transport. The resources are not bulky or expensive to transport. The Soft drink industry is a good example. Market vs. Resource Oriented Industries: As we examine the influence of weight gain &amp; weight loss on the location of industry we see that if the product weight is greater (weight gain) than the input resources it is located near market. Conversely if product weight is less (weight loss) than the input resources it is located near resource. </p></li><li><p>Human-based Cost FactorsAgglomerating Tendency Agglomerating tendency refers to the tendency for factories producing related products to locate close to each other for mutual benefit. Ex. Car factory &amp; tire factory. How does each benefit by being located close to each other? Industrial Parks Industrial parks provide many advantages for a business. Existing infrastructure of roads, on ramps and off ramps to highways, large lots, sewer, ample electricity, and close location to related industries make industrial parks attractive for manufacturing businesses. </p></li><li><p>Human-based Cost FactorsLabor force characteristics that attract business Wages expected: lower wages in some developing countries like Mexico, and the Philippines attract manufacturers Training: highly skilled labourers can attract businesses that require welders, mechanics, carpenters etc. Benefits (EI, Pensions etc); lower costs of employment insurance, pensions , etc. can attract business just as easily as low wages. Availability; a high unemployment rate might attract business, especially if large numbers of workers are required</p></li><li><p>Government Influence Transportation subsidies affect the location of industry. Subsidies allow businesses to locate farther from the resourse. Subsidies allow governments to encourage industry in rural areas. Examples: ice breakers in Botwood; roads in Labrador; cost of coastal transportation in Labrador; cost of crossing the Gulf. </p></li><li><p>Government InfluenceTax breaks affect the location of Industry. Provinces like Newfoundland have attempted to attract business by offering tax breaks. The company obtains a financial break while the province gets the advantage of putting people to work. </p></li><li><p>Industry Location; The Global Picture The highly industrialized areas on the earth's surface are concentrated in 4 definite regions: North America Western Europe Japan Australia </p></li><li><p>Industry and the environmentIndustry has waste out put as well as product output. Three of the many types of waste are outlined below. Green house gasses; ex. Carbon dioxide, Chlorofluorocarbons &amp; methane. Causes global warming &amp; associated problems. </p></li><li><p>Industry and the environmentAcid Rain; ex. Sulphur &amp; nitrogen. Decreases soil fertility, kills fish, corrodes buildings CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons); ex. Refrigerants &amp; sprays. Breaks down ozone which filters harmful cancer causing UV rays. Industrial wastes are obviously mostly related to areas of heavy industry. However, when we look at the maps on p. 238 and realize prevailing winds play a role we can see that pollution does not recognize political or economic boundaries. </p></li><li><p>The Role of GOVERNMENT and INTEREST GROUPS in the face of environmental threats posed by industry. </p><p>Remember: It is the extreme views that define the middle. Interest groups often play the extremist. They raise valid points of concern and argue them vehemently. Government has the role of balancing environmental concerns &amp; encouraging economic development. </p></li><li><p>Averting an environmental threat posed by an industry prevailing winds are transporting acid rain from industrialized areas and depositing it in locations down wind from the industrialized area. It is important to note that industrialized areas as well as those areas down wind from industrialized areas are affected. </p></li><li><p>Averting an environmental threat posed by an industryAny solution to industry related problems will have to be dealt with by cooperation and consultation between different nations. The major environmental summits that have been held in recent years are examples of that. The recent Kyoto summit and the summit held in Rio de Janeiro several years ago attempted to get countries to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. </p></li><li><p>Solutions to solving the acid rain problem include: government regulation to reduce sulphur &amp; nitrogen emission; development of sulphur filtering equipment; tax breaks for companies if they reduce pollution output; meetings and consultation between business, environmentalists and government to decide on a plan of action </p></li><li><p>selected social/moral issues associated with manufacturing operations There are many social/moral issues associated with manufacturing operations. Examples include child labour, safety of workers and a Companys responsibility to be environmentally friendly.Business drives the economy and provides us with our high standard of living here in the western world. The question we have to keep asking ourselves is "are industries acting within the moral parameters of our society?".In Canada and most well developed nations there are strict regulations about safety, waste emissions, age of workers, and corporate responsibility. In some developing nations the regulations might not be in place or they might be relaxed in the hope of stimulating business instead of inhibiting it.</p></li><li><p>types of tertiary activities Tertiary Activity Service industry. Providing services for people Ex. Doctor, lawyer, waitress, tourism industry, mechanic, teacher Public vs. Private Tertiary activity. Private service industry is run by private business and requires that a profit be made from the service. Ex. Mechanics, Lawyers, Tourism. </p></li><li><p>The four types of tertiary activity are: </p><p>Distributive activities: involves the transportation and sale of all products from manufacturer to consumer. ex. truck driver, warehouse manager, sales person Financial Activity: involves banks, insurance companies, financial advising companies, and trust companies. Personal Service: involves a wide range of services from legal services, to food services, to entertainment and counselling services. Government service: Public service industry is operated by Government and is not for profit. On the contrary it cost tax payers money. Ex. Education, health care, mail, water, sewer, roads. Hence the term public servant </p></li><li><p>The four types of tertiary activity are:It is important to note that many careers in the tertiary sector can not be classified as public or private. A teacher can work in the public school system which is public service or s/he can work for a private college which is private service. Why does the government provide some tertiary services? </p></li><li><p>factors that determine the location of service industriesProximity &amp; price are two key factors that determine the location of service industries. Location: services must be located close to a large enough market to produce DEMAND. Viability: services are only viable as businesses if the demand is high enough &amp; the price is reasonable. Service Availability vs. Population Size. Larger populations support a wider range of services. Consider: Health services, Education, recreation facilities, shopping facilities, hotels, restaurants and you will see that the range of services available is directly related to community size. </p></li><li><p>factors that account for patterns in world trade for a selected commodity Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. It is also one of the most profitable. If your country happens to be located in a sunny area or to have good ski slopes or to have cultural attractions then people will flock there and spend money. Furthermore from a country's perspective international tourism is new money coming to the country.</p></li><li><p>TourismInternational tourism has increased dramatically for 6 reasons:people have increased leisure time due to available technologies; retired people have secure incomes and are able to travel; people have increased discretionary spending money; travel has become easier and less expensive; travel agencies have packaged attractive "all expenses paid" trips; advertising has been effective using attractive &amp; exotic pictures. </p></li><li><p>TourismTravel agents see that people are usually looking for one of three different kinds of vacations:Climate oriented (skiing &amp; sun bathing are at opposite extremes but both rely on climate) Landscape oriented (some people like to view the sites) Culture oriented (cultural land marks are of interest to people ex. Athens) </p></li><li><p>factors that affect the location of a quaternary activity The quaternary sector of the economy is a specialized part of the Tertiary Sector. QUATERNARY activity refers to activities which involve the collection, recoding, arranging, storage, retrieval, exchange, and dissemination of information. Computers, Cell Phones, E-mail, and the WWW are some of the examples of new information technology which drives the quaternary sector. </p></li><li><p>Factors Affecting Location of Quaternary Activity People &amp; Infrastructure: Populations of people concentrated in an area makes the information sector viable. Think about the areas that can avail of digital cell phone service, high speed Internet connection. Historically, information technology like cable TV, telephones, and Radio flourished in areas where there was a population large enough to support them. </p></li><li><p>Factors Affecting Location of Quaternary ActivityInfrastructure is required for the communication of information. The infrastructure has been closely linked to populated areas. Interestingly enough the development of infrastructure is changing so much and decreasing in price to the point it may change the patterns of infrastructure. Lesser developed nations currently do not have much access. However, Lesser developed nations are not tied to the old and outdated infr...</p></li></ul>


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