Text of World War 1 (1914-1919) “The Great War” “War in the Trenches” “The War to End All Wars!”
World War 1 (1914-1919)“The Great War”
“War in the Trenches”“The War to End All Wars!”
Indirect reasons for war.
3 main reasons for war!
• When powerful countries control and annex smaller ones (Specifically Germany and Bosnia)
Nationalism• The unification of people with similar ideas
• Pride in one’s nation
Militarism• The building up and strengthening of ones
• Commodore Mathew C. Perry showing off of the US Navy to the Eastern World
Direct Cause of WW 1• Germany and Austria /Hungary wants to annex
Bosnia/Serbia into tGermany (Nationalize a satellite country)
• Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austria/Hungarian throne) felt it was a good idea.
• The problem is the people of Bosnia/Serbia are of Slavic (Russian) decent and the people do not agree.
• At a parade in Sarajevo, Bosnia; the Archduke and his wife were assassinated by an Gavrilo Princip (member of the Serbian nationalist group called “The Black Hand).
• Serbia precipitated this event to hopefully weaken the German and Austria-Hungarian Empire.
• Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.• Russia mobilizes to help Serbia• Germany (Austria-Hungary aide) declares war on
Russia (Serbia aide). • France are allies with Russia (for protection against
Europe struggling for the balance of power
• France and Germany battling for the Alsace and Lorraine mine fields (coal and iron ore) ---“Imperialism”
• Germany invades neutral Belgium en-route to taking the coals fields to fuel the war
• France declares War against Germany and Germany declares war against France
• Great Britain enters, as allies with France
World War One begins
US involvement• The United States declares neutrality in
• President Woodrow Wilson militarizes the US armed forces after the Lusitania.
The Lusitania• This British passenger boat was sank by
• 1,198 passengers died, 8 miles off the coast of Ireland
• Sank in 18 minutes, 124 Americans died
Lusitania in the New York Harbor
Sinking of the Lusitania
Lead to the Sussex Pledge which was an agreement between Germany and the US that Germany would warn all ship if an attack was iminent and they would help the survivors
• Triple Entente (later Allied Powers)• France• Russia• Great Britain
• Triple Alliance (later Central Powers)• Germany• Italy• Austria/Hungary
Americans had intended to stay neutral until this happened!!!
The British intercepted and decoded a message sent from Germany to Mexico stating that if Mexico helped German cause and Germany wins this war, Germany would do all it can to give back Mexican soil (California, New Mexico, Arizona)
This infuriated the Americans and President Wilson and Congress declared war on Germany
American Expeditionary Forces
• Lead by General John Pershing
John J. Pershing
By 1917 John Joseph Pershing was well experienced in combat. In 1917 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe. His belief that he could break through the deadlock on the Western Front had to be revised when it didn't work. He did however; win praise for his excellent victory at St Mihiel in September 1918. After the war he was highly critical of the Treaty of Versallies, and became the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army in 1921.
• The world must be made safe for Democracy!
Characteristics of WarBattle of the trenches
British trenches Dead in the trenches
• UC 44 Class U-boat: 1) Aft torpedo tubes
2) Electric motor
3) Main engine
4) Control room
5) Mine tubes
6) Forward torpedo tubes
7) Crew quarters
British Tanks US Tanks
Weapons of War
British Ammunition dump
Heavy Artillery at Verdun
Airplanes• Planes had been used mostly for spying and
recon, with the dropping of a few bombs.• Air warfare was a first in WW1 with two
pilots immerging as heroes. Addi Rickenbacker (US) and Manfred Von Richthofen
Verdun• Verdun was one of the most crucial and
bloodiest battle of World War One.
• It was the longest lasting 10 months, killing over 250,000 in Northeastern France.
Russia Leaves the War
• Vladimir Lenin takes over as leader of the Bolshevik Party and forces Russia to become Communist.
• After Verdun Russia leaves the war and signs the Brest-Litovisk Treaty due to huge amount of casualties.
Time Observed to conserve coal (Germany 1st in 1916)
• Trade with the Enemy Act-no selling of products to enemy countries (prison)
• Sedition Act-prohibit any negative acts against the Constitution, President, Flag or Government.
• Espionage Act-any person suspected of helping the enemy would go to trial and jailed.
At the outbreak of World War I Ferdinand Foch was involved in many early battles, including Nancy and Marne. He had many successes and was placed in charge of the French Northern Army. He held his position until Robert Nivelle replaced Joseph Joffre as Commander-in-Chief, when he was recalled to Army Headquarters. In 1918 he was promoted to Allied Supreme Commander. He was very successful and received credit for masterminding the victory over Germany. He played important roles at the Paris Peace Conference and in the Creation of the Armistice. He wanted to make the recovery of Germany's army impossible. Foch died in 1929.FRENCH
In 1911 Joseph Joffre was appointed chief of staff. In 1913 he carried out his Plan 17 and invaded Lorraine and Aedennes in Germany. At the outbreak of World War I he took command of the French Army. Blamed for losses at the Western Front and Verdun he was replaced by Robert Nivelle in 1916. He was then promoted to Marshall of France, and died in 1931.
Robert Nivelle was an artillery colonel in August 1914, and was known for his recapture of Fort Douaumont in 1916. He thought he could win the war with his creeping barrage techniques. The French Prime Minister, Aritide Briand, liked his ideas, and replaced Joseph Joffre, the Commander-in-Chief of the Franch Army, with him. The Nivelle Offensive in 1917 was a failure, but he continued with his strategy until his army began to fall apart. He was replaced by Henri-Philippe Petain in May 1917 and spent the rest of his career in North Africa. He died in 1924. FRENCH
Sir John French
Sir John French joined the navy in 1866, and transferred to the army in 1874. He served in the Sudan and Boer Wars in the late 1800s. In 1911 he was appointed Chief of Staff of the British Army, and in 1914 became Commander of the British Expeditionary Force. His sister was ironically one of the leading anti-war campaigners in Britain. After the Battle of Mons he became negative about the war's outcome. He was persuaded to take part in the Marne offensive, but resigned in 1915. Sir Douglas Haig replaced him. French had to deal with the Easter Rising in 1916 as the commander of the British home forces. He was granted 50,000 pounds from the British government when he retired, and he died in 1925. BRITISH
Sir Douglas Haig
By 1914 Sir Douglas Haig already had plenty of military experience, when he became Lieutenant General and control of the first Army Corps of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). He led his forces into battle at Mons and Ypres, and he was praised. In December of 1915, Haig became Commander-in-Chief of the BEF. While under extreme pressure, he led his forces into battle at Verdun and Somme. In 1918 he led the Allies to a victory at the Western Front. After the war he became commander in chief of the home forces until 1921 when he retired. The government granted him 100,000 pounds, and he died in 1928. BRITISH
Paul von Hindenburg
Fought in the Battle of Koniggratz and the Franco-Prussian War in the 1800s. He retired form the German Army in 1911, but was called back at the outbreak of World War I. He became Chief of Staff in August 1916. Hindenburg and Erich von Ludendorff formed the Third Supreme Command. They held power until defeat was inevitable in 1918. He retired from the army in October 1918, and in 1925 he replaced Friedrich Albert as Germany's President. He did not oppose Adolf Hitler, and he even appointed Hitler Chancellor. Hitler was unable to overthrown Hindenburg because of his popularity with Germany's people, until his death in 1934.
Erich von Ludendorff
Erich von Ludendorff was a German Army staff-officer from 1904 to 1913, until the outbreak of World War I. He was then appointed Chief of Staff in East Prussia. He worked with Paul von Hindenburg often and won many decisive victories over the Russians. Hindenburg became Chief of Staff of the German Army in 1916 and appointed Ludendorff as his quartermaster general. Shortly after they became the leaders of their own dictatorship, the Third Supreme Command. Ludendorff took control of Germany in 1917 after Theobald Bethmann Hollweg's resignation. When the failure of the Spring Offensive, Ludendorff realized that Germany would lose the war. The Third Supreme Command transferred power to Max von Baden in 1918. Baden's government was so powerful that it forced Ludendorff's resignation by October 1918. After the Armistice he fled to Sweden to write about the war. He returned to Germany and participated in the Kapp Putsch and the Munich Putsch. He was one of the first Nazi members in 1924. He ran for president in 1925, but received less than one percent of the votes. He died in 1937. GERMAN
Final Battle• Battle of Argon Forest-this critical battle
brought and end to the war.
• Germany has to surrender at Paris under the “Treaty of Versailles”
• The Allied countries wanted Germany head on a stick (harsh punishment)
• League of Nations formed-group of countries promoting peace throughout the world.
• President Wilson came up with “14 Points Speech” the peace plan for countries involved (Wilson not liked smug over zealous)
• Germany take full responsibility
• Alsace and Lorraine coal fields back to France
• Germany must reduce it’s military forces
• Germany must pay $33 million in reparations
Global Impact• Middle East is given freedom from the Ottoman
Empire (Turkey).• Balfour Declaration-Formal British statement
declaring that Palestine the home of the Jews.• Russia struggling between Communism and
Democracy after the war.• Armenia-which was part of the Ottoman Empire
practices genocide of Muslims by Christians• Germany attempts the “Weimar Republic” a
failed attempt at Democracy• Over 8 million soldiers dead.
Middle East free
from Ottoman Empire
A British statement declaring Palestine as the land of the Jews and that there will be no promotion of prejudice against them.
Russia struggles with Democracy
Armenian Christians killed Muslims in Camps
Germany attempts democracy under the Weimar Republic
The number of World War I casualties, both military and civilian, was about 40 million — 19 million deaths and 21 million wounded. This includes 9.7 million military deaths and about 9 million civilian deaths.