Causes and Canada’s Reaction. World War I (aka…… WWI, The First World War, The Great War, The War to End All Wars). EUROPE IN 1914. Last major European war was Franco-Prussian War of 1871 Germany defeated France, won Alsace-Lorraine region of France, France bitter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Text of World War I (aka…… WWI, The First World War, The Great War, The War to End All Wars)
Causes and Canada’s Reaction
EUROPE IN 1914 Last major European war was Franco-
Prussian War of 1871 Germany defeated France, won Alsace-Lorraine
region of France, France bitter Germany is a new major power in the world
Britain & France feel threatened In 1908, Austria-Hungary took
over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many inhabitants not happy; Serbia wants Bosnia to join them
NOTE – Turkey/Ottoman Empire = “The Sick-Man of Europe”
travel, a job, visit the ‘old country’. DISCRIMINATION
- Women – rejected except for nurses or ambulance drivers.
Minorities – at first not allowed to enlist; eventually accepted => not promoted. (Aboriginal, African, Japanese)
CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE CREATED It was assumed Canadians would join British forces
=> Can. Identity created
Canada’s Response (cont.)
Sam Hughes – Minister of Militia- ‘Goat to Hero’
Awarded manufacturing contracts to friends
(war profiteers) Poor quality equipment and
supplies (ex. Ross rifle) Behind schedule
Fired in 1916
WAR MEASURES ACT -1914Gave gov’t power to do whatever
necessary to protect Canada. - censorship - suspend habeus corpus - deport enemy aliens - internment camps
ASSIGNMENT Was the WMA necessary?
Is it constitutional?Why did the Liberals agree to it?
THE WAR ON LANDTHE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN
1. Quickly through neutral Belgium => Paris, France.
2. Turn attention on Russia BASED ON TWO
ASSUMPTIONS1. Russia would be slow to mobilize. X2. Britain = neutral X
Note – Almost worked but Western Front = trench warfare and became a stalemate.
NEW TECHNOLOGY VS. ATTRITION ??
TRENCH WARFAREBattle of AttritionNo Man’s Land
Gas attacksChlorine Gas
CANADIAN BATTLESBATTLE OF YPRES - April 22 1915.
Can. Hit with Chlorine Gas
=> now banned
1 month = 6000 Can.
Killed / wounded
Poem “In Flanders Fields”
BATTLE OF THE SOMME - July 1916 - Canadians made a name for themselves-The Allies attacked Germ. @ The Somme R. in Fr.- Failure – Shelling did not destroy Germ defence.
- Old Tactics vs machine guns.- continued ‘Old Tactics’ despite losses-5 mo. = 13 km & 24 000 Can. lives
BATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE – 1916- 1st time Can troops attacked together- Can. Captured after years of attempts.- a stunning victory.-3500 dead / 7 000 wounded- created a National Pride & reputation.
PASSCHENDALE – Oct. 1917-Gen. Currie on orders from Haig took townof Passchendale at 15 000 Can lives.-Gained 7-8 km & Germ soon recaptured.- known for a ‘muddy mess.’
THE WAR IN THE AIR & AT SEAIN THE AIR
The biplane was used for Reconnaissance and ‘Dog Fights’.
Billy Bishop flew in Brt. Royal Flying Corps.Credited with 72 kills => 5 = an “ace”Avg. life expectancy of a pilot was measured in weeks.
AT SEACanada’s small merchant marine ferried munitions and food to Britain.
The Allies used convoys to protect goods from German U-boats.
The German Sinking of the Lusitania and anyother vessel in the War Zonebrought the USAinto the war.
THE HOME FRONTCanadian’s would do whatever it would take to help the war effort
Exports would hit record highs – lumber, minerals, wheat, beef.Result in Canada – economy boomed but… prices rose, wages dropped =>worker
Rationing Corporate & Income Tax
PropagandaWomen in WWI
HALIFAX EXPLOSIONTwo ships collided levelling
Much of the city & killing2000 people.
THE CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
Essential jobs – Farmers,
PM Borden promised no conscription
By 1917, it was obviousThat more soldiers were
In 1917 BordenIntroduced the
Military Service Act
Led to the Military Voters Act
OPPOSITION TO CONSCRIPTIONQUEBEC – WHY??? - Farmers needed at home - No connection to Brt. or Fr. - Eng vs. Fr language issues. - Fr. Soldiers not united. - Few Fr. officers. - Bourassa felt Can. had given enough -> bankrupt Can. - Married younger.
(men & women overseas)
(Wives but no Consc. Obj.or enemy aliens)
Khaki Election of 1917
Fed. Election based on Borden’s efforts.
Liberal Laurier opposed conscription.
Farmers & Unions also opposed.‘Rich = richer; Poor go to war’
THE END OF THE WARTWO EVENTS THAT CHANGED THE WAR
1. RUSSIA’ S “PEACE & BREAD” (Russians tired of war)Czar Nicolas abdicates , provisional gov’t fails, & socialist Bolsheviks negotiate with Central Powers -> Treaty of Brest-Litovsk = Truce
2. U.S.A. ENTERS THE WAR – April2, 1917.“Lusitania” sunk & Germ. Promised support to Mexico
RESULTTHE HUNDRED DAYS CAMPAIGN – Allies crush Germans. - Germ. to win Western Front before USA arrives.
-launch massive attack. - success until USA arrived (75 km from Paris) - Central Powers Collapse -> Armistice Nov. 11, 11:00am, 1918
Germ. Moves troops fromEastern Front to West .
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCEJAN. 1919PM BORDEN & CANADA = AUTONOMYCENTRAL POWERS & RUSSIA NOT INVITEDTREATY OF VERSAILLES CREATED
TREATY OF VERSAILLES - June 28, 1919 Laid out terms of peace for Germany
President Wilson proposed ‘14-Point Plan’ based on forgiveness
France and Belgium wanted Germany to pay
- German “War Guilt Clause” - Reparations - $30 billion ($300+ billion today) Unable to meet payments - Germany loses land - German army limited to 100,000 soldiers - Not allowed U-boats or an air force - League of Nations formed
THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS President Wilson’s idea Similar to today’s United Nations Collective Security – one country is
attacked, others help defend it Britain and France not enthused
about League Wanted to remain imperialistic League popular with the public
Canada an independent member of League Limitations
- Required co-operation Gutless-No military force, only economic sanctions-Americans refused to join, even though Wilson’s idea
EFFECTS OF WWI ON CANADA National Identity Economy Women’s Rights Canadian Autonomy International Status French-English Relations Racial Discrimination/WMA Thousands Dead and Wounded